Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration Statement No. 333-248120

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title Of Each Class Of Securities To Be RegisteredProposed Maximum Aggregate Offering Price(1)
Amount Of
Registration Fee(2)
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share$200,000,000
(1) Amount includes shares of common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $200,000,000, offered pursuant to a Registration Statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-220400) filed on September 8, 2017 (the “Prior Registration Statement”) by means of a prospectus supplement dated March 2, 2018 (the “Prior Prospectus Supplement”) and an accompanying prospectus dated September 8, 2017. Of those shares of common stock, we have offered and sold shares of common stock having an aggregate offering price of approximately $137,400,000 as of the date of this prospectus supplement pursuant to the Prior Prospectus Supplement. As such, as of the date of this prospectus supplement, shares of common stock having an aggregate offering price of approximately $62,600,000 remain available for offer and sale pursuant to this prospectus supplement.

(2)  The registration fee of $24,900 that was paid in connection with our filing of the Prior Prospectus Supplement with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 2, 2018 was calculated in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), based on the proposed maximum aggregate offering price, and Rule 457(r) under the Securities Act. Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act, securities with an aggregate offering price of approximately $62,600,000 registered hereunder are unsold securities initially registered on the Prior Registration Statement, for which the registration fee was previously paid to the SEC on March 2, 2018 and will continue to be applied to such unsold securities. The Prior Registration Statement terminated effective upon the filing of the registration statement of which the accompanying prospectus is a part.





PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
(To Prospectus dated August 19, 2020)
Up to $200,000,000

Common Stock
This prospectus supplement relates to an equity distribution agreement that Xenia Hotels & Resorts, Inc. entered into on March 2, 2018, as amended, with Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated, Jefferies LLC, KeyBanc Capital Markets Inc. and Raymond James & Associates, Inc., each, an agent, and, collectively, the agents, relating to the offer and sale of shares of its common stock, $0.01 par value per share (“Common Stock”) originally registered on Registration Statement No. 333-220400, initially filed on September 8, 2017. The equity distribution agreement, as amended, and as may be further amended from time to time, is referred to herein as “the equity distribution agreement.” In accordance with the terms of the equity distribution agreement, we may from time to time offer and sell shares of our Common Stock having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $200 million through the agents, as our sales agents, or directly to the agents, acting as principals. Under the equity distribution agreement, we have offered and sold shares of common stock having an aggregate offering price of approximately $137,400,000 as of the date of this prospectus supplement pursuant to a previous prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus. As such, as of the date of this prospectus supplement, shares of common stock having an aggregate offering price of approximately $62,600,000 remain available for offer and sale pursuant to the equity distribution agreement.
There are certain restrictions on transfer and ownership of our Common Stock intended to, among other things, preserve our qualification as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) for federal income tax purposes. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus.
Sales of shares of our Common Stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”), including (1) by means of ordinary brokers’ transactions on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, in negotiated transactions or as otherwise agreed by us, the applicable agent and the applicable investor, (2) to or through any market maker or (3) on or through any other national securities exchange or facility thereof, trading facility of a securities association or national securities exchange, alternative trading system, electronic communication network or other similar market venue. The agents are not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of shares of our Common Stock but will use their commercially reasonable efforts as our sales agents and subject to the terms of the equity distribution agreement, to sell the shares of our Common Stock offered by this prospectus supplement, as instructed by us.
Each agent will receive from us a commission that will not exceed, but may be lower than, 2.0% of the gross sales price of shares of our Common Stock sold through it as a sales agent. In connection with the sale of shares of our Common Stock on our behalf, each agent may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation paid to each agent may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. There are not agreements for funds to be received in escrow, trust or similar relationship. Under the terms of the equity distribution agreement, we may also sell shares of our Common Stock to each of the agents, as principal, at a price agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell shares of our Common Stock to any agent as principal, we will enter into a separate terms agreement with the agent, setting forth the terms of such transaction, and we will describe the agreement in a separate prospectus supplement or pricing supplement.
The offering of shares of our Common Stock pursuant to the equity distribution agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (1) the sale of shares of our Common Stock subject to the equity distribution agreement having an aggregate gross sales price of



$200 million (including shares sold prior to the date of this prospectus supplement) and (2) the termination of the equity distribution agreement by us or by the agents.
INVESTING IN OUR COMMON STOCK INVOLVES RISKS. SEE “RISK FACTORS” BEGINNING ON PAGE S-2 OF THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT AND ON PAGE 9 OF THE ACCOMPANYING PROSPECTUS, AS WELL AS THE RISKS DESCRIBED UNDER THE SECTION ENTITLED “RISK FACTORS” INCLUDED IN OUR MOST RECENT ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K, SUBSEQUENT QUARTERLY REPORTS ON FORM 10-Q AND OTHER DOCUMENTS FILED BY US WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (“SEC”), CONCERNING FACTORS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR COMMON STOCK.
Our Common Stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “XHR.” On August 18, 2020, the last reported sale price of our Common Stock on the NYSE was $8.69 per share.
Neither the SEC nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Wells Fargo SecuritiesBairdJefferies
KeyBanc Capital MarketsRaymond James
The date of this prospectus supplement is August 19, 2020.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
Prospectus Supplement
Page
Prospectus
Table of Contents




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You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any applicable free writing prospectus in making a decision about whether to invest in our Common Stock. We have not, and our agents have not, authorized any other person to provide you with different or additional information. If anyone provides you with different or additional information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to purchase, any securities in any jurisdiction where it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any applicable free writing prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein is accurate only as of their respective dates or on the date or dates which are specified in these documents. Our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, funds from operations (“FFO”) and prospects may have changed since those dates.




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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT AND THE PROSPECTUS
This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference. The second part is the accompanying prospectus, which gives more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering.
To the extent the information contained in this prospectus supplement differs or varies from the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or documents incorporated by reference, the information in this prospectus supplement will supersede such information. In addition, any statement in a filing we make with the SEC that is incorporated by reference herein and adds to, updates or changes information contained in an earlier filing we made with the SEC shall be deemed to modify and supersede such information in the earlier filing.
This prospectus supplement does not contain all of the information that is important to you. You should read the accompanying prospectus as well as the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. See “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference” in this prospectus supplement.
Except where the context suggests otherwise, the terms “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” refer to Xenia Hotels & Resorts, Inc., a Maryland corporation, and its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis, and the “Operating Partnership” together with its wholly owned subsidiaries, means XHR LP, a Delaware limited partnership for which one of our wholly owned subsidiaries serves as the general partner. XHR Holding, Inc., a Delaware corporation, which we refer to in this prospectus as “XHR Holding,” is a taxable REIT subsidiary, or “TRS,” and we refer to XHR Holding and any other TRSs that we may form in the future as “our TRSs.”
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These statements include statements about the Company’s plans, objectives, strategies, financial performance and outlook, trends, the amount and timing of future cash distributions, anticipated timing to close a pending transaction, prospects or future events and involve known and unknown risks that are difficult to predict. As a result, our actual financial results, performance, achievements or prospects may differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the use of words such as “may,” “could,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “seek,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “guidance,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue,” “likely,” “will,” “would,” “illustrative” and variations of these terms and similar expressions, or the negative of these terms or similar expressions. Such forward-looking statements are necessarily based upon estimates and assumptions that we considered reasonable based on our knowledge and understanding of our business and industry, but which are inherently uncertain. These statements are not guarantees of future performance, and stockholders should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements included in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus include, among others, statements about our plans, strategies and the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including on the demand for travel, transient and group business, the timing of hotel re-openings, the level of expenses incurred in connection with hotel re-openings, capital expenditures and the timing of renovations, status of transactions and escrow deposits, and derivations thereof, financial performance, prospects or future events. There are a number of risks, uncertainties and other important factors, many of which are beyond our control, that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from our current expectations include, but are not limited to:
the short- and longer-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including on the demand for travel, transient and group business, and levels of consumer confidence;
actions that governments, businesses, and individuals take in response to the COVID-19 pandemic or any future resurgence, including limiting or banning travel and implementing social distancing requirements;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and actions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic or any future resurgence, on global and regional economies, travel, and economic activity, including the duration and magnitude of its impact on unemployment rates and consumer discretionary spending;
the ability of third-party operators or other partners to successfully navigate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic;
the pace of recovery following the COVID-19 pandemic or any future resurgence;
the COVID-19 pandemic may cause us to incur additional expenses; for example, depending on the length of furloughs for employees at our hotels, we may be required to make severance payments to some of the hotels furloughed employees;
our ability to successfully negotiate amendments and covenant waivers under our indebtedness;
our ability to comply with covenants;
business, financial and operating risks inherent to real estate investments and the lodging industry;
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seasonal and cyclical volatility in the lodging industry;
adverse changes in specialized industries, such as the technology and/or tourism industries that result in a sustained downturn of related businesses and corporate spending that may negatively impact our revenues and results of operations;
macroeconomic and other factors beyond our control that can adversely affect and reduce demand for hotel rooms, food and beverage services, and/or meeting facilities;
contraction in the global economy or low levels of economic growth;
levels of spending in business and leisure segments as well as consumer confidence;
declines in occupancy and average daily rate;
fluctuations in the supply, due to hotel construction and/or renovation and expansion of existing hotels, and demand for hotel rooms;
changes in the competitive environment in the lodging industry, including due to consolidation of management companies, franchisors, and online travel agencies, and changes in the markets where we own hotels;
events beyond our control, such as war, terrorist or cyber-attacks, mass casualty events, government shutdowns and closures, travel-related health concerns and natural disasters;
cyber incidents and information technology failures, including unauthorized access to our computer systems and/or vendors’ computer systems, and our third-party management companies’ or franchisors’ computer systems and/or their vendors’ computer systems;
our inability to directly operate our properties and reliance on third-party hotel management companies to operate and manage our hotels;
our ability to maintain good relationships with our third-party hotel management companies and franchisors;
our failure to maintain brand operating standards;
our ability to maintain our brand licenses at our hotels;
relationships with labor unions and changes in labor laws;
loss of our senior management team or key personnel;
our ability to identify and consummate acquisitions and dispositions of hotels;
our ability to integrate and successfully operate any hotel properties acquired in the future and the risks associated with these hotel properties;
the impact of hotel renovations, repositionings, redevelopments and re-branding activities;
our ability to access capital for renovations and acquisitions on terms and at times that are acceptable to us;
the fixed cost nature of hotel ownership;
our ability to service, restructure or refinance our debt;
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changes in interest rates and operating costs, including labor and service related costs;
compliance with regulatory regimes and local laws;
uninsured or underinsured losses, including those relating to natural disasters, terrorism or cyber-attacks;
changes in distribution channels, such as through internet travel intermediaries or websites that facilitate short-term rental of homes and apartments from owners;
the amount of debt that we currently have or may incur in the future;
provisions in our debt agreements that may restrict the operation of our business;
our organizational and governance structure;
our status as a REIT;
our TRS lessee structure;
the cost of compliance with and liabilities under environmental, health and safety laws;
adverse litigation judgments or settlements;
changes in real estate and zoning laws and increases in real property tax valuations or rates;
changes in federal, state or local tax law, including legislative, administrative, regulatory or other actions affecting REITs;
changes in governmental regulations or interpretations thereof; and
estimates relating to our ability to make distributions to our stockholders in the future.
These factors are not necessarily all of the important factors that could cause our actual financial results, performance, achievements or prospects to differ materially from those expressed in or implied by any of our forward-looking statements. You are urged to carefully review the disclosure we make concerning the risks, uncertainties and assumptions that may affect our business and results of operations, including, but not limited to, the risks, uncertainties and assumptions set forth in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus under the caption “Risk Factors” and set forth in the documents incorporated by reference herein under the captions “Risk Factors,” “Business” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Other unknown or unpredictable factors also could harm our results. All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements set forth above. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and we do not undertake or assume any obligation to update publicly any of these forward-looking statements to reflect actual results, new information or future events, changes in assumptions or changes in other factors affecting forward-looking statements, except to the extent required by applicable laws. If we update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements.






S-vi



THE COMPANY
We are a Maryland corporation that invests primarily in uniquely positioned luxury and upper upscale hotels and resorts in the Top 25 lodging markets as well as key leisure destinations in the United States. Prior to February 3, 2015, the Company was a wholly owned subsidiary of InvenTrust Properties Corp. (formerly known as Inland American Real Estate Trust, Inc. or “InvenTrust”), its former parent. On February 3, 2015, the Company was spun off from InvenTrust through a taxable pro rata distribution by InvenTrust of 95% of the outstanding Common Stock to holders of record of InvenTrust’s common stock as of the close of business on January 20, 2015 (the “Record Date”). Each holder of record of InvenTrust’s common stock received one share of our Common Stock for every eight shares of InvenTrust’s common stock held at the close of business on the Record Date (the “Distribution”). In lieu of fractional shares, stockholders of InvenTrust received cash. On February 4, 2015, the Company’s Common Stock began trading on the NYSE under the ticker symbol “XHR.” As a result of the Distribution, the Company became a stand-alone, publicly-traded company. As of June 30, 2020, the Company owned 39 lodging properties with a total of 11,245 rooms across 16 states.
The Company operates and intends to continue to operate so as to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Substantially all of the Company’s assets are held by, and all of the Company's operations are conducted through the Operating Partnership. XHR GP, Inc. is the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership and is wholly owned by the Company. As of June 30, 2020, the Company collectively owned approximately 97.6% of the outstanding common limited partnership units issued by the Operating Partnership (“Operating Partnership Units”).
To qualify as a REIT, the Company cannot operate or manage its hotels. Therefore, the Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries lease the hotel properties to XHR Holding, the Company’s TRS, which engages third-party eligible independent operators to manage the hotels. The third-party non-affiliated hotel operators manage each hotel pursuant to a hotel management agreement.
Our principal executive offices are located at 200 S. Orange Avenue, Suite 2700, Orlando, Florida, 32801, and our telephone number is (407) 246-8100. The Company’s website is www.xeniareit.com. The information contained on our website or that can be accessed through our website neither constitutes part of this prospectus supplement nor is incorporated by reference herein.
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RISK FACTORS
Investment in our Common Stock involves risks. Before acquiring our Common Stock offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, you should carefully consider the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or in any free writing prospectus that we may prepare in connection with this offering, including, without limitation, the risks of an investment in the Company described under the captions “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” (or similar captions) in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, and subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, as updated in our subsequent filings with the SEC under the Exchange Act. The occurrence of any of these risks could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, FFO and prospects and might cause you to lose all or a part of your investment in our Common Stock. Please also refer to the section entitled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” included elsewhere in this prospectus supplement.
The market price of our Common Stock may fluctuate widely and there can be no assurance that the market for our Common Stock will provide you with adequate liquidity.
The market price of our Common Stock may fluctuate widely, depending on many factors, some of which may be beyond our control, including:
the effects of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on our operations and financial performance;
actual or anticipated differences in our operating results, liquidity, or financial condition;
changes in our revenues, Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization (“EBITDA”), EBITDA real estate (“EBITDAre”), Adjusted EBITDAre (“Adjusted EBITDAre”), FFO, Adjusted FFO or earnings estimates;
publication of research reports about us, our hotels, or the lodging or overall real estate industry;
failure to meet earnings guidance that we provide periodically or analysts’ revenue or earnings estimates;
the extent of institutional investor interest in us;
the reputation of REITs and real estate investments generally and the attractiveness of REIT equity securities in comparison to other equity securities, including securities issued by other real estate companies, and fixed income securities;
additions and departures of key personnel;
the performance and market valuations of other similar companies;
strategic actions by us or our competitors, such as mergers, acquisitions or restructurings;
fluctuations in the stock price and operating results of our competitors;
the passage of legislation or other regulatory developments that adversely affect us or our industry;
the realization of any of the other risk factors presented in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus;
speculation in the press or investment community;
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changes in accounting principles;
events beyond our control, such as wars, terrorist or cyber-attacks travel-related health concerns, government shutdowns and closures and natural disasters; and
general market and economic conditions, including factors unrelated to our operating performance.
Stock markets in general have experienced volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of a particular company. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price of our Common Stock.
Future sales or issuances of our Common Stock may negatively affect the market price of our Common Stock.
A large volume of sales of shares of our Common Stock could decrease the market price of our Common Stock and could impair our ability to raise additional capital through the sale of equity securities in the future. Even if a substantial number of sales of shares of our Common Stock are not effected, the mere perception of the possibility of these sales could depress the market price of our Common Stock and have a negative effect on our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, anticipated downward pressure on our Common Stock price due to actual or anticipated sales of Common Stock could cause some institutions or individuals to engage in short sales of our Common Stock, which may itself cause the price of our Common Stock to decline. In addition, future issuances of shares of our Common Stock may be dilutive to existing stockholders.
Our cash available for distribution to stockholders may not be sufficient to pay distributions at expected or required levels, and we may need funds from external sources in order to make such distributions, or we may not be able to make such distributions at all, which could cause the market price of our Common Stock to decline significantly. Additionally, certain agreements related to our indebtedness may, under certain circumstances, limit or eliminate our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
Due to the material adverse impact that the COVID-19 pandemic is expected to continue to have on our results of operations, we have suspended our quarterly distributions to holders of our Common Stock through the balance of 2020 unless we determine an additional distribution is required to maintain our REIT status. All distributions will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on our historical and projected results of operations, EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDAre, FFO, Adjusted FFO, liquidity and financial condition, REIT qualification, debt service requirements, capital expenditures and operating expenses, prohibitions and other restrictions under our financing arrangements and applicable law and other factors as our Board of Directors may deem relevant from time to time. No assurance can be given that our projections will prove accurate or that any level of distributions will be made or sustained or achieve a market yield. We may not be able to make distributions in the future or may need to consider various funding sources to cover any shortfall, including borrowing under the Operating Partnership’s $500 million revolving credit facility (the “Revolving Credit Facility”), selling certain of our assets or using a portion of the net proceeds we receive from future offerings of equity, equity-related or debt securities or declaring taxable share dividends. Any of the foregoing could cause the market price of our Common Stock to decline significantly.

Additionally, the terms of the Revolving Credit Facility and the Term Loan Credit Facilities (as defined below) (together with the Revolving Credit Facility, the “corporate credit facilities”), as well as the indenture governing the Operating Partnership’s 6.375% senior secured notes due 2025 (the “indenture”), limit our ability to make dividends, distributions and other restricted payments. The corporate credit facilities restrict the Operating Partnership from making any dividend or other distribution with respect to any of its equity interests, except under limited circumstances, including to us for the payment of our operating costs and general and administrative expenses and to the Operating Partnership’s partners, including us, in an amount per fiscal year required to maintain our REIT status or of up to one cent per share of our Common Stock per fiscal quarter, whichever is greater. These restrictions will remain in effect until the Operating Partnership is able to demonstrate compliance with its financial covenants under the corporate credit facilities for the period ending June 30, 2021, unless earlier terminated (the “credit facility waiver period”). The indenture contains similar terms and limitations. These limitations could cause the market price of our Common Stock to decline significantly.

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Future additional issuances of debt securities, which would rank senior to our Common Stock upon our liquidation, and future issuances of equity securities (including Operating Partnership Units and preferred equity securities), which would dilute the holdings of our existing common stockholders and may be senior to our Common Stock for the purposes of making distributions, periodically or upon liquidation, may negatively affect the market price of our Common Stock.
In the future, we may issue additional debt or equity securities or incur other borrowings. Upon our liquidation, holders of our debt securities and other loans and preferred shares will receive a distribution of our available assets before common stockholders. If we incur additional debt in the future, our future interest costs could increase and adversely affect our liquidity, FFO, Adjusted FFO and results of operations. We are not required to offer any additional equity securities to existing common stockholders on a preemptive basis. Therefore, additional Common Stock issuances, directly or through convertible or exchangeable securities (including Operating Partnership Units), warrants or options, will dilute the holdings of our existing common stockholders and such issuances or the perception of such issuances may reduce the market price of our Common Stock. Because our decision to issue additional debt or equity securities or incur other borrowings in the future will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing, nature or success of our future capital raising efforts. Thus, common stockholders bear the risk that our future issuances of debt or equity securities or our incurrence of other borrowings will negatively affect the market price of our Common Stock.
Your percentage ownership in us may be diluted in the future.
As with any publicly-traded company, your percentage ownership in us may be diluted in the future because of equity issuances for acquisitions, capital market transactions or otherwise, including, without limitation, equity awards that may be granted to our directors, officers, employees and consultants. Our Board of Directors has approved an Incentive Award Plan (the “Plan”), which provides for the grant of cash and equity-based awards to our directors, officers, employees, and consultants. We reserved 9,000,000 shares of our Common Stock for issuance or transfer pursuant to awards under the Plan, which may be amended from time to time and may increase the number of shares of our common stock for issuance. For a more detailed description of the Plan, see “Part III-Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.
If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they downgrade our Common Stock or our sector, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our Common Stock will rely in part on the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us or our business. We do not control these analysts. Furthermore, if one or more of the analysts who do cover us downgrade our stock or our industry, or the stock of any of our competitors, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business or our industry, the price of our Common Stock could decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose viability in the market, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.
Increases in market interest rates may reduce demand for our Common Stock and result in a decline in the market price of our Common Stock.
The market price of our Common Stock may be influenced by the dividend yield on our Common Stock (i.e. the amount of our annual distributions as a percentage of the market price of our Common Stock) relative to market interest rates. An increase in market interest rates, which are currently low compared to historical levels, may lead prospective purchasers of our Common Stock to expect a higher distribution yield, which we may not be able, or may choose not, to provide. Higher interest rates would also likely increase our borrowing costs and decrease our operating results and cash available for distribution. Thus, higher market interest rates could cause the market price of our Common Stock to decline.
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Affiliates of the agents may receive benefits in connection with this offering.
Affiliates of Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, KeyBanc Capital Markets Inc. and Raymond James & Associates, Inc. (agents in this offering) are lenders under certain of the Operating Partnership’s corporate credit facilities. To the extent that the Operating Partnership uses a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to repay the outstanding balance under any of such corporate credit facilities, such affiliates of the applicable agents will receive their proportionate share of any amount that is repaid with the net proceeds from this offering. This transaction creates a potential conflict of interest because the agents have an interest in the successful completion of this offering beyond the sales commissions they will receive. These interests may influence the decision regarding the terms and circumstances under which the offering is completed.

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USE OF PROCEEDS
We intend to contribute the net proceeds from this offering to the Operating Partnership in exchange for Operating Partnership Units. The Operating Partnership intends to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, which may include repaying amounts outstanding from time to time under its Revolving Credit Facility, Term Loan Credit Facilities, secured mortgage loans, obligations under any outstanding bonds, debentures, notes or other similar debt securities, or any other debt, financing, capital lease or other obligations, working capital and capital expenditures, and potential future acquisitions. Additionally, during the credit facility waiver period, we may be required to use net proceeds for mandatory prepayments under our corporate credit facilities.
As of June 30, 2020, we had an outstanding balance under the Operating Partnership’s $500 million Revolving Credit Facility of $500 million, approximately $193.8 million of which was repaid with proceeds of the note offering and cash on hand on August 18, 2020, as described below. The Revolving Credit Facility includes an uncommitted accordion feature which, subject to certain conditions, allows us to increase the aggregate availability by up to an additional $350 million. The initial maturity of the Revolving Credit Facility is February 2022, with two six-month extension options, subject to certain conditions. Interest is paid on the periodic advances under the Revolving Credit Facility at varying rates, based upon either LIBOR or the alternate base rate, plus an additional margin amount. During the credit facility waiver period and until the Operating Partnership has thereafter demonstrated compliance with its financial covenants under the Revolving Credit Facility, the interest rate is based upon the highest ratio level of the pricing grid set forth therein; thereafter, the interest rate depends upon our leverage ratio pursuant to the provisions of the Revolving Credit Facility. As of June 30, 2020, the interest rate was 2.50%. The Revolving Credit Facility requires an unused commitment fee ranging from 0.20% to 0.30% on the unused portion of the available borrowing amount.
As of June 30, 2020, there was an aggregate of $575 million outstanding under the Operating Partnership’s four corporate credit facility term loan agreements (each term loan facility evidenced by such an agreement, a “Term Loan Credit Facility” and collectively, the “Term Loan Credit Facilities”), approximately $87.6 million of which was repaid with the proceeds of the note offering on August 18, 2020, as described below. As of June 30, 2020, the Operating Partnership’s $175 million Term Loan Credit Facility had a maturity date of February 2022, and an interest rate equal to, at the Operating Partnership’s option: (1) a customary base rate formula, plus a margin of 1.25% per annum or (2) a customary reserve adjusted LIBOR formula, plus a margin of 2.25% per annum, subject to a LIBOR floor of 0.50%, except to the extent the loans are subject to interest rate hedges. As of June 30, 2020, the interest rate was 3.54%. As of June 30, 2020, the Operating Partnership's $150 million Term Loan Credit Facility and two $125 million Term Loan Credit Facilities had maturity dates of August 2023, October 2022 and September 2024, respectively, and each has an interest rate during the credit facility waiver period of the highest level of the grid-based pricing under each such corporate credit facility, with a LIBOR floor of 0.25%, except to the extent the loans are subject to interest rate hedges; thereafter, the interest rate depends upon our leverage ratio pursuant to the provisions of each such corporate credit facility. As of June 30, 2020, the interest rates were 2.45%, 4.03% and 3.92%, respectively.
On August 18, 2020, our Operating Partnership issued $300 million of its 6.375% senior secured notes due 2025. The notes mature on August 15, 2025 unless earlier redeemed by the Operating Partnership. Interest is payable semi-annually. The net proceeds from the note offering were used, together with cash on hand, to repay borrowings under certain of our corporate credit facilities and for general corporate purposes.
Affiliates of Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, KeyBanc Capital Markets Inc. and Raymond James & Associates, Inc. (agents in this offering) are lenders under certain of the Operating Partnership’s corporate credit facilities. To the extent that the Operating Partnership uses a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to repay the outstanding balance under any of such corporate credit facilities, such affiliates of the applicable agents will receive their proportionate share of any amount that is repaid with the net proceeds from this offering.
Pending application of cash proceeds, the Operating Partnership will invest the net proceeds from this offering in interest-bearing accounts and short-term, interest-bearing securities in a manner that is consistent with our intention to maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT.
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We have entered into an equity distribution agreement with the agents relating to shares of our Common Stock offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus pursuant to a continuous offering program. In accordance with the terms of the equity distribution agreement, we may from time to time offer and sell shares of our Common Stock having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $200 million through the agents, as our sales agents, or directly to the agents, acting as principals. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we have offered and sold 5,719,959 shares of common stock having an aggregate offering price of approximately $137,400,000 under the equity distribution agreement, with common stock having an aggregate offering price of approximately $62,600,000 remaining available for offer and sale.
Sales of shares of our Common Stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, including (1) by means of ordinary brokers’ transactions on the NYSE at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, in negotiated transactions or as otherwise agreed by us, the applicable agent and the applicable investor, (2) to or through any market maker or (3) on or through any other national securities exchange or facility thereof, trading facility of a securities association or national securities exchange, alternative trading system, electronic communication network or other similar market venue.
The agents will offer our Common Stock subject to the terms and conditions of the equity distribution agreement on any trading day or as otherwise agreed upon by us and the agents. Provided, however, we will only sell our Common Stock through one agent on any particular trading day. We will designate the maximum number of shares of our Common Stock to be sold through an agent on any trading day, or otherwise as we and the agent agree, and the minimum price per share at which such shares of our Common Stock may be sold. Subject to the terms and conditions of the equity distribution agreement, the agents will use their commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of our Common Stock so designated. We may instruct the agents not to sell our Common Stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. We or an agent may suspend the offering of our Common Stock being made through the agent under the equity distribution agreement upon proper notice to the other party.
In connection with the sale of shares of our Common Stock on our behalf, each agent may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation paid to each agent may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the equity distribution agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to the agents against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.
The offering of shares of our Common Stock pursuant to the equity distribution agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (1) the sale of shares of our Common Stock subject to the equity distribution agreement having an aggregate gross sales price of $200 million (including shares sold prior to the date of this prospectus supplement) and (2) the termination of the equity distribution agreement by us or by the agents.
Commissions and Discounts
Each agent will receive from us a commission that will not exceed, but may be lower than, 2.0% of the gross sales price of shares of our Common Stock sold through it as sales agent under the equity distribution agreement. We estimate that the total expenses payable by us in connection with the offering and sale of shares of our Common Stock pursuant to the equity distribution agreement, excluding commissions and discounts payable to the agents but including expenses paid prior to the date of this prospectus supplement and any transaction fees, transfer taxes or similar charges imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales, will be approximately $600,000. The remaining sales proceeds from the sale of any such shares of our Common Stock will equal our net proceeds from the sale of such shares.
Under the terms of the equity distribution agreement, we may also sell shares of our Common Stock to each of the agents, as principal, at a price agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell shares of our Common Stock to any agent as
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principal, we will enter into a separate terms agreement with the agent, setting forth the terms of such transaction, and we will describe the agreement in a separate prospectus supplement or pricing supplement.
Settlement Procedures
Each agent will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on the NYSE on each day during which shares of our Common Stock were sold by it for us under the equity distribution agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of our Common Stock sold on that day, the aggregate gross offering proceeds received from the sale of such shares of our Common Stock and the aggregate commission payable by us to the agent with respect to such sales.
Settlement for sales of shares of our Common Stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second business day following the date on which such sales were made in return for payment of the proceeds to us, net of compensation paid by us to the applicable agent. There are not agreements for funds to be received in escrow, trust or similar relationship.
Reporting
We will deliver to the NYSE copies of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus pursuant to the rules of the NYSE. Unless otherwise required, we will report at least quarterly the number of shares of our Common Stock sold through the agents under the equity distribution agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to the agents in connection with the sales of shares of our Common Stock.
Other Relationships
The agents and their respective affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, commercial and investment banking, financial advisory, investment management, investment research, principal investment, hedging, financing and brokerage activities. Certain of the agents and their respective affiliates have, from time to time, performed, and may in the future perform, various financial advisory and investment banking services for us, for which they received or will receive customary fees and expenses. Affiliates of Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, KeyBanc Capital Markets Inc. and Raymond James & Associates, Inc. (agents in this offering) are lenders under the Operating Partnership’s Revolving Credit Facility. To the extent that the Operating Partnership uses a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to repay the outstanding balance under its Revolving Credit Facility, if any, such affiliates of the applicable agents will receive their proportionate share of any amount that is repaid with the net proceeds from this offering. In addition, affiliates of Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, KeyBanc Capital Markets Inc. and Raymond James & Associates, Inc. (agents in this offering) are lenders under one of more of the Operating Partnership’s Term Loan Credit Facilities. To the extent that the Operating Partnership uses a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to repay the outstanding balance under its Term Loan Credit Facilities, if any, such affiliates of the applicable agents will receive their proportionate share of any amount that is repaid with the net proceeds from this offering.
In addition, in the ordinary course of their various business activities, the agents and their respective affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers and may at any time hold long and short positions in such securities and instruments. Such investments and securities activities may involve our securities and instruments. The agents and their respective affiliates may also make investment recommendations or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or instruments and may at any time hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long or short positions in such securities and instruments.
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LEGAL MATTERS
Certain matters of Maryland law, including the validity of the shares of our Common Stock sold in this offering, will be passed upon for us by Venable LLP. Certain legal matters in connection with this offering will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP, Chicago, Illinois. Certain tax matters will be passed upon for us by Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP. Sidley Austin LLP, New York, New York will act as counsel to the agents.
EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements of Xenia Hotels & Resorts, Inc. as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2019, and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019 have been incorporated by reference herein in reliance upon the reports of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
The audit report covering the December 31, 2019 consolidated financial statements contains an explanatory paragraph related to Xenia Hotels & Resorts, Inc.’s change in method of accounting for leases as of January 1, 2019 due to the adoption of Accounting Standards Codification Topic 842, Leases.

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
Available Information
We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC also maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.
Our website address is www.xeniareit.com. The information on our website, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus supplement.
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. The registration statement may be obtained through the SEC’s website, as provided above.
Incorporation by Reference
The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus modifies or replaces that statement.
We incorporate by reference our documents listed below and any future filings made by us with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, between the date of this prospectus supplement and the termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. We are not, however, incorporating by reference any documents or portions thereof, whether specifically listed below or filed in the future, that are not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K.
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on February 25, 2020.
The information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 from our Definitive Proxy Statement, as amended, on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 6, 2020.
Our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2020 and June 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 11, 2020 and July 30, 2020, respectively.
Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on March 4, 2020 (solely with respect to Item 1.01), March 17, 2020, March 31, 2020, April 22, 2020, May 5, 2020, May 19, 2020, June 8, 2020, July 6, 2020 and August 18, 2020.
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The description of our Common Stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 10 filed with the SEC on August 11, 2014 under section 12(b) of the Exchange Act including any amendment or report filed with the SEC for the purpose of updating the description.
You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus (other than exhibits, unless they are specifically incorporated by reference in the documents) by writing or telephoning us at the following address:
XENIA HOTELS & RESORTS, INC.
200 S. ORANGE AVENUE, SUITE 2700, ORLANDO, FLORIDA 32801
(407) 246-8100
Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.
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PROSPECTUS
Xenia Hotels & Resorts, Inc.
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Depositary Shares
Warrants
Rights
Units
Xenia Hotels & Resorts, Inc. may offer and sell the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities.
Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, as well as the documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein and therein, before you invest in any of our securities.
We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.
INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. SEE THE “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE 9 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT, AS WELL AS THE RISKS DESCRIBED UNDER THE SECTION ENTITLED “RISK FACTORS” INCLUDED IN OUR MOST RECENT ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K, SUBSEQUENT QUARTERLY REPORTS ON FORM 10-Q AND OTHER DOCUMENTS FILED BY US WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION, CONCERNING FACTORS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES.
Our Common Stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “XHR.”
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is August 19, 2020.





TABLE OF CONTENTS




ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell securities from time to time and in one or more offerings as described in this prospectus. Each time that we offer and sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the securities being offered and sold and the specific terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, you should rely on the prospectus supplement. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”
We have not authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We will not make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus is accurate as of the date on its respective cover, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. This prospectus incorporates by reference, and any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may contain and incorporate by reference, market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. Although we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the market and industry data presented in this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference, these estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.
Except where the context suggests otherwise, the terms “Xenia,” “we,” “our,” “us,” “our company” and the “Company” refer to Xenia Hotels & Resorts, Inc., a Maryland corporation, and its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis, and “our operating partnership” and the “Operating Partnership” together with its wholly owned subsidiaries, means XHR LP, a Delaware limited partnership for which one of our wholly owned subsidiaries serves as the general partner. XHR Holding, Inc., a Delaware corporation, which we refer to in this prospectus as “XHR Holding,” is a taxable REIT subsidiary, or “TRS,” and we refer to XHR Holding and any other TRSs that we may form in the future as “our TRSs.” When we refer to “you,” we mean the holders of the applicable series of securities.










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TRADEMARKS, SERVICE MARKS AND TRADENAMES
Xenia Hotels & Resorts® and related trademarks, trade names and service marks of Xenia appearing in this prospectus are the property of Xenia. Unless otherwise noted, all other trademarks, trade names or service marks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners, including Marriott International, Inc., Kimpton Hotel & Restaurant Group LLC, Hyatt Corporation, Fairmont Hotels & Resorts, Hilton Worldwide Inc., and Loews Hotels, Inc. or their respective parents, subsidiaries or affiliates (“Brand Companies”).
DISCLAIMER
None of the Brand Companies or their respective directors, officers, agents or employees are issuers of the shares described herein or had responsibility for the creation or contents of this prospectus. None of the Brand Companies or their respective directors, officers, agents or employees make any representation or warranty as to the accuracy, adequacy or completeness of any of the following information, including any financial information and any projections of future performance. The Brand Companies do not have an exclusive relationship with us and will continue to be engaged in other business ventures, including the acquisition, development, construction, ownership or operation of lodging, residential and vacation ownership properties, which are or may become competitive with the properties held by us.

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
Available Information
We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC also maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.
Our website address is www.xeniareit.com. The information on our website, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus.
This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. The registration statement may be obtained through the SEC’s website, as provided above.
Incorporation by Reference
The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus modifies or replaces that statement.
We incorporate by reference our documents listed below and any future filings made by us with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which we refer to as the “Exchange Act” in this prospectus, between the date of this prospectus and the termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus. We are not, however, incorporating by reference any documents or portions thereof, whether specifically listed below or filed in the future, that are not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K.
This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on February 25, 2020.
The information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 from our Definitive Proxy Statement, as amended, on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 6, 2020.
Our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2020 and June 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 11, 2020 and July 30, 2020, respectively.
Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on March 4, 2020 (solely with respect to Item 1.01), March 17, 2020, March 31, 2020, April 22, 2020, May 5, 2020, May 19, 2020, June 8, 2020, July 6, 2020 and August 18, 2020.
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The description of our Common Stock (as defined below) contained in our Registration Statement on Form 10 filed with the SEC on August 11, 2014 under section 12(b) of the Exchange Act including any amendment or report filed with the SEC for the purpose of updating the description.
You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus (other than exhibits, unless they are specifically incorporated by reference in the documents) by writing or telephoning us at the following address:
XENIA HOTELS & RESORTS, INC.
200 S. ORANGE AVENUE, SUITE 2700, ORLANDO, FLORIDA 32801
(407) 246-8100
Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement.
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, including the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. These statements include statements about the Company’s plans, objectives, strategies, financial performance and outlook, trends, the amount and timing of future cash distributions, anticipated timing to close a pending transaction, prospects or future events and involve known and unknown risks that are difficult to predict. As a result, our actual financial results, performance, achievements or prospects may differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the use of words such as “may,” “could,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “seek,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “guidance,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue,” “likely,” “will,” “would,” “illustrative” and variations of these terms and similar expressions, or the negative of these terms or similar expressions. Such forward-looking statements are necessarily based upon estimates and assumptions that we considered reasonable based on our knowledge and understanding of our business and industry, but which are inherently uncertain. These statements are not guarantees of future performance, and stockholders should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements included in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement include, among others, statements about our plans, strategies and the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including on the demand for travel, transient and group business, the timing of hotel re-openings, the level of expenses incurred in connection with hotel re-openings, capital expenditures and the timing of renovations, status of transactions and escrow deposits, and derivations thereof, financial performance, prospects or future events. There are a number of risks, uncertainties and other important factors, many of which are beyond our control, that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, including the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. Factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from our current expectations include, but are not limited to:
the short- and longer-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including on the demand for travel, transient and group business, and levels of consumer confidence;
actions that governments, businesses, and individuals take in response to the COVID-19 pandemic or any future resurgence, including limiting or banning travel and implementing social distancing requirements;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and actions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic or any future resurgence, on global and regional economies, travel, and economic activity, including the duration and magnitude of its impact on unemployment rates and consumer discretionary spending;
the ability of third-party operators or other partners to successfully navigate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic;
the pace of recovery following the COVID-19 pandemic or any future resurgence;
the COVID-19 pandemic may cause us to incur additional expenses; for example, depending on the length of furloughs for employees at our hotels, we may be required to make severance payments to some of the hotels furloughed employees;
our ability to successfully negotiate amendments and covenant waivers under our indebtedness;
our ability to comply with covenants;
business, financial and operating risks inherent to real estate investments and the lodging industry;
seasonal and cyclical volatility in the lodging industry;
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adverse changes in specialized industries, such as the technology and/or tourism industries that result in a sustained downturn of related businesses and corporate spending that may negatively impact our revenues and results of operations;
macroeconomic and other factors beyond our control that can adversely affect and reduce demand for hotel rooms, food and beverage services, and/or meeting facilities;
contraction in the global economy or low levels of economic growth;
levels of spending in business and leisure segments as well as consumer confidence;
declines in occupancy and average daily rate;
fluctuations in the supply, due to hotel construction and/or renovation and expansion of existing hotels, and demand for hotel rooms;
changes in the competitive environment in the lodging industry, including due to consolidation of management companies, franchisors and online travel agencies, and changes in the markets where we own hotels;
events beyond our control, such as war, terrorist or cyber-attacks, mass casualty events, government shutdowns and closures, travel-related health concerns and natural disasters;
cyber incidents and information technology failures, including unauthorized access to our computer systems and/or vendors’ computer systems, and our third-party management companies’ or franchisors’ computer systems and/or their vendors’ computer systems;
our inability to directly operate our properties and reliance on third-party hotel management companies to operate and manage our hotels;
our ability to maintain good relationships with our third-party hotel management companies and franchisors;
our failure to maintain brand operating standards;
our ability to maintain our brand licenses at our hotels;
relationships with labor unions and changes in labor laws;
loss of our senior management team or key personnel;
our ability to identify and consummate acquisitions and dispositions of hotels;
our ability to integrate and successfully operate any hotel properties acquired in the future and the risks associated with these hotel properties;
the impact of hotel renovations, repositionings, redevelopments and re-branding activities;
our ability to access capital for renovations and acquisitions on terms and at times that are acceptable to us;
the fixed cost nature of hotel ownership;
our ability to service, restructure or refinance our debt;
changes in interest rates and operating costs, including labor and service related costs;
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compliance with regulatory regimes and local laws;
uninsured or underinsured losses, including those relating to natural disasters, terrorism or cyber-attacks;
changes in distribution channels, such as through internet travel intermediaries or websites that facilitate short-term rental of homes and apartments from owners;
the amount of debt that we currently have or may incur in the future;
provisions in our debt agreements that may restrict the operation of our business;
our organizational and governance structure;
our status as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”);
our TRS lessee structure;
the cost of compliance with and liabilities under environmental, health and safety laws;
adverse litigation judgments or settlements;
changes in real estate and zoning laws and increases in real property tax valuations or rates;
changes in federal, state or local tax law, including legislative, administrative, regulatory or other actions affecting REITs;
changes in governmental regulations or interpretations thereof; and
estimates relating to our ability to make distributions to our stockholders in the future.
These factors are not necessarily all of the important factors that could cause our actual financial results, performance, achievements or prospects to differ materially from those expressed in or implied by any of our forward-looking statements. You are urged to carefully review the disclosure we make concerning the risks, uncertainties and assumptions that may affect our business and results of operations, including, but not limited to, the risks, uncertainties and assumptions set forth in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement under the caption “Risk Factors” and set forth in the documents incorporated by reference herein under the captions “Risk Factors,” “Business” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Other unknown or unpredictable factors also could harm our results. All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements set forth above. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and we do not undertake or assume any obligation to update publicly any of these forward-looking statements to reflect actual results, new information or future events, changes in assumptions or changes in other factors affecting forward-looking statements, except to the extent required by applicable laws. If we update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements.
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THE COMPANY
We are a Maryland corporation that invests primarily in uniquely positioned luxury and upper upscale hotels and resorts in the Top 25 lodging markets as well as key leisure destinations in the United States. Prior to February 3, 2015, Xenia was a wholly owned subsidiary of InvenTrust Properties Corp. (formerly known as Inland American Real Estate Trust, Inc. or “InvenTrust”), its former parent. On February 3, 2015, Xenia was spun off from InvenTrust through a taxable pro rata distribution by InvenTrust of 95% of the outstanding common stock, $0.01 par value per share (the “Common Stock”), of Xenia to holders of record of InvenTrust’s common stock as of the close of business on January 20, 2015 (the “Record Date”). Each holder of record of InvenTrust’s common stock received one share of our Common Stock for every eight shares of InvenTrust’s common stock held at the close of business on the Record Date (the “Distribution”). In lieu of fractional shares, stockholders of InvenTrust received cash. On February 4, 2015, Xenia’s Common Stock began trading on the NYSE under the ticker symbol “XHR.” As a result of the Distribution, the Company became a stand-alone, publicly-traded company. As of June 30, 2020, the Company owned 39 lodging properties with a total of 11,245 rooms across 16 states.
Xenia operates and intends to continue to operate so as to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Substantially all of the Company’s assets are held by, and all of the Company's operations are conducted through the Operating Partnership. XHR GP, Inc. is the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership and is wholly owned by the Company. As of June 30, 2020, the Company collectively owned approximately 97.6% of the outstanding common limited partnership units issued by the Operating Partnership (“Operating Partnership Units”).
To qualify as a REIT, the Company cannot operate or manage its hotels. Therefore, the Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries lease the hotel properties to XHR Holding, the Company’s TRS, which engages third-party eligible independent operators to manage the hotels. The third-party non-affiliated hotel operators manage each hotel pursuant to a hotel management agreement.
Our principal executive offices are located at 200 S. Orange Avenue, Suite 2700, Orlando, Florida, 32801, and our telephone number is (407) 246-8100. The Company’s website is www.xeniareit.com. The information contained on our website or that can be accessed through our website neither constitutes part of this prospectus nor is incorporated by reference herein.
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RISK FACTORS
Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K we file after the date of this prospectus, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement before acquiring any of such securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.
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USE OF PROCEEDS
Except as may be set forth in a particular prospectus supplement referring to this prospectus or document filed by us with the SEC and incorporated by reference into this prospectus, we will use the net proceeds from sales of securities for general corporate purposes, including the acquisition of hotels, the repayment of indebtedness, making capital improvements to our hotels and other general corporate purposes. Any specific allocation of the net proceeds of an offering of securities to a specific purpose will be determined at the time of such offering.
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following is a summary of the material rights of our capital stock and related provisions of our charter and second amended and restated bylaws, as amended (our “bylaws”). The following description of our capital stock does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by, our charter and bylaws, copies of which have been filed with the SEC and are incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and the applicable provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law (the “MGCL”). See “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”
General
Our charter provides that we may issue up to 500,000,000 shares of Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share, and up to 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share. Our board of directors (our “Board of Directors” or our “Board”) has the power, without stockholder approval, to amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series we are authorized to issue. As of August 18, 2020, we had 113,730,716 shares of our Common Stock issued and outstanding.
Under Maryland law, stockholders generally are not personally liable for our debts or obligations solely as a result of their status as stockholders.
Common Stock
All of the shares of our Common Stock offered hereby will be duly authorized, fully paid and nonassessable. Our common stockholders are entitled to receive dividends when authorized by our Board and declared by us out of assets legally available for the payment of dividends. Our common stockholders are also entitled to share ratably in our assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, after payment of, or adequate provision for, all of our known debts and liabilities. These rights are subject to the preferential rights of any other class or series of our stock and to the provisions of our charter regarding restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock.
Subject to our charter restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and except as may otherwise be provided in our charter, each outstanding share of our Common Stock entitles the holder thereof to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors. Except as provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, our common stockholders will possess exclusive voting power. Cumulative voting in the election of directors is not permitted. In uncontested elections, directors are elected by a majority of all of the votes cast in the election of directors. In contested elections, directors are elected by a plurality of all the votes cast in the election of directors.
Our common stockholders have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund or redemption rights and have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any of our capital stock. Subject to our charter restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, holders of shares of our Common Stock will initially have equal dividend, liquidation and other rights. Our common stockholders generally have no appraisal rights unless our Board of Directors determines that appraisal rights apply, with respect to all or any classes or series of stock, to one or more transactions occurring after the date of such determination in connection with which stockholders would otherwise be entitled to exercise appraisal rights.
Under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, consolidate, convert into another entity, sell all or substantially all of its assets or engage in a statutory share exchange unless declared advisable by the board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter.
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Our charter provides for approval of these matters by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on such matters, except that the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter is required to amend provisions of our charter relating to director removal or the vote required to amend such provisions. Maryland law also permits a corporation to transfer all or substantially all of its assets without the approval of its stockholders to an entity all of the equity interests of which are owned, directly or indirectly, by the corporation. Our operating assets may be held by our operating partnership or its wholly-owned subsidiaries and these subsidiaries may be able to merge or transfer all or substantially all of their assets without the approval of our stockholders.
Our charter authorizes our Board of Directors to reclassify any unissued shares of our Common Stock into other classes or series of stock, to establish the designation and number of shares of each such class or series and to set, subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemption of each such class or series.
Preferred Stock
Under the terms of our charter, our Board of Directors is authorized to classify any unissued shares of our preferred stock and to reclassify any previously classified but unissued shares of preferred stock into other classes or series of stock. Before the issuance of shares of each class or series, our Board of Directors is required by Maryland law and by our charter to set, subject to our charter restrictions on ownership and transfer of stock, the terms, preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemption for each class or series.
The specific terms of a particular class or series of preferred stock will be fixed by the articles supplementary relating to such class or series and described in the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series, including a prospectus supplement providing that preferred stock may be issuable upon the exercise of warrants or the exercise or conversion of other securities we issue. The prospectus supplement, relating to each class or series, will specify the terms of the class or series of preferred stock as follows:
the designation and par value of such class or series of preferred stock,
the number of shares of such class or series of preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of such class or series of preferred stock,
the dividend rate(s), period(s), and/or payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation thereof applicable to such class or series of preferred stock,
whether dividends on such class or series of preferred stock are cumulative or not and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends on such class or series of preferred stock shall accumulate,
the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for such class or series of preferred stock,
the provision for redemption, if applicable, of such class or series of preferred stock,
any listing of such class or series of preferred stock on any securities exchange,
the preemptive rights, if any, of such class or series of preferred stock,
the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which shares such class or series of preferred stock will be convertible into shares of our Common Stock or shares of any other class or series of our stock or other securities, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof),
a discussion of any additional material federal income tax consequences applicable to an investment in such class or series of preferred stock,
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any limitations on actual, beneficial and constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer, in each case as may be appropriate to assist us to preserve our status as a REIT,
the relative ranking and preferences of such class or series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company,
any limitations on issuance of any class or series of stock ranking senior to or on parity with such class or series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company,
any voting rights of such class or series of preferred stock, and
any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of such class or series of preferred stock.
As of the date of this prospectus, we have no outstanding shares of preferred stock, and we presently have no plans to issue any other shares or classes of preferred stock.
Power to Issue Additional Shares of Common Stock and Preferred Stock
We believe that the power to issue additional shares of our Common Stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our Common Stock or preferred stock and to issue the classified or reclassified shares provides us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs which might arise. These actions can be taken without action by our stockholders, unless stockholder approval is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our stock may be listed or traded. Although we have no present intention of doing so, we could issue a class or series of stock that (i) has priority over shares of our Common Stock with respect to dividends or other distributions or rights upon liquidation, exclusive or class voting rights or with other terms and conditions, or (ii) could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control of our company that might involve a premium price for our Common Stock or that our common stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interest. In addition, our issuance of additional shares of stock in the future could dilute the voting and other rights of your shares. See “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and Our Charter and Bylaws.”
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer
To assist us in complying with certain federal income tax requirements applicable to REITs, among other purposes, our charter contains certain restrictions relating to the ownership and transfer of our capital stock. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for shares of our Common Stock is Computershare, Inc., P.O. Box 505013 Louisville, KY 40233-5013, (844) 248-2205.

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DESCRIPTION OF OTHER SECURITIES
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement a description of any depository shares, warrants, rights or units issued by us that may be offered and sold pursuant to this prospectus.
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GLOBAL SECURITIES
Book-Entry, Delivery and Form
Unless we indicate differently in a prospectus supplement, the securities initially will be issued in book-entry form and represented by one or more global securities. The global securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, as depositary, or “DTC”, and registered in the name of Cede & Co., the nominee of DTC. Unless and until it is exchanged for individual certificates evidencing securities under the limited circumstances described below, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.
DTC has advised us that it is:
a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law;
a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law;
a member of the Federal Reserve System;
a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code; and
a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act.
DTC holds securities that its participants deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the settlement among its participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants’ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. “Direct participants” in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, including underwriters, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations. DTC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, or “DTCC”. DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries. Access to the DTC system is also available to others, which we sometimes refer to as indirect participants, that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.
Purchases of securities under the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of the actual purchaser of a security, which we sometimes refer to as a “beneficial owner”, is in turn recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners of securities will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchases. However, beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of their transactions, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participants through which they purchased securities. Transfers of ownership interests in global securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the global securities, except under the limited circumstances described below.
To facilitate subsequent transfers, all global securities deposited by direct participants with DTC will be registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co., or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. The deposit of securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other nominee will not change the beneficial ownership of the securities. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants are responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.
So long as the securities are in book-entry form, you will receive payments and may transfer securities only through the facilities of the depositary and its direct and indirect participants. We will maintain an office or agency in the
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location specified in the prospectus supplement for the applicable securities, where notices and demands in respect of the securities may be delivered to us and where certificated securities may be surrendered for payment, registration of transfer or exchange.
Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any legal requirements in effect from time to time.
Redemption notices will be sent to DTC. If less than all of the securities of a particular series are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participant in the securities of such series to be redeemed.
Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. (or such other DTC nominee) will consent or vote with respect to the securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC will mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns the consenting or voting rights of Cede & Co. to those direct participants to whose accounts the securities of such series are credited on the record date, identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.
So long as securities are in book-entry form, we will make payments on those securities to the depositary or its nominee, as the registered owner of such securities, by wire transfer of immediately available funds. If securities are issued in definitive certificated form under the limited circumstances described below, we will have the option of making payments by check mailed to the addresses of the persons entitled to payment or by wire transfer to bank accounts in the United States designated in writing to the applicable trustee or other designated party at least 15 days before the applicable payment date by the persons entitled to payment, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the applicable trustee or other designated party.
Redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments on the securities will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from us on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of participants and not of DTC or us, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC, is our responsibility, disbursement of payments to direct participants is the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of payments to the beneficial owners is the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.
Except under the limited circumstances described below, purchasers of securities will not be entitled to have securities registered in their names and will not receive physical delivery of securities. Accordingly, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and its participants to exercise any rights under the securities.
The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. Those laws may impair the ability to transfer or pledge beneficial interests in securities.
DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the securities at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor depositary is not obtained, securities certificates are required to be printed and delivered.
As noted above, beneficial owners of a particular series of securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in those securities. However, if:
DTC notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a depositary for the global security or securities representing such series of securities or if DTC ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act at a time when it is required to be registered and a successor depositary is not
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appointed within 90 days of the notification to us or of our becoming aware of DTC’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be;
we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have such securities represented by one or more global securities; or
an event of default has occurred and is continuing with respect to such series of securities,
we will prepare and deliver certificates for such securities in exchange for beneficial interests in the global securities. Any beneficial interest in a global security that is exchangeable under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence will be exchangeable for securities in definitive certificated form registered in the names that the depositary directs. It is expected that these directions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities.
We have obtained the information in this section and elsewhere in this prospectus concerning DTC and DTC’s book-entry system from sources that are believed to be reliable, but we take no responsibility for the accuracy of this information.



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RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER
In order to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), our shares of stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made) or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of our outstanding shares of capital stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made).
Our charter, subject to certain exceptions, contains restrictions on the number of shares of our stock that a person may own that are intended, among other purposes, to assist us in complying with these requirements and continuing to qualify as a REIT. Our charter provides that no person may beneficially or constructively own more than 9.8% in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of any class or series of our capital stock. We refer to the foregoing restrictions as the “Ownership Limit.”
Our charter also prohibits any person from:
beneficially owning shares of our capital stock to the extent that such beneficial ownership would result in our being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of the taxable year);
transferring shares of our capital stock to the extent that such transfer would result in our shares of capital stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined under the principles of Section 856(a)(5) of the Code);
beneficially or constructively owning shares of our capital stock to the extent such beneficial or constructive ownership would cause us to constructively own ten percent or more of the ownership interests in a tenant (other than a TRS) of our real property within the meaning of Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code; or
beneficially or constructively owning shares of our capital stock if such beneficial or constructive ownership would otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT under the Code, including, but not limited to, as a result of any hotel management companies failing to qualify as an “eligible independent contractor” under the REIT rules.
Our Board of Directors, in its sole discretion, may prospectively or retroactively exempt a person from certain of the limits described in the paragraph above and may establish or increase an excepted holder percentage limit for that person. The person seeking an exemption must provide to our Board of Directors any representations, covenants and undertakings that our Board of Directors may deem appropriate in order to conclude that granting the exemption will not cause us to lose our status as a REIT. Our Board of Directors may not grant an exemption to any person if that exemption would result in our failing to qualify as a REIT. Our Board of Directors may require a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) or an opinion of counsel, in either case in form and substance satisfactory to our Board of Directors, in its sole discretion, in order to determine or ensure our status as a REIT.
Any attempted transfer of shares of our capital stock which, if effective, would violate any of the restrictions described above will result in the number of shares of our capital stock causing the violation (rounded up to the nearest whole share) to be automatically transferred to a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable beneficiaries, except that any transfer that results in the violation of the restriction relating to shares of our capital stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons will be void ab initio. In either case, the proposed transferee will not acquire any rights in those shares. The automatic transfer will be deemed to be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the purported transfer or other event that results in the transfer to the trust. Shares held in the trust will be issued and outstanding shares. The proposed transferee will not benefit economically from ownership of any shares held in the trust, will have no rights to dividends or other distributions and will have no rights to vote or other rights attributable to the shares held in the trust. The trustee of the trust will have all voting rights and rights to dividends or other distributions with respect to shares held in the
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trust. These rights will be exercised for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary. Any dividend or other distribution paid prior to our discovery that shares have been transferred to the trustee will be paid by the recipient to the trustee upon demand. Any dividend or other distribution authorized but unpaid will be paid when due to the trustee. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the trustee will be held in trust for the charitable beneficiary. Subject to Maryland law, the trustee will have the authority (i) to rescind as void any vote cast by the proposed transferee prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trustee and (ii) to recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary. However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee will not have the authority to rescind and recast the vote.
Within 20 days of receiving notice from us that shares of our stock have been transferred to the trust, the trustee will sell the shares to a person, designated by the trustee, whose ownership of the shares will not violate the above ownership and transfer limitations. Upon the sale, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold will terminate and the trustee will distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the proposed transferee and to the charitable beneficiary as follows. The proposed transferee will receive the lesser of (i) the price paid by the proposed transferee for the shares or, if the proposed transferee did not give value for the shares in connection with the event causing the shares to be held in the trust (e.g., a gift, devise or other such transaction), the market price (as defined in our charter) of the shares on the day of the event causing the shares to be held in the trust and (ii) the price per share received by the trustee (net of any commission and other expenses of sale) from the sale or other disposition of the shares. The trustee will reduce the amount payable to the proposed transferee by the amount of dividends or other distributions paid to the proposed transferee and owed by the proposed transferee to the trustee. Any net sale proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the proposed transferee will be paid immediately to the charitable beneficiary. If, prior to our discovery that our shares of our stock have been transferred to the trust, the shares are sold by the proposed transferee, then (i) the shares shall be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and (ii) to the extent that the proposed transferee received an amount for the shares that exceeds the amount he or she was entitled to receive, pursuant to the above, the excess shall be paid to the trustee upon demand.
In addition, shares of our stock held in the trust will be deemed to have been offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (i) the price per share in the transaction that resulted in the transfer to the trust (or, in the case of a devise, gift or other transaction, the market price at the time of such devise, gift or other transaction) and (ii) the market price on the date we, or our designee, accept the offer, which we will reduce by the amount of dividends and other distributions paid to the proposed transferee and owed by the proposed transferee to the trustee. We will have the right to accept the offer until the trustee has sold the shares. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold will terminate and the trustee will distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the proposed transferee.
If a transfer to a charitable trust, as described above, would be ineffective for any reason to prevent a violation of a restriction, the transfer that would have resulted in a violation will be void ab initio, and the proposed transferee shall acquire no rights in those shares.
Any certificate representing shares of our capital stock, and any notices delivered in lieu of certificates with respect to the issuance or transfer of uncertificated shares, will bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.
Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our capital stock that will or may violate any of the foregoing restrictions on transferability and ownership, or any person who would have owned shares of our capital stock that resulted in a transfer of shares to a charitable trust, is required to give written notice immediately to us, or in the case of a proposed or attempted transaction, to give at least 15 days’ prior written notice, and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of the transfer on our status as a REIT. The foregoing restrictions on transferability and ownership will not apply if our Board of Directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT or that compliance is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT.
Every owner of more than 5% (or any lower percentage as required by the Code or the Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder) in number or value of the outstanding shares of our capital stock, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, is required to give us written notice, stating his or her name and address, the number of
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shares of each class and series of shares of our capital stock that he or she beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each of these owners must promptly provide us with additional information that we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of his or her beneficial ownership on our status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits. In addition, each stockholder will upon demand be required to provide us with information that we may request in order to determine our status as a REIT and to comply with the requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine our compliance.
These ownership limitations could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for our shares of Common Stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.
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THE OPERATING PARTNERSHIP AND THE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT
Our operating partnership was formed as a North Carolina limited partnership in 1994. On September 17, 2014, our operating partnership was converted to a Delaware limited partnership and changed its name to XHR LP. Our wholly-owned subsidiary, XHR GP, Inc., is the sole general partner of our operating partnership, and we conduct substantially all of our business through our operating partnership. As of June 30, 2020, we collectively owned approximately 97.6% of the outstanding Operating Partnership Units in our operating partnership.
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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS
The following summary of certain provisions of Maryland law and our charter and bylaws does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to Maryland law and to our charter and our bylaws, copies of which have been filed with the SEC and are incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”
Our Board of Directors
Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of directors of our company may be established, increased or decreased only by a majority of our entire Board of Directors but may not be fewer than the minimum number required under the MGCL (which is currently one) nor, unless our bylaws are amended, more than fifteen. Any vacancy on our Board of Directors for any cause other than an increase in the number of directors may be filled by a majority of the remaining directors, even if such majority is less than a quorum. Any vacancy in the number of directors created by an increase in the number of directors may be filled by a majority of our entire Board of Directors.
Each of our directors will be elected by our common stockholders to serve until the next annual meeting of our stockholders and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies under the MGCL. Holders of shares of our Common Stock will have no right to cumulative voting in the election of directors. In uncontested elections, directors are elected by a majority of all of the votes cast in the election of directors. In contested elections, directors are elected by a plurality of all the votes cast in the election of directors.
Removal of Directors
Our charter provides that, subject to the rights of holders of one or more classes or series of preferred stock to elect or remove one or more directors, a director may be removed only for cause (as defined in our charter) and only by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors.
Business Combinations
Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” (including a merger, consolidation, statutory share exchange or, in certain circumstances specified under the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a Maryland corporation and any interested stockholder, or an affiliate of such an interested stockholder, are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Maryland law defines an interested stockholder as:
any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock; or
an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of the then-outstanding stock of the corporation.
A person is not an interested stockholder under the MGCL if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. In approving a transaction, our Board of Directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of the approval, with any terms and conditions determined by it.
After such five-year period, any such business combination must be recommended by our Board of Directors of the corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:
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80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation; and
two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.
These supermajority approval requirements do not apply if, among other conditions, the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the MGCL) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares.
These provisions of the MGCL do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by a corporation’s board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Our Board of Directors has, by board resolution, exempted business combinations between us and any other person, provided that such business combination is first approved by our Board, including a majority of our directors who are not affiliated with the interested stockholder. Consequently, the five-year prohibition and the supermajority vote requirements will not apply to business combinations between us and any such person.
We cannot assure you that our Board of Directors will not amend or repeal this resolution in the future. However, an alteration or repeal of this resolution will not have any effect on any business combinations that have been consummated prior to or upon any agreements existing at the time of such modification or repeal.
Control Share Acquisitions
The MGCL provides that a holder of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” has no voting rights with respect to those shares except to the extent approved by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by stockholders entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power in the election of directors generally but excluding: (1) the person who has made or proposes to make the control share acquisition; (2) any officer of the corporation; or (3) any employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock that, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock previously acquired by the acquirer or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of:
one-tenth or more but less than one-third;
one-third or more but less than a majority; or
a majority or more of all voting power.
Control shares do not include shares that the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval or shares acquired directly from the corporation. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition, directly or indirectly, of ownership of, or the power to direct the exercise of voting power with respect to, issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.
A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses and making an “acquiring person statement” as described in the MGCL), may compel the board of directors of a company to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the control shares. If no request for a special meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.
If voting rights of control shares are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an “acquiring person statement” as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares as of the date of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved or, if
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no such meeting is held, as of the date of the last control acquisition by the acquirer. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquirer in the control share acquisition.
The control share acquisition statute does not apply (1) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or statutory share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (2) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.
Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of shares of our stock. Our Board of Directors may amend or eliminate this provision at any time in the future, whether before or after the acquisition of control shares.
Subtitle 8
Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL, or Subtitle 8, permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of the following five provisions:
a classified board (Section 3-803);
a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director (Section 3-804(a));
a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors (Section 3-804(b));
a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred (Section 3-804(c)); or
a majority requirement for the calling of a special meeting of stockholders (3-805).
Our Board of Directors has adopted resolutions prohibiting the Company from electing to be subject to any provision of Subtitle 8. Our Board of Directors may not repeal this prohibition unless the repeal is approved by the stockholders of the Company by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by stockholders entitled to vote generally in the election of directors. Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we already (1) require a two-thirds vote for the removal of any director from our Board, which removal will be allowed only for cause, (2) vest in our Board the exclusive power to fix the number of directorships, subject to limitations set forth in our charter and bylaws, and (3) require, unless called by the chairman of our Board of Directors, our chief executive officer, our president or our Board of Directors, the request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all votes entitled to be cast on a matter at such meeting to call a special meeting to consider and vote on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders.
Amendments to Our Charter and Bylaws
Our charter generally may be amended only if such amendment is declared advisable by our Board of Directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. The affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on such matter is required to amend the provisions of our charter relating to the removal of directors, which also requires two-thirds of all votes entitled to be cast on the matter, or the vote required to amend such provisions. Our bylaws provide that our Board of Directors has the power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws and to make new bylaws; provided, however, that the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock may alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws and may adopt new bylaws pursuant to a binding proposal properly submitted to the stockholders in accordance with the notice procedures and all other relevant provisions of our bylaws for approval at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders by any stockholder
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that owns shares of our common stock in the amount and for the duration of time specified in Rule 14(a)-8 under the Exchange Act.
Exclusive Forum
Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (b) any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by any director or officer or other employee of the Company to us or to our stockholders, (c) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee arising pursuant to any provision of the MGCL or our charter or bylaws or (d) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall be the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or, if that Court does not have jurisdiction, the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, Baltimore Division.
Meetings of Stockholders
Under our bylaws, annual meetings of stockholders will be held each year at a date and time determined by our Board of Directors. Special meetings of stockholders may be called by our Board of Directors, the chairman of our Board of Directors, our president or our chief executive officer. Additionally, subject to the provisions of our bylaws, special meetings of the stockholders must be called by our secretary to act on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on such matter at such meeting who have requested the special meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in, and provided the information and certifications required by, our bylaws. Only matters set forth in the notice of the special meeting may be considered and acted upon at such a meeting.
Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business
Our bylaws provide that:
with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to our Board of Directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders at the annual meeting may be made only:
pursuant to our notice of the meeting;
by or at the direction of our Board of Directors;
by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of the notice of the meeting and at the time of the annual meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual nominated or on such other business, and who has complied with the advance notice procedures set forth in, and provided the information and certifications required by, our bylaws; or
by any eligible stockholder who complies with the procedures summarized under the heading “Proxy Access Procedures for Qualifying Stockholders” below; and
with respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our company’s notice of meeting may be brought before the special meeting of stockholders, and nominations of individuals for election to our Board of Directors may be made only:
by or at the direction of our Board of Directors; or
provided that the meeting has been called in accordance with our bylaws for the purpose of electing directors, by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated and who has complied with the
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advance notice provisions set forth in, and provided the information and certifications required by, our bylaws.
The purpose of requiring stockholders to give advance notice of nominations and other proposals is to afford our Board of Directors and our stockholders the opportunity to consider the qualifications of the proposed nominees or the advisability of the other proposals and, to the extent considered necessary by our Board of Directors, to inform stockholders and make recommendations regarding the nominations or other proposals.
Proxy Access Procedures for Qualifying Stockholders
Our bylaws permit a stockholder, or a group of no more than 20 stockholders, that owns at least 3% or more of the shares of our Common Stock continuously for at least three years to nominate and include in our proxy materials candidates for election as directors of the Company, subject to certain terms and conditions. Such stockholder(s) or group(s) of stockholders may nominate director candidates constituting up to the greater of two individuals or 20% of our Board of Directors, provided that the stockholder(s) and the director nominee(s) satisfy the eligibility, notice and other requirements specified in the bylaws.
Limitation of Liability and Indemnification of Directors and Officers
Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or active and deliberate dishonesty that is established by a final judgment and is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains such a provision that eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.
The MGCL requires a Maryland corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or are threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:
the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and:
was committed in bad faith; or
was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;
the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or
in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.
However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify a director or officer for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or if the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received.
In addition, the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:
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a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and
a written undertaking, which may be unsecured, by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid if it shall ultimately be determined that the standard of conduct has not been met.
Our charter authorizes us to obligate our company and our bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and to pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding without requiring a preliminary determination of the director’s or officer’s ultimate entitlement to indemnification to:
any present or former director or officer who is made or threatened to be made a party to, or witness in, the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or
any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, member, manager or trustee of another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to, or witness in, the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.
Our charter and bylaws also permit us, with the approval of our Board of Directors, to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.
Indemnification Agreements
We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers that provide for indemnification to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer of our Stock
Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock that are intended, among other purposes, to assist us in continuing to qualify as a REIT. Subject to certain exceptions, our charter provides that no person or entity may beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of any class or series of our capital stock. For more information regarding these and other restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock imposed by our charter, see “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”
REIT Qualification
Our charter provides that our Board of Directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interest to attempt to, or to continue to, be qualified as a REIT. Our charter also provides that our Board of Directors may determine that compliance with the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock is no longer required for us to qualify as a REIT.
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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES
This section summarizes the material U.S. federal income tax consequences that you, as a holder of our securities, may consider relevant in connection with the purchase, ownership and disposition of our securities. Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP has acted as our counsel, has reviewed this summary, and is of the opinion that the description of law and the legal conclusions contained herein is accurate in all material respects. Because this section is a summary, it does not address all aspects of taxation that may be relevant to particular holders of our securities in light of their personal investment or tax circumstances, or to certain types of holders of our securities that are subject to special treatment under the federal income tax laws, such as:
insurance companies;
tax-exempt organizations (except to the limited extent discussed in “—Taxation of Tax-Exempt Stockholders” below);
financial institutions or broker-dealers;
non-U.S. individuals, partnerships and foreign corporations (except to the limited extent discussed in “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders” below);
U.S. expatriates;
persons who mark-to-market our securities;
subchapter S corporations;
U.S. stockholders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;
regulated investment companies, or RICs, and REITs;
trusts and estates;
holders who receive our securities through the exercise of employee share options or otherwise as compensation;
persons holding our securities as part of a “straddle,” “hedge,” “conversion transaction,” “synthetic security” or other integrated investment;
persons subject to the alternative minimum tax provisions of the Code; and
persons holding our securities through a partnership or similar pass-through entity.
This summary assumes that holders of our securities hold our securities as capital assets for federal income tax purposes, which generally means property held for investment.
The statements in this section are not intended to be, and should not be construed as, tax advice. The statements in this section are based on the Code, current, temporary and proposed Treasury regulations, the legislative history of the Code, current administrative interpretations and practices of the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, and court decisions. The reference to IRS interpretations and practices includes the IRS practices and policies endorsed in private letter rulings, which are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the taxpayer that receives the ruling. In each case, these sources are relied upon as they exist on the date of this discussion. Future legislation, Treasury regulations, administrative interpretations and court decisions could change current law or adversely affect existing interpretations of current law on which the information in this section is based. Any such change could apply retroactively. We have not received any rulings from the IRS concerning our qualification as a REIT. Accordingly, even if there is no change in the applicable law, no assurance can be provided that the statements made in the
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following discussion, which do not bind the IRS or the courts, will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if so challenged.
WE URGE YOU TO CONSULT YOUR TAX ADVISOR REGARDING THE SPECIFIC TAX CONSEQUENCES TO YOU OF THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND SALE OF OUR SECURITIES AND OF OUR ELECTION TO BE TAXED AS A REIT. SPECIFICALLY, YOU ARE URGED TO CONSULT YOUR TAX ADVISOR REGARDING THE FEDERAL, STATE, LOCAL, FOREIGN AND OTHER TAX CONSEQUENCES OF SUCH PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP, SALE AND ELECTION, AND REGARDING POTENTIAL CHANGES IN APPLICABLE TAX LAWS.
Taxation of Our Company
We elected to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes commencing with our short taxable year ended on February 3, 2015. We believe that, commencing with such short taxable year, we have been organized and have operated in such a manner as to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code, and we intend to continue to operate in such a manner, but no assurances can be given that we will operate in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. This section discusses the laws governing the federal income tax treatment of a REIT and the holders of its securities. These laws are highly technical and complex.
In the opinion of Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP, we qualified to be taxed as a REIT for our taxable years ended December 31, 2016 through December 31, 2019, and our organization and current and proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to satisfy the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the federal income tax laws for our taxable year ending December 31, 2020 and subsequent taxable years. Investors should be aware that Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP’s opinion is based upon customary assumptions, is conditioned upon certain representations made by us as to factual matters, including representations regarding the nature of our assets and the conduct of our business, is not binding upon the IRS, or any court, and speaks as of the date issued. In addition, Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP’s opinion is based on existing federal income tax law governing qualification as a REIT, which is subject to change either prospectively or retroactively. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet on a continuing basis, through actual annual and quarterly operating results, certain qualification tests set forth in the federal tax laws. Those qualification tests involve the percentage of income that we earn from specified sources, the percentage of our assets that falls within specified categories, the diversity of our stock ownership, and the percentage of our earnings that we distribute. Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP will not review our compliance with those tests on a continuing basis. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operations for any particular taxable year will satisfy such requirements. Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP’s opinion does not foreclose the possibility that we may have to use one or more of the REIT savings provisions described below, which would require us to pay an excise or penalty tax (which could be material) in order for us to maintain our REIT qualification. For a discussion of the tax consequences of our failure to qualify as a REIT, see “Failure to Qualify.”
If we qualify as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to federal income tax on the taxable income that we distribute to our stockholders. The benefit of that tax treatment is that it avoids the “double taxation,” or taxation at both the corporate and stockholder levels, that generally results from owning stock in a corporation. However, we will be subject to federal tax in the following circumstances:
We will pay federal income tax on any taxable income, including undistributed net capital gain, that we do not distribute to stockholders during, or within a specified time period after, the calendar year in which the income is earned.
We will pay income tax at the highest corporate rate on:
net income from the sale or other disposition of property acquired through foreclosure or after a default on a lease of the property (“foreclosure property”) that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, and
other non-qualifying income from foreclosure property.
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We will pay a 100% tax on net income from sales or other dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.
If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below under “—Gross Income Tests,” and nonetheless continue to qualify as a REIT because we meet other requirements, we will pay a 100% tax on the gross income attributable to the greater of the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, in either case, multiplied by a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.
If we fail to distribute during a calendar year at least the sum of (i) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for the year, (ii) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for the year, and (iii) any undistributed taxable income required to be distributed from earlier periods, we will pay a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the sum of (A) the amount we actually distributed plus (B) retained amounts on which corporate-level tax was paid by us.
We may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net long-term capital gain. In that case, a U.S. stockholder would be taxed on its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain (to the extent that we made a timely designation of such gain to the stockholders) and would receive a credit or refund for its proportionate share of the tax we paid.
We will be subject to a 100% excise tax on transactions with a TRS that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis.
If we fail any of the asset tests, other than a de minimis failure of the 5% asset test, the 10% vote test or the 10% value test, as described below under “—Asset Tests,” as long as the failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, we file a description of each asset that caused such failure with the IRS, and we dispose of such assets or otherwise comply with the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify such failure, we will pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest federal income tax rate then applicable to U.S. corporations on the net income from the nonqualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy the asset tests.
If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification, other than the gross income tests and the asset tests, and such failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.
If we acquire any asset from a C corporation, or a corporation that generally is subject to full corporate-level tax, in a merger or other transaction in which we acquire a basis in the asset that is determined by reference either to the C corporation’s basis in the asset or to another asset, we will pay tax at the highest regular corporate rate applicable if we recognize gain on the sale or disposition of the asset during the 5-year period after we acquire the asset provided no election is made for the transaction to be taxable on a current basis. The amount of gain on which we will pay tax is the lesser of:
the amount of gain that we recognize at the time of the sale or disposition, and
the amount of gain that we would have recognized if we had sold the asset at the time we acquired it.
We may be required to pay monetary penalties to the IRS in certain circumstances, including if we fail to meet recordkeeping requirements intended to monitor our compliance with rules relating to the composition of a REIT’s stockholders, as described below in “—Recordkeeping Requirements.”
The earnings of our lower-tier entities that are subchapter C corporations, including TRSs, will be subject to federal corporate income tax.
In addition, notwithstanding our qualification as a REIT, we may also have to pay certain state and local income taxes, because not all states and localities treat REITs in the same manner that they are treated for federal income tax
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purposes. Moreover, as further described below, TRSs will be subject to federal, state and local corporate income tax on their taxable income.
Requirements for Qualification
A REIT is a corporation, trust or association that meets each of the following requirements:
1. It is managed by one or more directors or trustees.
2. Its beneficial ownership is evidenced by transferable shares, or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest.
3. It would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for the REIT provisions of the federal income tax laws.
4. It is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to special provisions of the federal income tax laws.
5. At least 100 persons are beneficial owners of its shares or ownership certificates.
6. Not more than 50% in value of its outstanding shares or ownership certificates is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals, which the Code defines to include certain entities, during the last half of any taxable year.
7. It elects to be a REIT, or has made such election for a previous taxable year, and satisfies all relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS that must be met to elect and maintain REIT status.
8. It meets certain other qualification tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions to stockholders.
9. It uses a calendar year for federal income tax purposes and complies with the recordkeeping requirements of the federal income tax laws.
We must meet requirements 1 through 4, 7, 8 and 9 during our entire taxable year and must meet requirement 5 during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. Requirements 5 and 6 applied to us beginning with our taxable year ended December 31, 2015. If we comply with all the requirements for ascertaining the ownership of our outstanding stock in a taxable year and have no reason to know that we violated requirement 6, we will be deemed to have satisfied requirement 6 for that taxable year. For purposes of determining share ownership under requirement 6, an “individual” generally includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefits plan, a private foundation, or a portion of a trust permanently set apart or used exclusively for charitable purposes. An “individual,” however, generally does not include a trust that is a qualified employee pension or profit sharing trust under the Code, and beneficiaries of such a trust will be treated as holding our stock in proportion to their actuarial interests in the trust for purposes of requirement 6.
Our charter provides restrictions regarding the transfer and ownership of our stock. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.” We believe that we have issued sufficient stock with sufficient diversity of ownership to allow us to satisfy requirements 5 and 6 above. The restrictions in our charter are intended (among other things) to assist us in continuing to satisfy requirements 5 and 6 described above. These restrictions, however, may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to satisfy such stock ownership requirements. If we fail to satisfy these stock ownership requirements, our qualification as a REIT may terminate. For purposes of requirement 9, we have adopted December 31 as our year end, and thereby satisfy this requirement.
In addition, we must satisfy all relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS that must be met to maintain REIT status and comply with the recordkeeping requirements of the Code and Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder.
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Qualified REIT Subsidiaries. A corporation that is a “qualified REIT subsidiary” is not treated as a corporation separate from its parent REIT. All assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of a “qualified REIT subsidiary” are treated as assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of the REIT. A “qualified REIT subsidiary” is a corporation, other than a TRS, all of the stock of which is owned by the REIT. Thus, in applying the requirements described herein, any “qualified REIT subsidiary” that we own will be ignored, and all assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of such subsidiary will be treated as our assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit.
Other Disregarded Entities and Partnerships. An unincorporated domestic entity, such as a partnership or limited liability company, that has a single owner for federal income tax purposes generally is not treated as an entity separate from its owner for federal income tax purposes. An unincorporated domestic entity with two or more owners is generally treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership that has other partners, the REIT is treated as owning its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership and as earning its proportionate share of the gross income of the partnership for purposes of the applicable REIT qualification tests. Thus, our proportionate share of the assets, liabilities, and items of income of any partnership, joint venture, or limited liability company that is treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes in which we have acquired or will acquire an equity interest, directly or indirectly (a “subsidiary partnership”), will be treated as our assets and gross income for purposes of applying the various REIT qualification requirements. For purposes of the 10% value test (described in “Asset Tests” below) our proportionate share is based on our proportionate interest in the equity interests and certain debt securities issued by the partnership. For all of the other asset and income tests, our proportionate share is based on our proportionate interest in the capital interests in the partnership.
We have control of our operating partnership and generally intend to control any subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies, and we intend to operate them in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. We may from time to time be a limited partner or non-managing member in some of our partnerships and limited liability companies. If a partnership or limited liability company in which we own an interest takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership or limited liability company could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or limited liability company or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In that case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.
Taxable REIT Subsidiaries. A REIT may own up to 100% of the capital stock of one or more TRSs. A TRS is a fully taxable corporation that may earn income that would not be qualifying income if earned directly by the parent REIT. The subsidiary and the REIT must jointly elect to treat the subsidiary as a TRS. A corporation (other than a REIT) of which a TRS directly or indirectly owns more than 35% of the voting power or value of the outstanding securities will automatically be treated as a TRS. However, an entity will not qualify as a TRS if it directly or indirectly operates or manages a lodging or health care facility or, generally, provides to another person under a franchise, license, or otherwise, rights to any brand name under which any lodging facility or health care facility is operated, unless such rights are provided to an “eligible independent contractor” (as defined below under “—Gross Income Tests—Rents from Real Property”) to operate or manage a lodging facility or health care facility and such lodging facility or health care facility is either owned by the TRS or leased to the TRS by its parent REIT. A TRS will not be considered to operate or manage a qualified lodging facility or qualified health care property solely because the TRS directly or directly possesses a license, permit, or similar instrument enabling it to do so. Additionally, a TRS that employs individuals working at a qualified lodging facility located outside the United States will not be considered to operate or manage a qualified lodging facility as long as an “eligible independent contractor” is responsible for the daily supervision and direction of such individuals on behalf of the TRS pursuant to a management agreement or similar service contract.
We are not treated as holding the assets of a TRS or as receiving any income that the subsidiary earns. Rather, the stock issued by a TRS to us is an asset in our hands, and we treat the distributions paid to us from such TRS, if any, as dividend income to the extent of the TRS’s current and accumulated earnings and profits. This treatment can affect our compliance with the gross income and asset tests. Because we do not include the assets and income of TRSs in determining our compliance with the REIT requirements, we may use such entities to undertake indirectly
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activities that the REIT rules might otherwise preclude us from doing directly or through pass-through subsidiaries. Overall, no more than 20% of the value of a REIT’s assets may consist of stock or securities of one or more TRSs.
A TRS will pay income tax at regular corporate rates on any income that it earns. In addition, the TRS rules limit the deductibility of interest paid or accrued by a TRS to its parent REIT to assure that the TRS is subject to an appropriate level of corporate taxation. In addition, overall limitations on the deductibility of net interest expense by businesses could apply to any TRS. Further, the rules impose a 100% excise tax on transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT or the REIT’s tenants that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis. We currently have one TRS, XHR Holding, Inc., whose wholly owned subsidiaries are the lessees of our hotel properties. To reduce the risk of incurring a prohibited transaction tax, we may conduct certain selective sales of our properties through a TRS.
Gross Income Tests
We must satisfy two gross income tests annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, at least 75% of our gross income for each taxable year must consist of defined types of income that we derive, directly or indirectly, from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property or qualified temporary investment income. Qualifying income for purposes of that 75% gross income test generally includes:
rents from real property;
interest on debt secured by mortgages on real property, or on interests in real property and interest on debt secured by mortgages on both real and personal property if the fair market value of such property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property;
dividends or other distributions on, and gain from the sale of, shares in other REITs;
gain from the sale of real estate assets;
income and gain from foreclosure property; and
income derived from the temporary investment in stock and debt investments purchased with the proceeds from the issuance of our stock or a public offering of our debt with a maturity date of at least five years and that we receive during the one-year period beginning on the date on which we received such new capital.
Although a debt instrument issued by a “publicly offered REIT” (i.e., a REIT that is required to file annual and periodic reports with the SEC under the Exchange Act) is treated as a “real estate asset” for the asset tests, the interest income and gain from the sale of such debt instruments is not treated as qualifying income for the 75% gross income test unless the debt instrument is secured by real property or an interest in real property.
Second, in general, at least 95% of our gross income for each taxable year must consist of income that is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, other types of interest and dividends, gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or any combination of these. Gross income from our sale of property that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business is excluded from both the numerator and the denominator in both gross income tests. In addition, income and gain from “hedging transactions” (as defined in “—Hedging Transactions”) that we enter into to hedge indebtedness incurred or to be incurred to acquire or carry real estate assets and that are clearly and timely identified as such will be excluded from both the numerator and the denominator for purposes of both of the gross income tests. In addition, certain foreign currency gains will be excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests. See “Foreign Currency Gain” below. Finally, gross income attributable to cancellation of indebtedness income will be excluded from both the numerator and denominator for purposes of both of the gross income tests. The following paragraphs discuss the specific application of the gross income tests to us.
Rents from Real Property. Rent that we receive from our real property will qualify as “rents from real property,” which is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests, only if the following conditions are met:
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First, the rent must not be based, in whole or in part, on the income or profits of any person, but may be based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales.
Second, neither we nor a direct or indirect owner of 10% or more of our stock may own, actually or constructively, 10% or more of a tenant from whom we receive rent, other than a TRS. If the tenant is a TRS and the property is a “qualified lodging facility,” such TRS may not directly or indirectly operate or manage such property. Instead, the property must be operated on behalf of the TRS by a person who qualifies as an “independent contractor” and who is, or is related to a person who is, actively engaged in the trade or business of operating lodging facilities for any person unrelated to us and the TRS (such operator, an “eligible independent contractor”). See “Requirements for Qualification—Taxable REIT Subsidiaries.”
Third, if the rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property is 15% or less of the total rent received under the lease, then the rent attributable to personal property will qualify as rents from real property. However, if the 15% threshold is exceeded, the rent attributable to personal property will not qualify as rents from real property.
Fourth, we generally must not operate or manage our real property or furnish or render services to our tenants, other than services provided to tenants through an “independent contractor” who is adequately compensated and from whom we do not derive revenue. Furthermore, we may own up to 100% of the stock of a TRS which may provide customary and noncustomary services to our tenants without tainting our rental income from the leased properties. However, we need not provide services through an “independent contractor” or a TRS, but instead may provide services directly to our tenants, if the services are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not considered to be provided for the tenants’ convenience. In addition, we may provide a minimal amount of services not described in the prior sentence to the tenants of a property, other than through an independent contractor or a TRS, as long as our income from the services (valued at not less than 150% of our direct cost of performing such services) does not exceed 1% of our income from the related property. Furthermore, we may own up to 100% of the stock of a TRS which may provide customary and noncustomary services to our tenants without tainting our rental income for the related properties. See “Requirements for Qualification—Taxable REIT Subsidiaries.”
Our TRS lessees lease from our operating partnership and its subsidiaries the land (or leasehold interest), buildings, improvements, furnishings and equipment comprising our hotel properties. In order for the rent paid under the leases to constitute “rents from real property,” the leases must be respected as true leases for federal income tax purposes and not treated as service contracts, joint ventures or some other type of arrangement. The determination of whether our leases are true leases depends on an analysis of all the surrounding facts and circumstances. In making such a determination, courts have considered a variety of factors, including the following:
the intent of the parties;
the form of the agreement;
the degree of control over the property that is retained by the property owner (for example, whether the lessee has substantial control over the operation of the property or whether the lessee was required simply to use its best efforts to perform its obligations under the agreement); and
the extent to which the property owner retains the risk of loss with respect to the property (for example, whether the lessee bears the risk of increases in operating expenses or the risk of damage to the property) or the potential for economic gain or appreciation with respect to the property.
In addition, federal income tax law provides that a contract that purports to be a service contract or a partnership agreement is treated instead as a lease of property if the contract is properly treated as such, taking into account all relevant factors. Since the determination of whether a service contract should be treated as a lease is inherently factual, the presence or absence of any single factor may not be dispositive in every case.
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We believe that our leases are structured so that they qualify as true leases for federal income tax purposes. Our belief is based on the following with respect to each lease:
our operating partnership and the lessee intend for their relationship to be that of a lessor and lessee, and such relationship is documented by a lease agreement;
the lessee has the right to exclusive possession and use and quiet enjoyment of the hotels covered by the lease during the term of the lease;
the lessee bears the cost of, and is responsible for, day-to-day maintenance and repair of the hotels other than the cost of certain capital expenditures, and dictates through hotel managers that are eligible independent contractors, who work for the lessee during the terms of the lease, how the hotels are operated and maintained;
the lessee bears all of the costs and expenses of operating the hotels, including the cost of any inventory used in their operation, during the term of the lease, other than real estate and personal property taxes and the cost of certain furniture, fixtures and equipment, and certain capital expenditures;
the lessee benefits from any savings and bears the burdens of any increases in the costs of operating the hotels during the term of the lease;
in the event of damage or destruction to a hotel, the lessee will be at economic risk because it will bear the economic burden of the loss in income from operation of the hotels subject to the right, in certain circumstances, to terminate the lease if the lessor does not restore the hotel to its prior condition;
the lessee generally indemnifies the lessor against all liabilities imposed on the lessor during the term of the lease by reason of (i) injury to persons or damage to property occurring at the hotels or (ii) the lessee’s use, management, maintenance or repair of the hotels;
the lessee is obligated to pay, at a minimum, substantial base rent for the period of use of the hotels under the lease;
the lessee stands to incur substantial losses or reap substantial gains depending on how successfully it, through the hotel managers, who work for the lessees during the terms of the leases, operates the hotels;
each lease that we have entered into, at the time we entered into it (or at any time that any such lease is subsequently renewed or extended) enables the tenant to derive a meaningful profit, after expenses and taking into account the risks associated with the lease, from the operation of the hotels during the term of its leases; and
upon termination of each lease, the applicable hotel is expected to have a substantial remaining useful life and substantial remaining fair market value.
We expect that the leases we enter into in the future with our TRS lessees will have similar features.
Investors should be aware that there are no controlling Treasury regulations, published rulings or judicial decisions involving leases with terms substantially the same as our leases that discuss whether such leases constitute true leases for federal income tax purposes. If our leases are characterized as service contracts or partnership agreements, rather than as true leases, or disregarded altogether for tax purposes, part or all of the payments that our operating partnership and its subsidiaries receive from the TRS lessees may not be considered rent or may not otherwise satisfy the various requirements for qualification as “rents from real property.” In that case, we would not be able to satisfy either the 75% or 95% gross income test and, as a result, would lose our REIT status unless we qualify for relief, as described below under “—Failure to Satisfy Gross Income Tests.”
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As described above, in order for the rent that we receive to constitute “rents from real property,” several other requirements must be satisfied. One requirement is that percentage rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. Percentage rent, however, will qualify as “rents from real property” if it is based on percentages of receipts or sales and the percentages:
are fixed at the time the percentage leases are entered into;
are not renegotiated during the term of the percentage leases in a manner that has the effect of basing percentage rent on income or profits; and
conform with normal business practice.
More generally, percentage rent will not qualify as “rents from real property” if, considering the leases and all the surrounding circumstances, the arrangement does not conform with normal business practice, but is in reality used as a means of basing the percentage rent on income or profits.
We must not own, actually or constructively, 10% or more of the stock or the assets or net profits of any lessee (a “related party tenant”), other than a TRS. The constructive ownership rules generally provide that, if 10% or more in value of our stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by or for any person, we are considered as owning the stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for such person. We anticipate that all of our hotels will be leased to TRS lessees. In addition, our charter prohibits transfers of our stock that would cause us to own actually or constructively, 10% or more of the ownership interests in any non-TRS lessee. Based on the foregoing, we should never own, actually or constructively, 10% or more of any lessee other than a TRS. However, because the constructive ownership rules are broad and it is not possible to monitor continually direct and indirect transfers of our stock, no absolute assurance can be given that such transfers or other events of which we have no knowledge will not cause us to own constructively 10% or more of a lessee (or a subtenant, in which case only rent attributable to the subtenant is disqualified) other than a TRS at some future date.
As described above, we may own up to 100% of the capital stock of one or more TRSs. A TRS is a fully taxable corporation that generally may engage in any business, including the provision of customary or noncustomary services to tenants of its parent REIT, except that a TRS may not directly or indirectly operate or manage any lodging facilities or health care facilities or provide rights to any brand name under which any lodging or health care facility is operated, unless such rights are provided to an “eligible independent contractor” to operate or manage a lodging or health care facility if such rights are held by the TRS as a franchisee, licensee, or in a similar capacity and such hotel is either owned by the TRS or leased to the TRS by its parent REIT. A TRS will not be considered to operate or manage a qualified lodging facility solely because the TRS directly or indirectly possesses a license, permit, or similar instrument enabling it to do so. Additionally, a TRS that employs individuals working at a qualified lodging facility outside the United States will not be considered to operate or manage a qualified lodging facility located outside of the United States, as long as an “eligible independent contractor” is responsible for the daily supervision and direction of such individuals on behalf of the TRS pursuant to a management agreement or similar service contract. However, rent that we receive from a TRS with respect to any property will qualify as “rents from real property” as long as the property is a “qualified lodging facility” and such property is operated on behalf of the TRS by an “independent contractor” from whom we derive no income who is adequately compensated, who does not, directly or through its stockholders, own more than 35% of our stock, taking into account certain ownership attribution rules, and who is, or is related to a person who is, actively engaged in the trade or business of operating “qualified lodging facilities” for any person unrelated to us and the TRS lessee (an “eligible independent contractor”). A “qualified lodging facility” is a hotel, motel, or other establishment more than one-half of the dwelling units in which are used on a transient basis, unless wagering activities are conducted at or in connection with such facility by any person who is engaged in the business of accepting wagers and who is legally authorized to engage in such business at or in connection with such facility. A “qualified lodging facility” includes customary amenities and facilities operated as part of, or associated with, the lodging facility as long as such amenities and facilities are customary for other properties of a comparable size and class owned by other unrelated owners. See “Requirements for Qualification —Taxable REIT Subsidiaries.”
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Our TRS lessees lease our hotel properties, which we believe constitute qualified lodging facilities. Our TRS lessees engaged third-party managers to operate our hotels on behalf of the TRS lessees. We believe that each of those third-party hotel managers qualifies as an “eligible independent contractor.” Our TRS lessees may engage other hotel managers in the future. Our TRS lessees will only engage hotel managers that qualify as “eligible independent contractors.”
The rent attributable to the personal property leased in connection with the lease of a hotel must not be greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. The rent attributable to the personal property contained in a hotel is the amount that bears the same ratio to total rent for the taxable year as the average of the fair market values of the personal property at the beginning and at the end of the taxable year bears to the average of the aggregate fair market values of both the real and personal property contained in the hotel at the beginning and at the end of such taxable year (the “personal property ratio”). To comply with this limitation, a TRS lessee may acquire furnishings, equipment and other personal property. With respect to each hotel in which the TRS lessee does not own the personal property, we believe either that the personal property ratio is less than 15% or that any rent attributable to excess personal property, when taken together with all of our other nonqualifying income, does not jeopardize our ability to qualify as a REIT. There can be no assurance, however, that the IRS would not challenge our calculation of a personal property ratio, or that a court would not uphold such assertion. If such a challenge were successfully asserted, we could fail to satisfy the 75% or 95% gross income test and thus potentially lose our REIT qualification.
We generally cannot furnish or render noncustomary services to the tenants of our hotels, or manage or operate our properties, other than through an independent contractor who is adequately compensated and from whom we do not derive or receive any income. Furthermore, our TRSs may provide customary and noncustomary services to our tenants without tainting our rental income from such properties. However, we need not provide services through an “independent contractor” or TRS but instead may provide services directly to our tenants, if the services are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not considered to be provided for the tenants’ convenience. In addition, we may provide a minimal amount of “noncustomary” services to the tenants of a property, other than through an independent contractor or a TRS, as long as our income from the services does not exceed 1% of our income from the related property. We will not perform any services other than customary ones for our lessees, unless such services are provided through independent contractors or TRSs. Furthermore, we have represented that, with respect to other hotel properties that we acquire in the future, we will not perform noncustomary services for the lessee of the property to the extent that the provision of such services would jeopardize our tax status as a REIT.
If a portion of the rent that we receive from a hotel does not qualify as “rents from real property” because the rent attributable to personal property exceeds 15% of the total rent for a taxable year, the portion of the rent that is attributable to personal property will not be qualifying income for purposes of either the 75% or 95% gross income test. Thus, if such rent attributable to personal property, plus any other income that is nonqualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, during a taxable year exceeds 5% of our gross income during the year, we would lose our REIT qualification. If, however, the rent from a particular hotel does not qualify as “rents from real property” because either (i) the percentage rent is considered based on the income or profits of the related lessee, (ii) the lessee either is a related party tenant or fails to qualify for the exception to the related party tenant rule for qualifying TRSs or (iii) we furnish noncustomary services to the tenants of the hotel, or manage or operate the hotel, other than through a qualifying independent contractor or a TRS, none of the rent from that hotel would qualify as “rents from real property.” In that case, we might lose our REIT qualification because we might be unable to satisfy either the 75% or 95% gross income test. In addition to the rent, the lessees will be required to pay certain additional charges. To the extent that such additional charges represent either (i) reimbursements of amounts that we are obligated to pay to third parties, such as a lessee’s proportionate share of a property’s operational or capital expenses, or (ii) penalties for nonpayment or late payment of such amounts, such charges should qualify as “rents from real property.” However, to the extent that such charges do not qualify as “rents from real property,” they instead may be treated as interest that qualifies for the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test, or they may be treated as nonqualifying income for purposes of both gross income tests. We believe that we have structured our leases in a manner that will enable us to satisfy the REIT gross income tests.
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Interest. The term “interest” generally does not include any amount received or accrued, directly or indirectly, if the determination of such amount depends in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, interest generally includes the following:
an amount that is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales; and
an amount that is based on the income or profits of a debtor, as long as the debtor derives substantially all of its income from the real property securing the debt from leasing substantially all of its interest in the property, and only to the extent that the amounts received by the debtor would be qualifying “rents from real property” if received directly by a REIT.
If a loan contains a provision that entitles a REIT to a percentage of the borrower’s gain upon the sale of the real property securing the loan or a percentage of the appreciation in the property’s value as of a specific date, income attributable to that loan provision will be treated as gain from the sale of the property securing the loan, which generally is qualifying income for purposes of both gross income tests.
We may invest in mortgage debt in the future. Interest on debt secured by a mortgage on real property or on interests in real property, including, for this purpose, discount points, prepayment penalties, loan assumption fees, and late payment charges that are not compensation for services, generally is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. However, except to the extent described below, if a loan is secured by real property and other property and the highest principal amount of a loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property securing the loan as of the date the REIT agreed to originate or acquire the loan or on the date the REIT modifies the loan (if the modification is treated as “significant” for federal income tax purposes), a portion of the interest income from such loan will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, but will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. In the case of a loan that is secured by both real property and personal property, if the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property securing the loan, then the personal property securing the loan will be treated as real property for purposes of determining whether the interest on such loan is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. The portion of the interest income that will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test will be equal to the portion of the principal amount of the loan that is not secured by real property—that is, the amount by which the loan exceeds the value of the real estate that is security for the loan. IRS guidance provides that we do not need to redetermine the fair market value of the real property securing a loan in connection with a loan modification that is occasioned by a borrower default or made at a time when we reasonably believe that the modification to the loan will substantially reduce a significant risk of default on the original loan. In addition, in the case of a loan that is secured by both real property and personal property, if the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property securing the loan, then the personal property securing the loan will be treated as real property for purposes of determining whether the interest on such loan is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. If we invest in mortgage debt, we intend to do so in a manner that will enable us to continue to satisfy the gross income and asset tests.
Dividends. Our share of any dividends received from any corporation (including any TRS, but excluding any REIT) in which we own an equity interest will qualify for purposes of the 95% gross income test but not for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Our share of any dividends received from any other REIT in which we own an equity interest, if any, will be qualifying income for purposes of both gross income tests.
Prohibited Transactions. A REIT will incur a 100% tax on the net income (including foreign currency gain) derived from any sale or other disposition of property, other than foreclosure property, that the REIT holds primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. We believe that none of our assets will be held primarily for sale to customers and that a sale of any of our assets will not be in the ordinary course of our business. Whether a REIT holds an asset “primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business” depends, however, on the facts and circumstances in effect from time to time, including those related to a particular asset. A safe harbor to the characterization of the sale of property by a REIT as a prohibited transaction and the 100% prohibited transaction tax is available if the following requirements are met:
the REIT has held the property for not less than two years;
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the aggregate expenditures made by the REIT, or any partner of the REIT, during the two-year period preceding the date of the sale that are includable in the basis of the property do not exceed 30% of the selling price of the property;
either (i) during the year in question, the REIT did not make more than seven sales of property other than foreclosure property or sales to which Section 1031 or 1033 of the Code applies, (ii) the aggregate adjusted bases of all such properties sold by the REIT during the year did not exceed 10% of the aggregate bases of all of the assets of the REIT at the beginning of the year, (iii) the aggregate fair market value of all such properties sold by the REIT during the year did not exceed 10% of the aggregate fair market value of all of the assets of the REIT at the beginning of the year, (iv) with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, (a) the aggregate adjusted bases of all such properties sold by the REIT during the year did not exceed 20% of the aggregate adjusted bases of all property of the REIT at the beginning of the year and (b) the 3-year average percentage of properties sold by the REIT compared to all the REIT’s properties (measured by adjusted bases) taking into account the current and two prior years did not exceed 10% or (v) with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, (a) the aggregate fair market value of all such properties sold by the REIT during the year did not exceed 20% of the aggregate fair market value of all property of the REIT at the beginning of the year and (b) the 3-year average percentage of properties sold by the REIT compared to all the REIT’s properties (measured by fair market value) taking into account the current and two prior years did not exceed 10%;
in the case of property not acquired through foreclosure or lease termination, the REIT has held the property for at least two years for the production of rental income; and
if the REIT has made more than seven sales of non-foreclosure property during the taxable year, substantially all of the marketing and development expenditures with respect to the property were made through an independent contractor from whom the REIT derives no income or, with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, a TRS.
We have selectively disposed of certain of our properties in the past and may make additional dispositions in the future. Although we will attempt to comply with the terms of the safe-harbor provision in the federal income tax laws prescribing when an asset sale will not be characterized as a prohibited transaction, certain of our past dispositions have not qualified for that safe harbor. Moreover, we cannot assure you that we can comply with the safe-harbor provision or that we will avoid owning property that may be characterized as property that we hold “primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business” in the future. The 100% tax will not apply to gains from the sale of property that is held through a TRS or other taxable corporation, although such income will be taxed to the corporation at regular corporate income tax rates. To reduce the risk of incurring a prohibited transaction tax, we may conduct certain selective sales of our properties through a TRS.
Foreclosure Property. We will be subject to tax at the maximum corporate rate on any income from foreclosure property, which includes certain foreign currency gains and related deductions, other than income that otherwise would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, less expenses directly connected with the production of that income. However, gross income from foreclosure property will qualify under the 75% and 95% gross income tests. Foreclosure property is any real property, including interests in real property, and any personal property incident to such real property:
that is acquired by a REIT as the result of the REIT having bid on such property at foreclosure, or having otherwise reduced such property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law, after there was a default or default was imminent on a lease of such property or on indebtedness that such property secured;
for which the related loan was acquired by the REIT at a time when the default was not imminent or anticipated; and
for which the REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property.
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A REIT will not be considered to have foreclosed on a property where the REIT takes control of the property as a mortgagee-in-possession and cannot receive any profit or sustain any loss except as a creditor of the mortgagor. Property generally ceases to be foreclosure property at the end of the third taxable year following the taxable year in which the REIT acquired the property, or longer if an extension is granted by the Secretary of the Treasury. However, this grace period terminates and foreclosure property ceases to be foreclosure property on the first day:
on which a lease is entered into for the property that, by its terms, will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test, or any amount is received or accrued, directly or indirectly, pursuant to a lease entered into on or after such day that will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test;
on which any construction takes place on the property, other than completion of a building or any other improvement, where more than 10% of the construction was completed before default became imminent; or
which is more than 90 days after the day on which the REIT acquired the property and the property is used in a trade or business which is conducted by the REIT, other than through an independent contractor from whom the REIT itself does not derive or receive any income or, with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, a TRS.
Hedging Transactions. From time to time, we or our operating partnership have entered and may in the future enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase such items, and futures and forward contracts. Income and gain from “hedging transactions” will be excluded from gross income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests provided we satisfy the identification requirements discussed below. A “hedging transaction” means any of (i) any transaction entered into in the normal course of our or our operating partnership’s trade or business primarily to manage the risk of interest rate changes, price changes, or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or ordinary obligations incurred or to be incurred, to acquire or carry real estate assets, (ii) any transaction entered into primarily to manage the risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income test (or any property which generates such income or gain) or (iii)  to “offset” a transaction described in (i) or (ii) if a portion of the hedged indebtedness is extinguished or the related property disposed of. We are required to clearly identify any such hedging transaction before the close of the day on which it was acquired or entered into and to satisfy other identification requirements. We believe we have structured our hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our qualification as a REIT.
Foreign Currency Gain. Certain foreign currency gains will be excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests. “Real estate foreign exchange gain” will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. Real estate foreign exchange gain generally includes foreign currency gain attributable to any item of income or gain that is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, foreign currency gain attributable to the acquisition or ownership of (or becoming or being the obligor under) obligations secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property and certain foreign currency gain attributable to certain “qualified business units” of a REIT. “Passive foreign exchange gain” will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. Passive foreign exchange gain generally includes real estate foreign exchange gain as described above, and also includes foreign currency gain attributable to any item of income or gain that is qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test and foreign currency gain attributable to the acquisition or ownership of (or becoming or being the obligor under) obligations. These exclusions for real estate foreign exchange gain and passive foreign exchange gain do not apply to any certain foreign currency gain derived from dealing, or engaging in substantial and regular trading, in securities. Such gain is treated as nonqualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests.
Failure to Satisfy Gross Income Tests. If we fail to satisfy one or both of the gross income tests for any taxable year, we nevertheless may qualify as a REIT for that year if we qualify for relief under certain provisions of the federal income tax laws. Those relief provisions are available if:
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our failure to meet those tests is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect; and
following such failure for any taxable year, we file a schedule of the sources of our income in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the U.S. Treasury.
We cannot predict, however, whether in all circumstances we would qualify for the relief provisions. In addition, as discussed above in “—Taxation of Our Company,” even if the relief provisions apply, we would incur a 100% tax on the gross income attributable to the greater of the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test multiplied, in either case, by a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.
Asset Tests
To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we also must satisfy the following asset tests at the end of each quarter of each taxable year.
First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must consist of:
cash or cash items, including certain receivables, money market funds and, in certain circumstances, foreign currencies;
U.S. government securities;
interests in real property, including leaseholds, options to acquire real property and leaseholds and personal property to the extent such personal property is leased in connection with real property and rents attributable to such personal property are treated as “rents from real property”;
interests in mortgage loans secured by real property or real property and personal property if the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of such property;
stock in other REITs and debt instruments issued by “publicly offered REITs”; and
investments in stock or debt instruments during the one-year period following our receipt of new capital that we raise through equity offerings or public offerings of debt with at least a five-year term.
Second, of our investments not included in the 75% asset class, the value of our interest in any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, or the 5% asset test.
Third, of our investments not included in the 75% asset class, we may not own more than 10% of the voting power of any one issuer’s outstanding securities or 10% of the value of any one issuer’s outstanding securities, or the 10% vote test or the 10% value test, respectively.
Fourth, no more than 20% of the value of our total assets may consist of the securities of one or more TRSs.
Fifth, no more than 25% of the value of our total assets may consist of the securities of TRSs and other non-TRS taxable subsidiaries and other assets that are not qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test.
Sixth, no more than 25% of the value of our total assets may consist of debt instruments issued by “publicly offered REITs” to the extent such debt instruments are not secured by real property or interests in real property.
For purposes of the 5% asset test, the 10% vote test, and the 10% value test, the term “securities” does not include stock in another REIT, debt of “publicly offered REITs,” equity or debt securities of a qualified REIT subsidiary or TRS, mortgage loans that constitute real estate assets, or equity interests in a partnership. The term “securities,” however, generally includes debt securities issued by a partnership or another REIT that is not a “publicly offered REIT,” except that for purposes of the 10% value test, the term “securities” does not include:
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“straight debt” securities, which is defined as a written unconditional promise to pay on demand or on a specified date a sum certain in money if (i) the debt is not convertible, directly or indirectly, into equity, and (ii) the interest rate and interest payment dates are not contingent on profits, the borrower’s discretion, or similar factors. “Straight debt” securities do not include any securities issued by a partnership or a corporation in which we or any controlled TRS (i.e., a TRS in which we own directly or indirectly more than 50% of the voting power or value of the stock) hold non-“straight debt” securities that have an aggregate value of more than 1% of the issuer’s outstanding securities. However, “straight debt” securities include debt subject to the following contingencies:
a contingency relating to the time of payment of interest or principal, as long as either (i) there is no change to the effective yield of the debt obligation, other than a change to the annual yield that does not exceed the greater of 0.25% or 5% of the annual yield, or (ii) neither the aggregate issue price nor the aggregate face amount of the issuer’s debt obligations held by us exceeds $1.0 million and no more than 12 months of unaccrued interest on the debt obligations can be required to be prepaid; and
a contingency relating to the time or amount of payment upon a default or prepayment of a debt obligation, as long as the contingency is consistent with customary commercial practice;
any loan to an individual or an estate;
any “section 467 rental agreement,” other than an agreement with a related party tenant;
any obligation to pay “rents from real property”;
certain securities issued by governmental entities;
any security issued by a REIT;
any debt instrument issued by an entity treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes in which we are a partner to the extent of our proportionate interest in the equity and debt securities of the partnership; and
any debt instrument issued by an entity treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes not described in the preceding bullet points if at least 75% of the partnership’s gross income, excluding income from prohibited transactions, is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test described above in “—Gross Income Tests.”
For purposes of the 10% value test, our proportionate share of the assets of a partnership is our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, without regard to the securities described in the last two bullet points above.
As described above, we may invest from time to time in mortgage debt. Mortgage loans will generally qualify as real estate assets for purposes of the 75% asset test to the extent that they are secured by real property. However, if a loan is secured by real property and other property and the highest principal amount of a loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property securing the loan as of the date we agreed to acquire the loan, then a portion of such loan likely will not be a qualifying real estate asset. IRS Revenue Procedure 2014-51 provides a safe harbor under which the IRS has stated that it will not challenge a REIT’s treatment of a loan as being, in part, a real estate asset for purposes of the 75% asset test if the REIT treats the loan as being a qualifying real estate asset in an amount equal to the lesser of (i) the fair market value of the loan on the date of the relevant quarterly REIT asset testing date or (ii) the greater of (a) the fair market value of the real property securing the loan on the date of the relevant quarterly REIT asset testing date or (b) the fair market value of the real property securing the loan determined as of the date the REIT committed to acquire the loan. It is unclear how the safe harbor in Revenue Procedure 2014-51 is affected by the recent legislative changes regarding the treatment of loans secured by both real property and personal property where the fair market value of the personal property does not exceed 15% of the sum of the fair market values of the real property and personal property securing the loan. We intend to invest in mortgage debt in a manner that will enable us to continue to satisfy the asset and gross income test requirements.
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We will monitor the status of our assets for purposes of the various asset tests and will manage our portfolio in order to comply at all times with such tests. If we fail to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a calendar quarter, we will not lose our REIT qualification if:
we satisfied the asset tests at the end of the preceding calendar quarter; and
the discrepancy between the value of our assets and the asset test requirements arose from changes in the market values of our assets and was not wholly or partly caused by the acquisition of one or more non-qualifying assets.
If we did not satisfy the condition described in the second item, above, we still could avoid disqualification by eliminating any discrepancy within 30 days after the close of the calendar quarter in which it arose.
If at the end of any calendar quarter, we violate the 5% asset test, the 10% vote test or the 10% value test described above, we will not lose our REIT qualification if (i) the failure is de minimis (up to the lesser of 1% of our assets or $10.0 million) and (ii) we dispose of the assets causing the failure or otherwise comply with the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify such failure. In the event of a failure of any of the asset tests (other than de minimis failures described in the preceding sentence), as long as the failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, we will not lose our REIT qualification if we (i) dispose of the assets causing the failure or otherwise comply with the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify the failure, (ii) we file a description of each asset causing the failure with the IRS and (iii) pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest corporate tax rate multiplied by the net income from the nonqualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy the asset tests.
We believe that the assets that we hold satisfy the foregoing asset test requirements. However, we generally will not obtain independent appraisals to support our conclusions as to the value of our assets and securities. Moreover, the values of some assets may not be susceptible to a precise determination. As a result, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not contend that our ownership of securities and other assets violates one or more of the asset tests applicable to REITs.
Distribution Requirements
Each taxable year, we must distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends and deemed distributions of retained capital gain, to our stockholders in an aggregate amount at least equal to:
the sum of:
90% of our “REIT taxable income,” computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain or loss; and
90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property, minus
the excess of the sum of certain items of non-cash income over 5% of our “REIT taxable income.”
We must pay such distributions in the taxable year to which they relate, or in the following taxable year if either (i) we declare the distribution before we timely file our federal income tax return for the year and pay the distribution on or before the first regular dividend payment date after such declaration or (ii) we declare the distribution in October, November or December of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified day in any such month, and we actually pay the dividend before the end of January of the following year. The distributions under clause (i) are taxable to the stockholders in the year in which paid, and the distributions in clause (ii) are treated as paid on December 31st of the prior taxable year. In both instances, these distributions relate to our prior taxable year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement to the extent of our earnings and profits for such prior taxable year.
If we cease to be a “publicly offered REIT,” then in order for our distributions to be counted as satisfying the annual distribution requirement for REITs and to provide us with the REIT-level tax deduction, such distributions must not
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have been “preferential dividends.” A dividend is not a preferential dividend if that distribution is (i) pro rata among all outstanding shares within a particular class of stock and (ii) in accordance with the preferences among different classes of stock as set forth in our charter.
We will pay federal income tax on taxable income, including net capital gain, that we do not distribute to stockholders. Furthermore, if we fail to distribute during a calendar year, or by the end of January following the calendar year in the case of distributions with declaration and record dates falling in the last three months of the calendar year, at least the sum of:
85% of our REIT ordinary income for such year,
95% of our REIT capital gain income for such year, and
any undistributed taxable income from prior periods,
we will incur a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over the amounts we actually distribute.
We may elect to retain and pay income tax on the net long-term capital gain we receive in a taxable year. If we so elect, we will be treated as having distributed any such retained amount for purposes of the 4% nondeductible excise tax described above. We have made, and we intend to continue to make, timely distributions sufficient to satisfy the annual distribution requirements and to avoid corporate income tax and the 4% nondeductible excise tax.
It is possible that, from time to time, we may experience timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses and the inclusion of that income and deduction of such expenses in arriving at our REIT taxable income. For example, we may not deduct recognized net capital losses from our “REIT taxable income.” Further, it is possible that, from time to time, we may be allocated a share of net capital gain attributable to the sale of depreciated property that exceeds our allocable share of cash attributable to that sale. As a result of the foregoing, we may have less cash than is necessary to distribute taxable income sufficient to avoid corporate income tax and the excise tax imposed on certain undistributed income or even to meet the 90% distribution requirement. In such a situation, we may need to borrow funds or, if possible, pay taxable dividends of our stock or debt securities.
We may satisfy the 90% distribution test with taxable distributions of our stock or debt securities. The IRS has issued a revenue procedure authorizing “publicly offered REITs” to treat certain distributions that are paid partly in cash and partly in stock as dividends that would satisfy the REIT annual distribution requirement and qualify for the dividends paid deduction for federal income tax purposes. We have no current intention to make a taxable dividend payable in our stock.
Under certain circumstances, we may be able to correct a failure to meet the distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year. We may include such deficiency dividends in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. Although we may be able to avoid income tax on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction we take for deficiency dividends.
Recordkeeping Requirements
We must maintain certain records in order to maintain our qualification as a REIT. In addition, to avoid a monetary penalty, we must request on an annual basis information from our stockholders designed to disclose the actual ownership of our outstanding stock. We intend to comply with these requirements.
Failure to Qualify
If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification, other than the gross income tests and the asset tests (for which the cure provisions are described above), we could avoid disqualification if our failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect and we pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure. In addition, there
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are relief provisions for a failure of the gross income tests and asset tests, as described in “—Gross Income Tests” and “—Asset Tests.”
If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, and no relief provision applies, we would be subject to federal income tax on our taxable income at regular corporate rates. In calculating our taxable income in a year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT, we would not be able to deduct amounts paid out to stockholders. In fact, we would not be required to distribute any amounts to stockholders in that year. In such event, to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, all distributions to stockholders would generally be taxable as ordinary dividend income, whether or not attributable to capital gains. Subject to certain limitations, corporate stockholders might be eligible for the dividends received deduction and stockholders taxed at individual rates may be eligible for the reduced federal income tax rate on “qualified dividend income.” Unless we qualified for relief under specific statutory provisions, we also would be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which we ceased to qualify as a REIT. We cannot predict whether in all circumstances we would qualify for such statutory relief.
Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders
As used herein, the term “U.S. stockholder” means a beneficial owner of shares of our capital stock that for federal income tax purposes is:
an individual that is a citizen or resident of the United States;
a corporation (including an entity treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any of its states or the District of Columbia;
an estate whose income is subject to federal income taxation regardless of its source; or
any trust if (i) a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of such trust and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (ii) it has a valid election in place to be treated as a U.S. person.
If a partnership, entity or arrangement treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes holds shares of our capital stock, the federal income tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will generally depend on the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. If you are a partner in a partnership holding shares of our capital stock, you are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the consequences of the ownership and disposition of our capital stock by the partnership.
As long as we qualify as a REIT, a taxable U.S. stockholder must generally take into account as ordinary income distributions made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits that we do not designate as capital gain dividends or retained long-term capital gain. For purposes of determining whether a distribution is made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to our preferred stock dividends and then to our Common Stock dividends. Our dividends will not qualify for the dividends received deduction generally available to corporations. Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2026, individuals, trusts and estates may deduct up to 20% of certain pass-through income, including ordinary REIT dividends that are not “capital gain dividends” or “qualified dividend income,” subject to certain limitations. In addition, dividends paid to a U.S. stockholder generally will not qualify for the reduced tax rate for “qualified dividend income.” Qualified dividend income generally includes dividends paid to U.S. stockholders taxed at individual rates by domestic C corporations and certain qualified foreign corporations. Because we are not generally subject to federal income tax on the portion of our REIT taxable income distributed to our stockholders (see “Taxation of Our Company” above), our dividends generally will not be eligible for the reduced rate on qualified dividend income. As a result, our ordinary REIT dividends will be taxed at the higher tax rate applicable to ordinary income. However, the reduced tax rate for qualified dividend income will apply to our ordinary REIT dividends (i) attributable to dividends received by us from non-REIT corporations, such as our TRS and (ii) to the extent attributable to income upon which we have paid corporate income tax (e.g., to the extent that we distribute less than 100% of our taxable income). In general, to qualify for the reduced tax rate on qualified dividend income, a U.S. stockholder must hold our stock for more than 60 days during the 121-day period beginning on the date that is
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60 days before the date on which our Common Stock becomes ex-dividend with respect to the relevant distribution. Certain individuals, trusts and estates whose income exceeds certain thresholds are also subject to a 3.8% Medicare tax on dividends received from us.
A U.S. stockholder generally will take into account as long-term capital gain any distributions that we designate as capital gain dividends without regard to the period for which the U.S. stockholder has held our stock. We generally will designate our capital gain dividends as either regular long-term capital gain or long-term capital gain from the sale or exchange of “Section 1250 Property.” See “Capital Gains and Losses.” A corporate U.S. stockholder, however, may be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income.
We may elect to retain and pay income tax on the net long-term capital gain that we receive in a taxable year. In that case, to the extent that we designate such amount in a timely notice to such stockholder, a U.S. stockholder would be taxed on its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain. The U.S. stockholder would receive a credit for its proportionate share of the tax we paid. The U.S. stockholder would increase the basis in its stock by the amount of its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain, minus its share of the tax we paid.
A U.S. stockholder will not incur tax on a distribution in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits if the distribution does not exceed the adjusted basis of the U.S. stockholder’s stock. Instead, the distribution will reduce the adjusted basis of such shares of stock. A U.S. stockholder will recognize a distribution in excess of both our current and accumulated earnings and profits and the U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in his or her stock as long-term capital gain, or short-term capital gain if the stock has been held for one year or less, assuming the stock is a capital asset in the hands of the U.S. stockholder. In addition, if we declare a distribution in October, November, or December of any year that is payable to a U.S. stockholder of record on a specified date in any such month, such distribution shall be treated as both paid by us and received by the U.S. stockholder on December 31 of such year, provided that we actually pay the distribution during January of the following calendar year.
Stockholders may not include in their individual income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses. Instead, these losses are generally carried over by us for potential offset against our future income. Taxable distributions from us and gain from the disposition of our stock will not be treated as passive activity income and, therefore, stockholders generally will not be able to apply any “passive activity losses,” such as losses from certain types of limited partnerships in which the stockholder is a limited partner, against such income. In addition, taxable distributions from us and gain from the disposition of our stock generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of the investment interest limitations. We will notify stockholders after the close of our taxable year as to the portions of the distributions attributable to that year that constitute ordinary income, return of capital and capital gain.
Taxation of U.S. Stockholders on the Disposition of Capital Stock
A U.S. stockholder who is not a dealer in securities must generally treat any gain or loss realized upon a taxable disposition of our stock as long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. stockholder has held our stock for more than one year and otherwise as short-term capital gain or loss. In general, a U.S. stockholder will realize gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between the sum of the fair market value of any property and the amount of cash received in such disposition and the U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis. A stockholder’s adjusted tax basis generally will equal the U.S. stockholder’s acquisition cost, increased by the excess of net capital gains deemed distributed to the U.S. stockholder (discussed above) less tax deemed paid on such gains and reduced by any returns of capital. However, a U.S. stockholder must treat any loss upon a sale or exchange of stock held by such stockholder for six months or less as a long-term capital loss to the extent of capital gain dividends and any other actual or deemed distributions from us that such U.S. stockholder treats as long-term capital gain. All or a portion of any loss that a U.S. stockholder realizes upon a taxable disposition of our stock may be disallowed if the U.S. stockholder purchases other stock within 30 days before or after the disposition.
Taxation of U.S. Stockholders on a Conversion of Preferred Stock
Except as provided below, (i) a U.S. stockholder generally will not recognize gain or loss upon the conversion of preferred stock into our Common Stock, and (ii) a U.S. stockholder’s basis and holding period in our Common
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Stock received upon conversion generally will be the same as those of the converted preferred stock (but the basis will be reduced by the portion of the adjusted tax basis allocated to any fractional share exchanged for cash). Any shares of our Common Stock received in a conversion that are attributable to accumulated and unpaid dividends on the converted preferred stock will be treated as a distribution that is potentially taxable as a dividend. Cash received upon conversion in lieu of a fractional share generally will be treated as a payment in a taxable exchange for such fractional share, and gain or loss will be recognized on the receipt of cash in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash received and the adjusted tax basis allocable to the fractional share deemed exchanged. This gain or loss will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. stockholder has held the preferred stock for more than one year at the time of conversion. U.S. stockholders are urged to consult with their tax advisors regarding the federal income tax consequences of any transaction by which such holder exchanges shares of our Common Stock received on a conversion of preferred stock for cash or other property.
Taxation of U.S. Stockholders on a Redemption of Preferred Stock
A redemption of preferred stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution that is taxable as dividend income (to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits), unless the redemption satisfies certain tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code enabling the redemption to be treated as a sale of the preferred stock (in which case the redemption will be treated in the same manner as a sale described above in “—Taxation of U.S. Stockholders on the Disposition of Capital Stock”). The redemption will satisfy such tests if it (i) is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. stockholder’s interest in our stock, (ii) results in a “complete termination” of the U.S. stockholder’s interest in all of our classes of stock or (iii) is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the stockholder, all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Code. In determining whether any of these tests have been met, stock considered to be owned by the holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as stock actually owned, generally must be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the three alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Code described above will be satisfied with respect to any particular U.S. stockholder of preferred stock depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, prospective investors are urged to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment. If a redemption of preferred stock does not meet any of the three tests described above, the redemption proceeds will be treated as a taxable dividend, as described above in “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders.” In that case, a U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed preferred stock will be transferred to the remaining shares such U.S. stockholder holds in us. If the U.S. stockholder does not retain any of our stock, such basis could be transferred to a related person that holds our stock or it may be lost.
Capital Gains and Losses
A taxpayer generally must hold a capital asset for more than one year for gain or loss derived from its sale or exchange to be treated as long-term capital gain or loss. The maximum tax rate on long-term capital gain applicable to taxpayers taxed at individual rates for sales and exchanges of assets held for more than one year is less than the highest marginal rates applicable to ordinary income. The maximum tax rate on long-term capital gain from the sale or exchange of “Section 1250 property,” or depreciable real property, is higher, and applies to the lesser of the total amount of the gain or the accumulated depreciation on the Section 1250 property. Certain individuals, estates or trusts whose income exceeds certain thresholds will be required to pay a 3.8% Medicare tax on net gains from the sale or other disposition of property, such as our capital stock, subject to certain exceptions.
With respect to distributions that we designate as capital gain dividends and any retained capital gain that we are deemed to distribute, we generally may designate whether such a distribution is taxable to our stockholders as regular long-term capital gain or long-term capital gain from the sale or exchange of “Section 1250 Property.” Thus, the tax rate differential between capital gain and ordinary income for those taxpayers may be significant. In addition, the characterization of income as capital gain or ordinary income may affect the deductibility of capital losses. A non-corporate taxpayer may deduct capital losses not offset by capital gains against its ordinary income only up to a maximum annual amount of $3,000. A non-corporate taxpayer may carry forward unused capital losses indefinitely. A corporate taxpayer must pay tax on its net capital gain at ordinary corporate rates. A corporate taxpayer may deduct capital losses only to the extent of capital gains, with unused losses being carried back three years and forward five years.
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Taxation of Tax-Exempt Stockholders
Tax-exempt entities, including qualified employee pension and profit sharing trusts and individual retirement accounts and annuities, generally are exempt from federal income taxation. However, they are subject to taxation on their unrelated business taxable income, or UBTI. Although many investments in real estate generate UBTI, the IRS has issued a ruling that dividend distributions from a REIT to an exempt employee pension trust do not constitute UBTI so long as the exempt employee pension trust does not otherwise use the stock in the REIT in an unrelated trade or business of the pension trust. Based on that ruling, amounts that we distribute to tax-exempt stockholders generally should not constitute UBTI. However, if a tax-exempt stockholder were to finance (or be deemed to finance) its acquisition of capital stock with debt, a portion of the income that it receives from us would constitute UBTI pursuant to the “debt-financed property” rules. Moreover, social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, supplemental unemployment benefit trusts and qualified group legal services plans that are exempt from taxation under special provisions of the federal income tax laws are subject to different UBTI rules, which generally will require them to characterize distributions that they receive from us as UBTI. Finally, in certain circumstances, a qualified employee pension or profit sharing trust that owns more than 10% of our stock must treat a percentage of the dividends that it receives from us as UBTI. Such percentage is equal to the gross income we derive from an unrelated trade or business, determined as if we were a pension trust, divided by our total gross income for the year in which we pay the dividends. That rule applies to a pension trust holding more than 10% of our stock only if:
the percentage of our dividends that the tax-exempt trust must treat as UBTI is at least 5%;
we qualify as a REIT by reason of the modification of the rule requiring that no more than 50% of our stock be owned by five or fewer individuals that allows the beneficiaries of the pension trust to be treated as holding our stock in proportion to their actuarial interests in the pension trust; and
either:
one pension trust owns more than 25% of the value of our stock; or
a group of pension trusts individually holding more than 10% of the value of our stock collectively owns more than 50% of the value of our stock.
Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders
The term “non-U.S. stockholder” means a beneficial owner of our capital stock that is not a U.S. stockholder or a partnership (or entity treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes). The rules governing federal income taxation of nonresident alien individuals, foreign corporations, foreign partnerships, and other foreign stockholders are complex. This section is only a summary of such rules. We urge non-U.S. stockholders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of federal, state, and local income tax laws on the purchase, ownership and sale of our capital stock, including any reporting requirements.
Distributions
A non-U.S. stockholder that receives a distribution that is not attributable to gain from our sale or exchange of a “United States real property interest,” or USRPI, as defined below, and that we do not designate as a capital gain dividend or retained capital gain will recognize ordinary income to the extent that we pay such distribution out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. A withholding tax equal to 30% of the gross amount of the distribution ordinarily will apply to such distribution unless an applicable tax treaty reduces or eliminates the tax. However, if a distribution is treated as effectively connected with the non-U.S. stockholder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business (conducted through a U.S. permanent establishment, where applicable), the non-U.S. stockholder generally will be subject to federal income tax on the distribution at graduated rates, in the same manner as U.S. stockholders are taxed with respect to such distribution, and a non-U.S. stockholder that is a corporation also may be subject to the branch profits tax with respect to that distribution. Except with respect to certain distributions
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attributable to the sale of USRPIs described below, we plan to withhold U.S. income tax at the rate of 30% on the gross amount of any such distribution paid to a non-U.S. stockholder unless either:
a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. stockholder files an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E evidencing eligibility for that reduced rate with us; or
the non-U.S. stockholder files an IRS Form W-8ECI with us claiming that the distribution is effectively connected income.
A non-U.S. stockholder will not incur tax on a distribution in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits if the excess portion of such distribution does not exceed the adjusted basis of its capital stock. Instead, the excess portion of such distribution will reduce the adjusted basis of that stock. A non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to tax on a distribution that exceeds both our current and accumulated earnings and profits and the adjusted basis of its capital stock, if the non-U.S. stockholder otherwise would be subject to tax on gain from the sale or disposition of its capital stock, as described below. Because we generally cannot determine at the time we make a distribution whether the distribution will exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits, we normally will withhold tax on the entire amount of any distribution at the same rate as we would withhold on a dividend. However, a non-U.S. stockholder may claim a refund of amounts that we withhold if we later determine that a distribution in fact exceeded our current and accumulated earnings and profits. We must withhold 15% of any distribution that exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits. Consequently, although we intend to withhold at a rate of 30% on the entire amount of any distribution, to the extent that we do not do so, we may withhold at a rate of 15% on any portion of a distribution not subject to withholding at a rate of 30%.
For any year in which we qualify as a REIT, a non-U.S. stockholder will incur tax on distributions that are attributable to gain from our sale or exchange of a USRPI under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Act of 1980, or FIRPTA. A USRPI includes certain interests in real property and stock in certain corporations at least 50% of whose assets consist of USRPIs. Under FIRPTA, a non-U.S. stockholder is taxed on distributions attributable to gain from sales of USRPIs as if such gain were effectively connected with a U.S. business of the non-U.S. stockholder. A non-U.S. stockholder thus would be taxed on such a distribution at the normal capital gains rates applicable to U.S. stockholders, subject to applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of a nonresident alien individual. A non-U.S. corporate stockholder not entitled to treaty relief or exemption also may be subject to the branch profits tax on such a distribution. We would be required to withhold 35% of any distribution that we could designate as a capital gain dividend. A non-U.S. stockholder may receive a credit against its tax liability for the amount we withhold.
Capital gain distributions on our capital stock that are attributable to our sale of real property will be treated as ordinary dividends rather than as gain from the sale of a USRPI, as long as (i)(a) the applicable class of our capital stock is regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States and (b) the non-U.S. stockholder did not own more than 10% of that class of capital stock at any time during the one-year period preceding the distribution or (ii) the non-U.S. stockholder was treated as a “qualified shareholder” or “qualified foreign pension fund” as described below. As a result, non-U.S. stockholders holding 10% or less of the applicable class of our capital stock, “qualified shareholders,” and “qualified foreign pension funds” generally will be subject to withholding tax on such capital gain distributions in the same manner as they are subject to withholding tax on ordinary dividends. We believe our Common Stock is regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States. If a class of our capital stock is not regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States or the non-U.S. stockholder owned more than 10% of the applicable class of capital stock at any time during the one-year period preceding the distribution and was not a “qualified shareholder” or a “qualified pension fund,” capital gain distributions that are attributable to our sale of real property would be subject to tax under FIRPTA, as described in the preceding paragraph. Moreover, if a non-U.S. stockholder disposes of shares of our capital stock during the 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a dividend, and such non-U.S. stockholder (or a person related to such non-U.S. stockholder) acquires or enters into a contract or option to acquire that capital stock within 61 days of the first day of the 30-day period described above, and any portion of such dividend payment would, but for the disposition, be treated as a USRPI capital gain to such non-U.S. stockholder, then such non-U.S. stockholder shall be treated as having USRPI capital gain in an amount that, but for the disposition, would have been treated as USRPI capital gain.
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Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as retained capital gains in respect of our capital stock held by U.S. stockholders generally should be treated with respect to non-U.S. stockholders in the same manner as actual distributions by us of capital gain dividends. Under this approach, a non-U.S. stockholder would be able to offset as a credit against its federal income tax liability resulting from its proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such retained capital gains, and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent of the non-U.S. stockholder’s proportionate share of such tax paid by us exceeds its actual federal income tax liability, provided that the non-U.S. stockholder furnishes required information to the IRS on a timely basis.
Dispositions
Non-U.S. stockholders could incur tax under FIRPTA with respect to gain realized upon a disposition of our capital stock if we are a United States real property holding corporation during a specified testing period. If at least 50% of a REIT’s assets are USRPIs, then the REIT will be a United States real property holding corporation. We believe that we are and will continue to be a United States real property holding corporation based on our investment strategy. However, despite our status as a United States real property holding corporation, a non-U.S. stockholder generally would not incur tax under FIRPTA on gain from the sale of our capital stock if we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” A domestically controlled qualified investment entity includes a REIT in which, at all times during a specified testing period, less than 50% in value of its stock is held directly or indirectly by non-U.S. stockholders. We cannot assure you that this test will be met. If a class of our capital stock is regularly traded on an established securities market, an additional exception to the tax under FIRPTA is available with respect to that class of our capital stock, even if we do not qualify as a domestically controlled qualified investment entity at the time the non-U.S. stockholder sells shares of that class of our capital stock. Under that exception, the gain from such a sale by such a non-U.S. stockholder will not be subject to tax under FIRPTA if:
that class of our capital stock is treated as being regularly traded under applicable Treasury regulations on an established securities market; and
the non-U.S. stockholder owned, actually or constructively, 10% or less of that class of our capital stock at all times during a specified testing period.
As noted above, we believe our Common Stock is regularly traded on an established securities market.
If the gain on the sale of our shares of capital stock were taxed under FIRPTA, a non-U.S. stockholder would be taxed on that gain in the same manner as U.S. stockholders, subject to applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. Furthermore, a non-U.S. stockholder generally will incur tax on gain not subject to FIRPTA if:
the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. stockholder’s U.S. trade or business, in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. stockholders with respect to such gain; or
the non-U.S. stockholder is a non-resident alien individual who was present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the United States, in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will incur a 30% tax on his or her capital gains.
Conversion of Preferred Stock
The conversion of our preferred stock into our Common Stock may be a taxable exchange for a non-U.S. stockholder if our preferred stock constitutes a USRPI. Even if our preferred stock constitutes a USRPI, provided our Common Stock also constitutes a USRPI, a non-U.S. stockholder generally will not recognize gain or loss upon a conversion of preferred stock into our Common Stock so long as certain FIRPTA-related reporting requirements are satisfied. If our preferred stock constitutes a USRPI and such requirements are not satisfied, however, a conversion will be treated as a taxable exchange of preferred stock for our Common Stock. Such a deemed taxable exchange will be subject to tax under FIRPTA at the rate of tax, including any applicable capital gains rates, that would apply to a U.S. stockholder of the same type (e.g., a corporate or a non-corporate stockholder, as the case may
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be) on the excess, if any, of the fair market value of such non-U.S. stockholder’s Common Stock received over such non-U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in its preferred stock. Collection of such tax will be enforced by a refundable withholding tax at a rate of 15% of the value of the common stock.
Non-U.S. stockholders are urged to consult with their tax advisors regarding the federal income tax consequences of any transaction by which such non-U.S. stockholder exchanges shares of our Common Stock received on a conversion of preferred stock for cash or other property.
Redemption of Preferred Stock
For a discussion of the treatment of a redemption of preferred stock, see “Taxation of U.S. Stockholders on a Redemption of Preferred Stock.”
Qualified Shareholders
Subject to the exception discussed below, any distribution to a “qualified shareholder” who holds REIT stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to U.S. income taxation under FIRPTA and thus will not be subject to the special FIRPTA withholding rules. While a “qualified shareholder” generally will not be subject to FIRPTA withholding on REIT distributions, the portion of REIT distributions attributable to certain investors in a “qualified shareholder” (i.e., non-U.S. persons who hold interests in the “qualified shareholder” (other than interests solely as a creditor), and directly or indirectly hold more than 10% of the stock of such REIT (whether or not by reason of the investor’s ownership in the “qualified shareholder”)) may be subject to FIRPTA withholding. REIT distributions received by a “qualified shareholder” that are exempt from FIRPTA withholding may still be subject to regular U.S. withholding tax.
In addition, a sale of our capital stock by a “qualified shareholder” who holds such stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) generally will not be subject to U.S. income taxation under FIRPTA. As with distributions, the portion of amounts realized attributable to certain investors in a “qualified shareholder” (i.e., non-U.S. persons who hold interests in the “qualified shareholder” (other than interests solely as a creditor), and directly or indirectly hold more than 10% of the stock of such REIT (whether or not by reason of the investor’s ownership in the “qualified shareholder”)) may be subject to U.S. income taxation and FIRPTA withholding on a sale of our capital stock.
A “qualified shareholder” is a foreign person that (i) either is eligible for the benefits of a comprehensive income tax treaty which includes an exchange of information program and whose principal class of interests is listed and regularly traded on one or more recognized stock exchanges (as defined in such comprehensive income tax treaty), or is a foreign partnership that is created or organized under foreign law as a limited partnership in a jurisdiction that has an agreement for the exchange of information with respect to taxes with the United States and has a class of limited partnership units representing greater than 50% of the value of all the partnership units that is regularly traded on the NYSE or NASDAQ markets, (ii) is a qualified collective investment vehicle (defined below), and (iii) maintains records on the identity of each person who, at any time during the foreign person’s taxable year, is the direct owner of 5% or more of the class of interests or units (as applicable) described in (i), above.
A qualified collective investment vehicle is a foreign person that (i) would be eligible for a reduced rate of withholding under the comprehensive income tax treaty described above, even if such entity holds more than 10% of the stock of such REIT, (ii) is publicly traded, is treated as a partnership under the Code, is a withholding foreign partnership, and would be treated as a “United States real property holding corporation” if it were a domestic corporation, or (iii) is designated as such by the Secretary of the Treasury and is either (a) fiscally transparent within the meaning of Section 894, or (b) required to include dividends in its gross income, but is entitled to a deduction for distributions to its investors.
Qualified Foreign Pension Funds
Any distribution to a “qualified foreign pension fund” (or an entity all of the interests of which are held by a “qualified foreign pension fund”) who holds REIT stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships)
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will not be subject to U.S. income taxation under FIRPTA and thus will not be subject to the special FIRPTA withholding rules. REIT distributions received by a “qualified foreign pension fund” that are exempt from FIRPTA withholding may still be subject to regular U.S. withholding tax. In addition, a sale of our shares by a “qualified foreign pension fund” that holds such shares directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to U.S. income taxation under FIRPTA.
A qualified foreign pension fund is any trust, corporation, or other organization or arrangement (i) which is created or organized under the law of a country other than the United States, (ii) which is established to provide retirement or pension benefits to participants or beneficiaries that are current or former employees (or persons designated by such employees) of one or more employers in consideration for services rendered, (iii) which does not have a single participant or beneficiary with a right to more than 5% of its assets or income, (iv) which is subject to government regulation and provides annual information reporting about its beneficiaries to the relevant tax authorities in the country in which it is established or operates, and (v) with respect to which, under the laws of the country in which it is established or operates, (a) contributions to such organization or arrangement that would otherwise be subject to tax under such laws are deductible or excluded from the gross income of such entity or taxed at a reduced rate, or (b) taxation of any investment income of such organization or arrangement is deferred or such income is taxed at a reduced rate.
FATCA Withholding
Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, a U.S. withholding tax at a 30% rate will be imposed on dividends paid on our capital stock received by certain non-U.S. stockholders if certain disclosure requirements related to U.S. accounts or ownership are not satisfied. If payment of withholding taxes is required, non-U.S. stockholders that are otherwise eligible for an exemption from, or reduction of, U.S. withholding taxes with respect of such dividends and proceeds will be required to seek a refund from the IRS to obtain the benefit or such exemption or reduction. We will not pay any additional amounts in respect of any amounts withheld.
Information Reporting Requirements and Withholding, Stock Held Offshore
We will report to our stockholders and to the IRS the amount of distributions we pay during each calendar year, and the amount of tax we withhold, if any. Under the backup withholding rules, a stockholder may be subject to backup withholding with respect to distributions unless the holder:
is a corporation or qualifies for certain other exempt categories and, when required, demonstrates this fact; or
provides a taxpayer identification number, certifies as to no loss of exemption from backup withholding, and otherwise complies with the applicable requirements of the backup withholding rules.
A stockholder who does not provide us with its correct taxpayer identification number also may be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS. Any amount paid as backup withholding will be creditable against the stockholder’s income tax liability. In addition, we may be required to withhold a portion of capital gain distributions to any stockholders who fail to certify their non-foreign status to us.
Backup withholding will generally not apply to payments of dividends made by us or our paying agents, in their capacities as such, to a non-U.S. stockholder provided that the non-U.S. stockholder furnishes to us or our paying agent the required certification as to its non-U.S. status, such as providing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or certain other requirements are met. Notwithstanding the foregoing, backup withholding may apply if either we or our paying agent has actual knowledge, or reason to know, that the holder is a U.S. person that is not an exempt recipient. Payments of the net proceeds from a disposition or a redemption effected outside the U.S. by a non-U.S. stockholder made by or through a foreign office of a broker generally will not be subject to information reporting or backup withholding. However, information reporting (but not backup withholding) generally will apply to such a payment if the broker has certain connections with the U.S. unless the broker has documentary evidence in its records that the beneficial owner is a non-U.S. stockholder and specified conditions are met or an exemption is otherwise established. Payment of the net proceeds from a disposition by a non-U.S. stockholder of stock made by
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or through the U.S. office of a broker is generally subject to information reporting and backup withholding unless the non-U.S. stockholder certifies under penalties of perjury that it is not a U.S. person and satisfies certain other requirements, or otherwise establishes an exemption from information reporting and backup withholding.
Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be refunded or credited against the stockholder’s federal income tax liability if certain required information is furnished to the IRS. Stockholders are urged consult their tax advisors regarding application of backup withholding to them and the availability of, and procedure for obtaining an exemption from, backup withholding.
Under FATCA, whether or not non-U.S. stockholders are otherwise eligible for an exemption from, or reduction of, U.S. withholding taxes, a U.S. withholding tax at a 30% rate will be imposed on dividends paid to U.S. stockholders who own their shares through foreign accounts or foreign intermediaries if certain disclosure requirements related to U.S. accounts or ownership are not satisfied. We will not pay any additional amounts in respect of any amounts withheld.
Other Tax Consequences
Tax Aspects of Our Investments in Our Operating Partnership and Subsidiary Partnerships
Substantially all of our investments are owned indirectly through our operating partnership, which owns the hotel properties through subsidiaries that are treated as disregarded entities or as partnerships for federal income tax purposes. The following discussion summarizes certain federal income tax considerations applicable to our direct or indirect investments in our operating partnership and any subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies treated as partnerships for federal income tax purposes that we form or acquire (each individually a “Partnership” and, collectively, the “Partnerships”). The discussion does not cover state or local tax laws or any federal tax laws other than income tax laws.
Classification as Partnerships. We are entitled to include in our income our distributive share of each Partnership’s income and to deduct our distributive share of each Partnership’s losses only if such Partnership is classified for federal income tax purposes as a partnership (or an entity that is disregarded for federal income tax purposes if the entity is treated as having only one owner for federal income tax purposes) rather than as a corporation or an association taxable as a corporation. An unincorporated entity with at least two owners or members will be classified as a partnership, rather than as a corporation, for federal income tax purposes if it:
is treated as a partnership under the Treasury regulations relating to entity classification (the “check-the-box regulations”); and
is not a “publicly traded” partnership.
Under the check-the-box regulations, an unincorporated entity with at least two owners or members may elect to be classified either as an association taxable as a corporation or as a partnership. If such an entity fails to make an election, it generally will be treated as a partnership (or an entity that is disregarded for federal income tax purposes if the entity has only one owner for federal income tax purposes) for federal income tax purposes. Each Partnership intends to be classified as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, and no Partnership will elect to be treated as an association taxable as a corporation under the check-the-box regulations.
A publicly traded partnership is a partnership whose interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof. A publicly traded partnership will not, however, be treated as a corporation for any taxable year if, for each taxable year beginning after December 31, 1987 in which it was classified as a publicly traded partnership, 90% or more of the partnership’s gross income for such year consists of certain passive-type income, including real property rents, gains from the sale or other disposition of real property, interest, and dividends (the “90% passive income exception”). Treasury regulations (the “PTP regulations”) provide limited safe harbors from the definition of a publicly traded partnership. Pursuant to one of those safe harbors (the “private placement exception”), interests in a partnership will not be treated as readily tradable on a secondary market or a substantial equivalent thereof if (i) all interests in the partnership were issued in
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a transaction or transactions that were not required to be registered under the Securities Act and (ii) the partnership does not have more than 100 partners at any time during the partnership’s taxable year. In determining the number of partners in a partnership, a person owning an interest in a partnership, grantor trust or a subchapter S corporation that owns an interest in the partnership is treated as a partner in such partnership only if (i) substantially all of the value of the owner’s interest in the entity is attributable to the entity’s direct or indirect interest in the partnership and (2) a principal purpose of the use of the entity is to permit that partnership to satisfy the 100-partner limitation. Each Partnership is expected to qualify for the private placement exception in the foreseeable future. Additionally, if our operating partnership were a publicly traded partnership, we believe that our operating partnership would have sufficient qualifying income to satisfy the 90% passive income exception and thus would continue to be taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes.
We have not requested, and do not intend to request, a ruling from the IRS that our operating partnership will be classified as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. If for any reason our operating partnership were taxable as a corporation, rather than as a partnership, for federal income tax purposes, most, if not all, of the tax consequences described herein would be inapplicable. In particular, we would not qualify as a REIT unless we qualified for certain relief provisions, because the value of our ownership interest in our operating partnership exceeds 5% of our assets and we would be considered to hold more than 10% of the voting securities (and more than 10% of the value of the outstanding securities) of another corporation. See “Gross Income Tests” and “—Asset Tests.” In addition, any change in our operating partnership’s status for federal income tax purposes might be treated as a taxable event, in which case we might incur tax liability without any related cash distribution. See “Distribution Requirements.” Further, items of income and deduction of our operating partnership would not pass through to its partners, and its partners would be treated as stockholders for federal income tax purposes. Consequently, our operating partnership would be required to pay income tax at corporate rates on its net income, and distributions to its partners would constitute dividends that would not be deductible in computing our operating partnership’s taxable income.
Income Taxation of Partnerships and their Partners
Partners, Not the Partnerships, Subject to Tax. A partnership is not a taxable entity for federal income tax purposes. Rather, we are required to take into account our allocable share of each Partnership’s income, gains, losses, deductions, and credits for any taxable year of such Partnership ending within or with our taxable year, without regard to whether we have received or will receive any distribution from such Partnership. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, however, the tax liability for adjustments to a Partnership’s tax returns made as a result of an audit by the IRS will be imposed on the Partnership itself in certain circumstances absent an election to the contrary. See “—Partnership Audit Rules.”
Partnership Allocations. Although a partnership agreement generally will determine the allocation of income and losses among partners, such allocations will be disregarded for tax purposes if they do not comply with the provisions of the federal income tax laws governing partnership allocations. If an allocation is not recognized for federal income tax purposes, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership, which will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item. Each Partnership’s allocations of taxable income, gain, and loss are intended to comply with the requirements of the federal income tax laws governing partnership allocations.
Tax Allocations With Respect to Our Properties. Income, gain, loss, and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership in exchange for an interest in the partnership must be allocated in a manner such that the contributing partner is charged with, or benefits from, respectively, the unrealized gain or unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution. When cash is contributed to a partnership in exchange for a partnership interest, such as our contribution of the proceeds of any offering to our operating partnership in exchange for common or preferred units, similar rules apply to ensure that the existing partners in the partnership are charged with, or benefit from, respectively, the unrealized gain or unrealized loss associated with the partnership’s existing properties at the time of the cash contribution. In the case of a contribution of property, the amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss (“built-in gain” or “built-in loss”) is generally equal to the difference between the fair market value of the contributed property at the time of
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contribution and the adjusted tax basis of such property at the time of contribution (a “book-tax difference”). In the case of a contribution of cash, a book-tax difference may be created because the fair market value of the properties of the partnership on the date of the cash contribution may be higher or lower than the partnership’s adjusted tax basis in those properties. Any property purchased for cash initially will have an adjusted tax basis equal to its fair market value, resulting in no book-tax difference.
In the future, our operating partnership may admit partners in exchange for a contribution of appreciated or depreciated property, resulting in book-tax differences. Allocations with respect to book-tax differences are solely for federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners. The U.S. Treasury Department has issued regulations requiring partnerships to use a “reasonable method” for allocating items with respect to which there is a book-tax difference and outlining several reasonable allocation methods. Under certain available methods, the carryover basis in the hands of our operating partnership of properties contributed in the future could cause us to be allocated (i) lower amounts of depreciation deductions for tax purposes than would be allocated to us if all contributed properties were to have a tax basis equal to their fair market value at the time of the contribution and (ii) in the event of a sale of such properties, taxable gain in excess of the economic or book gain allocated to us as a result of such sale, with a corresponding benefit to the contributing partner. An allocation described in (ii) above might cause us to recognize taxable income in excess of cash proceeds in the event of a sale or other disposition of property, which might adversely affect our ability to comply with the REIT distribution requirements and may result in a greater portion of our distributions being taxed as dividends.
Basis in Partnership Interest. Our adjusted tax basis in our partnership interest in our operating partnership generally is equal to:
the amount of cash and the basis of any other property contributed by us to our operating partnership;
increased by our allocable share of our operating partnership’s income and our allocable share of indebtedness of our operating partnership; and
reduced, but not below zero, by our allocable share of our operating partnership’s loss and the amount of cash distributed to us, and by constructive distributions resulting from a reduction in our share of indebtedness of our operating partnership.
If the allocation of our distributive share of our operating partnership’s loss would reduce the adjusted tax basis of our partnership interest below zero, the recognition of such loss will be deferred until such time as the recognition of such loss would not reduce our adjusted tax basis below zero. To the extent that our operating partnership’s distributions, or any decrease in our share of the indebtedness of our operating partnership, which is considered a constructive cash distribution to the partners, reduce our adjusted tax basis below zero, such distributions will constitute taxable income to us. Such distributions and constructive distributions normally will be characterized as long-term capital gain.
Depreciation Deductions Available to Our Operating Partnership. To the extent that our operating partnership acquires hotels in exchange for cash, its initial basis in such hotels for federal income tax purposes generally will be equal to the purchase price paid by our operating partnership. Our operating partnership’s initial basis in hotels acquired in exchange for units in our operating partnership should be the same as the transferor’s basis in such hotels on the date of acquisition by our operating partnership. Although the law is not entirely clear, our operating partnership generally will depreciate such depreciable hotel property for federal income tax purposes over the same remaining useful lives and under the same methods used by the transferors. Our operating partnership’s tax depreciation deductions will be allocated among the partners in accordance with their respective interests in our operating partnership, except to the extent that our operating partnership is required under the federal income tax laws governing partnership allocations to use a method for allocating tax depreciation deductions that are attributable to properties contributed to our operating partnership in the future in exchange for common units. Those special allocations could result in our receiving a disproportionate share of such deductions.

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Partnership Audit Rules

Under the rules applicable to federal income tax audits of partnerships, subject to certain exceptions, any audit adjustment to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of a partnership (and any partner’s distributive share thereof) is determined, and taxes, interest, or penalties attributable thereto are assessed and collected, at the partnership level, absent an election to the contrary. It is possible that these rules could result in Partnerships in which we directly or indirectly invest being required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties as a result of an audit adjustment, and we, as a direct or indirect partner of these Partnerships, could be required to bear the economic burden of those taxes, interest, and penalties. Shareholders are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to these changes and their potential impact on their investment in our shares of beneficial interest.

Sale of a Partnership’s Property
Generally, any gain realized by a Partnership on the sale of property held by the Partnership for more than one year will be long-term capital gain, except for any portion of such gain that is treated as depreciation or cost recovery recapture. Any gain or loss recognized by a Partnership on the disposition of contributed properties will be allocated first to the partners of the Partnership who contributed such properties to the extent of their built-in gain or loss on those properties for federal income tax purposes. The partners’ built-in gain or loss on such contributed properties will equal the difference between the partners’ proportionate share of the book value of those properties and the partners’ tax basis allocable to those properties at the time of the contribution, subject to certain adjustments. Any remaining gain or loss recognized by the Partnership on the disposition of the contributed properties, and any gain or loss recognized by the Partnership on the disposition of the other properties, will be allocated among the partners in accordance with their respective percentage interests in the Partnership.
Our share of any gain realized by a Partnership on the sale of any property held by the Partnership as inventory or other property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the Partnership’s trade or business will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax. Such prohibited transaction income also may have an adverse effect upon our ability to satisfy the income tests for REIT status. See “Gross Income Tests.” We do not presently intend to acquire or hold or to allow any Partnership to acquire or hold any property that represents inventory or other property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of our or such Partnership’s trade or business.
Legislative or Other Actions Affecting REITs
The present federal income tax treatment of REITs may be modified, possibly with retroactive effect, by legislative, judicial or administrative action at any time. The REIT rules are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the U.S. Treasury Department which may result in statutory changes as well as revisions to regulations and interpretations. We cannot predict the long-term effect of any recent changes or any future law changes on REITs and their securityholders. Prospective securityholders are urged to consult with their tax advisors regarding the effect of potential changes to the federal tax laws on an investment in our securities.
State, Local and Foreign Taxes
We and/or you may be subject to taxation by various states, localities and foreign jurisdictions, including those in which we or a stockholder transacts business, owns property or resides. The state, local and foreign tax treatment may differ from the federal income tax treatment described above. Consequently, you are urged to consult your tax advisors regarding the effect of state, local and foreign tax laws upon an investment in our securities.
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell the offered securities from time to time:
through underwriters or dealers;
through agents;
directly to one or more purchasers; or
through a combination of any of these methods of sale.
We will identify the specific plan of distribution, including any underwriters, dealers, agents or direct purchasers and their compensation in the applicable prospectus supplement.
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LEGAL MATTERS
Certain matters of Maryland law, including the validity of the securities covered by this prospectus, will be passed upon for us by Venable LLP. Certain tax matters will be passed upon for us by Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

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EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements of Xenia Hotels & Resorts, Inc. as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2019, and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019 have been incorporated by reference herein in reliance upon the reports of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
The audit report covering the December 31, 2019 consolidated financial statements contains an explanatory paragraph related to Xenia Hotels & Resorts, Inc.’s change in method of accounting for leases as of January 1, 2019 due to the adoption of Accounting Standards Codification Topic 842, Leases.
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Up to $200,000,000
Common Stock
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
Wells Fargo Securities
Baird
Jefferies
KeyBanc Capital Markets
Raymond James
August 19, 2020