424B5 1 d91786d424b5.htm 424B5 424B5
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Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-228142

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered   Maximum Aggregate
Offering Price
  Amount of
Registration Fee

4.750% Senior Notes due 2030

  $ 394,736,000   $51,237.00(1)

 

 

 

(1) 

The registration fee of $51,237.00 is calculated in accordance with Rules 457(o) and 457(r) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act, the registrant initially deferred payment of all of the registration fee for the registrant’s registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-228142) filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 2, 2018.


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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT   

(To Prospectus dated November 2, 2018)

$400,000,000

 

 

LOGO

4.750% Senior Notes due 2030

 

 

Retail Properties of America, Inc. is offering $400,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 4.750% Senior Notes due 2030, or the notes. The notes will mature on September 15, 2030 unless redeemed at our option prior to such date.

Interest on the notes will be paid semi-annually in arrears on March 15 and September 15 of each year, beginning on March 15, 2021.

We may redeem the notes at our option and in our sole discretion, at any time or from time to time prior to maturity, in whole or in part, for cash at the applicable redemption price described in this prospectus supplement in the section entitled “Description of Notes—Redemption of the Notes at the Option of the Company.”

The notes will be our direct, senior unsecured obligations and will rank equally in right of payment with all of our existing and future unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness from time to time outstanding. The notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to our existing and future secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness.

The notes will be issued only in fully registered, book-entry form, in denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof, except under the limited circumstances described below under “Description of Notes—Book-entry, Delivery and Form.”

The notes are a new issue of securities with no established trading market. We currently have no intention to apply to list the notes on any securities exchange or automated dealer quotation system. The underwriters may make a market in the notes after the completion of this offering but will not be obligated to make a market in the notes and may discontinue such market making at any time at their sole discretion. No assurance can be given as to the liquidity of the trading market for the notes or that an active public market for the notes will develop. If an active public trading market for the notes does not develop, the market price and liquidity of the notes may be adversely affected.

 

 

Investing in the notes involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-6 of this prospectus supplement, page 4 of the accompanying prospectus and on page 4 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019.

 

       Per Note(1)      Total

Public offering price(1)

     98.684%      $394,736,000

Underwriting discount

     0.650%      $2,600,000

Proceeds, before expenses, to us(1)

     98.034%      $392,136,000

 

(1) Plus accrued interest, if any, from August 25, 2020.

We expect delivery of the notes will be made to investors in book-entry form through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company for the accounts of its participants, including Clearstream Banking, société anonyme and Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V., as operator of the Euroclear system, on or about August 25, 2020.

Neither the United States Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

Joint Book-Running Managers

 

Citigroup   Wells Fargo Securities

 

Jefferies   KeyBanc Capital Markets   US Bancorp

Joint Lead Managers

 

BofA Securities   Truist Securities

Co-Managers

 

Capital One Securities   Morgan Stanley  

Regions Securities LLC

TD Securities   Ramirez & Co., Inc.   Scotiabank

 

 

Prospectus Supplement dated August 18, 2020


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Prospectus Supplement

 

     Page  

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

     S-1  

RISK FACTORS

     S-6  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-12  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-14  

DESCRIPTION OF NOTES

     S-15  

SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     S-31  

UNDERWRITING

     S-34  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

     S-39  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-40  

EXPERTS

     S-40  

Prospectus

 

     Page  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     4  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     4  

HOW WE INTEND TO USE THE PROCEEDS

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF STOCK PURCHASE CONTRACTS

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK AND PREFERRED STOCK

     10  

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

     15  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     17  

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     33  

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     39  

SELLING SECURITY HOLDERS

     63  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     64  

INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

     69  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     70  

EXPERTS

     71  

LEGAL MATTERS

     71  

 

 

Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any free writing prospectus we have prepared. We and the underwriters take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are an offer to sell only the notes offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, or in any free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those respective dates.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated herein and therein by reference. It does not contain all of the information that may be important to you. We encourage you to carefully read this entire prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, especially the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page S-6 of this prospectus supplement and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, on February 19, 2020, in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on May 6, 2020 and in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2020 filed with the SEC on August 5, 2020 before making an investment decision regarding the notes.

Unless otherwise indicated or the context requires otherwise, in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, references to the “Company”, “we”, “our” and “us” mean Retail Properties of America, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

About This Prospectus Supplement

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering and also adds to and updates information in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, gives more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. You should read this entire document, including the prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated herein and therein by reference. In the event that the description of this offering varies between this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, you should rely on the information contained in this prospectus supplement. To the extent the information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement differs or varies from the information included or incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus, the information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement updates and supersedes such information.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus contain, or incorporate by reference, forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements should be considered together with the cautionary statements and important factors included or referred to in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein. Please see “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” in this prospectus supplement and “Forward-Looking Statements” in the accompanying prospectus.

Our Company

We are a real estate investment trust, or REIT, that owns and operates high quality, strategically located open-air shopping centers, including properties with a mixed-use component. As of June 30, 2020, we owned 102 retail operating properties in the United States representing 19,962,000 square feet of gross leasable area, or GLA, and had four expansion and redevelopment projects. Our retail operating portfolio includes (i) neighborhood and community centers, (ii) power centers, and (iii) lifestyle centers and multi-tenant retail-focused mixed-use properties, as well as single-user retail properties.



 

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The following table summarizes our portfolio as of June 30, 2020:

 

Property Type

  Number of
Properties
    GLA
(in thousands)
    Occupancy     Percent Leased
Including Leases
Signed (a)
 

Retail operating portfolio:

       

Multi-tenant retail:

       

Neighborhood and community centers

    62       10,337       94.1     95.4

Power centers

    22       4,816       94.9     95.9

Lifestyle centers and mixed-use properties (b)

    16       4,548       90.9     92.2
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total multi-tenant retail

    100       19,701       93.6     94.8

Single-user retail

    2       261       100.0     100.0
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total retail operating properties

    102       19,962       93.6     94.9
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Expansion and redevelopment projects:

       

Circle East

    1        

One Loudoun Downtown – Pads G & H (c)

           

Carillon

    1        
       

The Shoppes at Quarterfield

    1        
 

 

 

       

Total number of properties

    105        
 

 

 

       

 

(a)

Includes leases signed but not commenced.

(b)

Excludes the 18 multi-family rental units at Plaza del Lago. As of June 30, 2020, 17 multi-family rental units were leased at an average monthly rental rate per unit of $1,337.

(c)

The operating portion of this property is included in the property count of lifestyle centers and mixed-use properties within our retail operating portfolio.

We are a Maryland corporation formed in March 2003 and have been publicly held and subject to SEC reporting requirements since 2003. Our principal executive office is located at 2021 Spring Road, Suite 200, Oak Brook, Illinois 60523, and our telephone number is (630) 634-4200. We maintain a website at www.rpai.com that contains information concerning us. The information included, or referenced to, on, or otherwise accessible through, our website is not intended to form a part of, or be incorporated by reference into, this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.



 

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The Offering

The following summary of the offering is provided solely for your convenience. This summary is not intended to be complete. You should read the full text and more specific details contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement under the heading “Description of Notes” and in the accompanying prospectus under the heading “Description of Debt Securities.” As used in the following summary, references to the “Company,” “we,” “our,” or “us” refer solely to Retail Properties of America, Inc. and not to any of our subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires.

 

Issuer

Retail Properties of America, Inc.

 

Securities Offered

$400,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 4.750% Senior Notes due 2030.

 

Maturity Date

The notes will mature on September 15, 2030, unless redeemed at our option prior to such date.

 

Interest Rate

4.750% per year, accruing from August 25, 2020.

 

Interest Payment Dates

March 15 and September 15 of each year, beginning on March 15, 2021.

 

Optional Redemption

We may redeem some or all of the notes at any time at a redemption price equal to (i) 100% of the principal amount of the notes being redeemed plus accrued and unpaid interest on such notes up to, but not including, the date of redemption, and (ii) the Make-Whole Amount, as defined herein, if any, with respect to such notes. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the notes are redeemed on or after the Par Call Date, as defined herein, the redemption price will not include the Make-Whole Amount. See “Description of Notes—Redemption of the Notes at the Option of the Company” in this prospectus supplement.

 

Use of Proceeds

The net proceeds from the sale of the notes are estimated to be approximately $391.2 million, after deducting the underwriting discount and our estimated offering expenses. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for the repayment of debt, including the repayment of our $250.0 million unsecured term loan due 2021 and outstanding borrowings under our $850.0 million unsecured revolving line of credit, and for general business purposes. Pending such uses, we may invest the net proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing deposit accounts or interest-bearing U.S. government and government agency securities. See “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus supplement.

 

Certain Covenants

The indenture pursuant to which the notes will be issued contains certain covenants that, among other things, limit our ability and our subsidiaries’ ability to:

 

   

incur secured and unsecured indebtedness; and

 

   

consummate a merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of their assets.

 

 

We are also required to maintain total unencumbered assets of at least 150% of the aggregate principal amount of all of our and our subsidiaries outstanding unsecured debt. These covenants are



 

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subject to a number of important exceptions and qualifications. For further information, see “Description of Notes—Certain Covenants” in this prospectus supplement.

 

Ranking

The notes will be our direct, senior unsecured obligations and will rank equally in right of payment with all of our existing and future unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness from time to time outstanding. The notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to our existing and future secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness. The notes will also be structurally subordinated in right of payment to all existing and future liabilities and indebtedness, whether secured or unsecured, of our subsidiaries.

 

  As of June 30, 2020, we had approximately $93.7 million of secured indebtedness and $1.7 billion of unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness outstanding on a consolidated basis. Of such indebtedness, all of the secured indebtedness and none of the unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness was attributable to our subsidiaries, all of which would have been effectively senior to the notes.

 

Additional Notes

We may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of the notes offered by this prospectus supplement, increase the principal amount of the notes outstanding by issuing additional notes in the same form and on the same terms and conditions as the notes offered by this prospectus supplement in all respects, except for any difference in the issue date of the additional notes, and under certain circumstances, the issue price, interest accrued prior to the issue date of the additional notes and the first interest payment date, and will carry the same right to receive accrued and unpaid interest as the notes offered by this prospectus supplement, and such additional notes will form a single series with the notes offered by this prospectus supplement.

 

No Public Market

The notes are a new issue of securities with no established trading market. We currently have no intention to apply to list the notes on any securities exchange or automated dealer quotation system. The underwriters may make a market in the notes after the completion of this offering but will not be obligated to make a market in the notes and may discontinue such market making at any time at their sole discretion. No assurance can be given as to the liquidity of the trading market for the notes or that an active public market for the notes will develop. If an active public trading market for the notes does not develop, the market price and liquidity of the notes may be adversely affected.

 

Book-entry Form

The notes will be issued in fully registered, book-entry only form and will be represented by one or more permanent global certificates deposited with a custodian for, and registered in the



 

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name of a nominee of, The Depository Trust Company, commonly known as DTC, in New York, New York. Beneficial interests in the global certificates representing the notes will be shown on, and transfers will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC and its direct and indirect participants and such interests may not be exchanged for certificated notes, except in limited circumstances. Investors may elect to hold interests in the Global Notes through the facilities of any of DTC, Clearstream Banking, société anonyme (“Clearstream”) or Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V. (“Euroclear”).

 

Risk Factors

See “Risk Factors” included in this prospectus supplement and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, as well as other information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus, for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider that are relevant to an investment in the notes.

 

Trustee

U.S. Bank National Association.

 

Governing Law

State of New York.


 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in the notes involves risks. Before purchasing the notes offered by this prospectus supplement, you should carefully consider the following risks and the risks described in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including from our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on February 19, 2020, our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on May 6, 2020 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2020 filed with the SEC on August 5, 2020, and the documents we file with the SEC after the date of this prospectus supplement and which are deemed incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. The risks and uncertainties we discuss in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein are those that we currently believe may materially affect the Company. Additional risks not presently known or that are currently deemed immaterial could also materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects.

Risks Related to Our Business

The current novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic and measures intended to prevent its spread has caused, and could continue to cause, severe disruptions in the U.S., regional and global economies, and could materially and adversely impact our cash flow, financial condition and results of operations.

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of COVID-19 a global pandemic. COVID-19 has caused, and could continue to cause, significant disruptions to the U.S. and global economy and has contributed to significant volatility and negative pressure in the financial markets. The global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has been rapidly evolving and many U.S. states and cities, including where we own properties and/or have development sites, have imposed measures intended to control its spread, such as instituting “shelter-in-place” rules and restrictions on the types of businesses that may continue to operate and/or the types of construction projects that may continue. As a result of these measures, a number of our tenants have announced temporary closures of their stores or modifications of their operations and requested lease concessions. In addition, in response to macroeconomic conditions, we halted plans for vertical construction at our Carillon redevelopment and temporarily suspended future quarterly dividend payments.

The extent to which COVID-19 impacts our business, operations and financial condition will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, including the scope, severity and duration of such pandemic, actions taken to contain the pandemic or mitigate its impact, all of which could vary by geographic region in which our properties are located. For example, it is possible that public health officials and governmental authorities in the markets in which we operate may impose additional restrictions in an effort to slow the spread of COVID-19 or may relax or revoke existing restrictions too quickly, which could, in either case, exacerbate the severity of the adverse impacts on the economy. The rapid development and fluidity of this situation precludes any prediction as to the full adverse impact of COVID-19. Nevertheless, COVID-19 may materially adversely affect our cash flow, financial condition and results of operations, and it may also have the effect of heightening many of the risks described herein and in the “Risk Factors” section of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2020, including:

 

   

a complete or partial closure of, or a decrease in customer traffic at, one or more of our properties, which has and could continue to adversely affect our operations and those of our tenants;

 

   

reduced economic activity impacting the businesses, financial condition and liquidity of our tenants, which has caused and could continue to cause one or more of our tenants, including certain significant tenants, to be unable to meet their rent payment or other obligations to us in full, or at all, or to otherwise seek modifications of such obligations or declare bankruptcy;

 

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decreases in consumer discretionary spending and consumer confidence during the pandemic, as well as a decrease in individuals’ willingness to frequent our properties once reopened as a result of the public health risks and social impacts of such outbreak, which could affect the ability of our properties to generate sufficient revenues to meet operating and other expenses in the short and long term;

 

   

inability to renew leases, lease vacant space or re-let space as leases expire on favorable terms, or at all, which could cause interruptions or delays in the receipt of rental payments or the non-receipt of rental payments;

 

   

state, local or industry-initiated efforts, such as a rent freeze for tenants or a suspension of a landlord’s ability to enforce evictions, which may affect our ability to collect rent or enforce remedies for the failure to pay rent;

 

   

severe disruption and instability in the U.S. and global financial markets or deteriorations in credit and financing conditions, which may affect our ability to access capital on attractive terms or at all;

 

   

a reduction in cash flows, which could impact our ability to resume the payment of, or pay in the future, dividends to our stockholders;

 

   

our ability to remain in compliance with the financial covenants set forth in our unsecured credit agreement and other debt agreements, which non-compliance could result in a default and, potentially, an acceleration of such indebtedness;

 

   

a general decline in business activity and demand for real estate transactions, which could adversely affect the value of our portfolio and our ability or desire to make strategic acquisitions or dispositions;

 

   

disruptions in the supply of materials or products or the inability of contractors to perform on a timely basis or at all, including as a result of restrictions on construction activity due to containment measures, which could cause delays in completing ongoing or future construction, expansion or redevelopment projects;

 

   

the potential negative impact on the health of our employees or the employees of our tenants, particularly if a significant number of our or their executive management team or key employees are impacted, which could result in a deterioration in our and our tenants’ ability to ensure business continuity during a disruption;

 

   

any inability to effectively manage our portfolio and operations while working remotely during the COVID-19 pandemic and for a time after such pandemic, which could adversely impact our business; and

 

   

the limited access to our facilities, management, tenants, support staff and professional advisors, which could decrease the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting, increase our susceptibility to security breaches, or hamper our ability to comply with regulatory obligations leading to reputational harm and regulatory issues or fines.

Risks Related to the Notes and This Offering

We are generally subject to the risks associated with debt financing and our debt service obligations could adversely affect our financial health and operating flexibility.

Required principal and interest payments on our indebtedness reduce funds available for general business purposes and distributions to our shareholders. Our existing debt financing and debt service obligations also increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions, including increases in interest rates. In addition, as our existing debt comes due, we may be unable to refinance it on favorable terms, or at all, which could adversely affect our cash flow, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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We may not be able to generate sufficient cash flow to meet our debt service obligations.

Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our indebtedness, including the notes, and to fund our operations, working capital, capital expenditures and other important business uses, depends on our ability to generate sufficient cash flow in the future. To a certain extent, our cash flow is subject to general economic, industry, financial, competitive, operating, legislative, regulatory and other factors, many of which are beyond our control.

We cannot assure you that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future sources of cash will be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay amounts due on our indebtedness, including the notes, or to fund our other liquidity needs. Additionally, if we incur additional indebtedness in connection with future acquisitions or development projects or for any other purpose, our debt service obligations could increase.

We may need or otherwise seek to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness, including the notes, at or prior to maturity. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness or obtain additional financing will depend on, among other things:

 

   

our financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, prospects and market conditions at the time; and

 

   

restrictions in the agreements governing our indebtedness.

As a result, we may not be able to refinance any of our indebtedness, including the notes, on favorable terms, or at all. If we do not generate sufficient cash flow from operations, and additional borrowings or refinancings or proceeds from asset sales or other sources of cash are not available to us, we may not have sufficient cash to enable us to meet all of our obligations, including payments on the notes. Accordingly, if we cannot service our indebtedness, we may have to take actions such as issuing additional equity, delaying development or acquisition activities or capital expenditures or disposing of properties or other assets, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our operations. We cannot assure you that we will be able to effect any of these transactions on favorable terms, or at all.

The notes are structurally subordinated in right of payment to all liabilities of our existing and future subsidiaries and the remaining assets of such subsidiaries may not be sufficient to make any payments on the notes.

None of our subsidiaries will guarantee the notes. Payments on the notes are only required to be made by us. As a result, no payments are required to be made by, and holders of notes will not have a claim against the assets of, any of our subsidiaries, except if those assets are transferred, by dividend or otherwise, to us. Accordingly, the notes will be structurally subordinated in right of payment to all existing and future liabilities, including trade payables, lease obligations, letter of credit obligations and other accrued liabilities, of our subsidiaries. The incurrence of liabilities, other than indebtedness, by any of our subsidiaries is not prohibited by the indenture pursuant to which the notes will be issued and could adversely affect our ability to pay our obligations on the notes. As of June 30, 2020, our consolidated subsidiaries had approximately $93.7 million of indebtedness (all of which was secured indebtedness), excluding intercompany liabilities, which would have been structurally senior to the notes. We anticipate that from time to time our subsidiaries will incur additional debt and other liabilities.

The notes are effectively subordinated in right of payment to our existing secured debt and any secured debt we may incur in the future.

The notes are not secured by any of our assets or those of our subsidiaries. As a result, the notes are effectively subordinated in right of payment to our existing secured debt and any secured debt we may incur in the future to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness. In any liquidation, dissolution, bankruptcy or other similar proceeding, the holders of our secured debt may assert rights against any assets securing such debt in order to receive full payment of their debt before the assets may be

 

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used to pay the holders of the notes. As of June 30, 2020, we had approximately $93.7 million of secured consolidated debt outstanding and we will be permitted to incur substantial additional secured debt under the terms of the indenture pursuant to which the notes will be issued.

Despite our substantial outstanding indebtedness, we may incur significantly more indebtedness in the future, which could increase any or all of the risks described herein, including our ability to pay the principal of, or interest on, the notes.

We may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future. Although the agreements governing our existing indebtedness, including the indenture pursuant to which the notes will be issued, limit our ability to incur additional indebtedness, these restrictions are subject to a number of qualifications and exceptions and, under certain circumstances, debt incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial. In addition, the indenture pursuant to which the notes will be issued does not prevent us from incurring obligations that do not constitute indebtedness. To the extent that we incur additional indebtedness or such other obligations in the future, the risks associated with our substantial indebtedness described herein, including our possible inability to service our debt obligations, would increase.

The indenture pursuant to which the notes will be issued and certain of our debt agreements contain financial and other covenants that limit our operating flexibility and could adversely affect our cash flow, financial condition and results of operations.

The indenture pursuant to which the notes will be issued contains financial and operating covenants that, among other things, restrict our ability to take specific actions, even if we believe them to be in our best interest, including restrictions on our ability to incur secured and unsecured indebtedness and consummate a merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. In addition, the Credit Agreement (as defined herein) governing our unsecured revolving line of credit and unsecured term loan due 2021, the indenture, as supplemented, governing our unsecured notes due 2025, the note purchase agreements governing our unsecured notes due 2021, 2024, 2026, 2028 and 2029 and the term loan agreements governing our unsecured term loans due 2023, 2024 and 2026 require compliance with certain financial and operating covenants, including, among others, the requirement to maintain (i) maximum unencumbered, secured and consolidated leverage ratios, (ii) minimum interest coverage ratios, (iii) minimum fixed charge coverage ratios, (iv) minimum unencumbered interest coverage ratios, (v) a minimum debt service coverage ratio, and (vi) a minimum unencumbered assets to unsecured debt ratio. They also contain customary events of default, including defaults on any of our recourse indebtedness in excess of $50.0 million. Further, the indenture pursuant to which the notes will be issued will require us to maintain at all times a specified ratio of unencumbered assets to unsecured debt and will contain customary events of default, including defaults on our recourse indebtedness in excess of $50.0 million. The provisions of these agreements could limit our ability to obtain additional funds needed to address cash shortfalls or pursue growth opportunities or other accretive transactions.

In addition, our secured and unsubordinated debt will be pari passu to the notes in priority of payment. Therefore, a breach of these covenants or other events of default would allow the lenders or holders of the notes, as the case may be, to accelerate payment of amounts outstanding under one or all of these agreements. If payment is accelerated, our liquid assets may not be sufficient to repay such debt in full, including the repayment of your notes, and, as a result, such an event may have a material adverse effect on our cash flow, financial condition and results of operations.

There is currently no trading market for the notes, and an active public trading market for the notes may not develop or, if it develops, may not be maintained. The failure of an active liquid trading market for the notes to develop or be maintained is likely to adversely affect the market price and liquidity of the notes.

The notes are a new issue of securities with no established trading market. We currently have no intention to apply to list the notes on any securities exchange or automated dealer quotation system. The

 

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underwriters may make a market in the notes after the completion of this offering but will not be obligated to make a market in the notes and may discontinue such market making at any time at their sole discretion. Accordingly, an active trading market may not develop for the notes and, even if one develops, may not be maintained. If an active trading market for the notes does not develop or is not maintained, the market price and liquidity of the notes are likely to be adversely affected, and holders may not be able to sell their notes at desired times and prices, or at all. If any of the notes are traded after their purchase, they may trade at a discount from their purchase price.

The liquidity of the trading market, if any, and future trading prices of the notes will depend on many factors, including, among other things, prevailing interest rates, our financial condition, results of operations, business, prospects and credit quality, and those of comparable entities, the market for similar securities and the overall securities market, and may be adversely affected by unfavorable changes in any of these factors, some of which are beyond our control. In addition, market volatility or events or developments in the credit markets could materially and adversely affect the market value of the notes, regardless of our financial condition, results of operations, business, prospects or credit quality.

A downgrade in our credit ratings could materially adversely affect our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations and the market price of the notes.

Our credit ratings are subject to ongoing evaluation by credit rating agencies, and we cannot assure you that any rating will not be changed or withdrawn by a rating agency in the future if, in its judgment, circumstances warrant. Moreover, such credit ratings are not recommendations to buy, sell or hold the notes or any other securities. If any credit rating agency downgrades our ratings or otherwise indicate that its outlook for that rating is negative, it could have a material adverse effect on the market price of the notes and our costs and availability of capital, which could in turn have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations and our ability to satisfy our debt service obligations, including payments on the notes.

Redemption may adversely affect your return on the notes.

The notes are redeemable at our option and we may choose to redeem some or all of the notes from time to time. If prevailing interest rates at the time of redemption are less than the interest rate payable on the notes, you may not be able to reinvest the redemption proceeds in a comparable security at an effective interest rate as high as the interest rate on the notes being redeemed. See “Description of Notes—Redemption of the Notes at the Option of the Company” in this prospectus supplement.

The market price of the notes depends on many factors, some which are beyond our control, and the occurrence of any of which could result in a decrease in the value of the notes.

The market price of the notes will depend on many factors that may vary over time and some of which are beyond our control, including, among others, the following:

 

   

our financial performance;

 

   

the amount of our outstanding indebtedness;

 

   

prevailing market interest rates;

 

   

the market for similar securities;

 

   

the ratings of the notes;

 

   

the size and liquidity of the market for the notes; and

 

   

general economic conditions.

As a result of these factors, you may be able to sell your notes only at prices below those you believe to be appropriate, including prices below the price you paid for them. In general, as market interest rates rise,

 

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notes bearing interest at a fixed rate decline in value. Consequently, if you purchase the notes and market interest rates increase, the market value of your notes may decline. We cannot predict the future level of market interest rates.

Holders of the notes will not be entitled to require us to redeem or repurchase the notes upon the occurrence of a change of control or highly levered transactions or other designated events.

Other than as provided in the accompanying prospectus under “Description of Debt Securities—Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets,” the indenture does not afford the holders of the notes protection in the event of (1) a recapitalization transaction or other highly leveraged or similar transaction involving us, (2) a change of control of us or (3) a merger, consolidation, reorganization, restructuring or transfer or lease of all or substantially all of our assets or similar transactions that may adversely affect the holders of the notes. We may, in the future, enter into certain transactions, such as the sale of all or substantially all of our assets or a merger or consolidation that may increase the amount of our indebtedness or substantially change our assets, which may have a material adverse effect on our ability to service our indebtedness, including the notes. Furthermore, the notes and the indenture will not include any provisions that would allow holders of the notes to require us to repurchase or redeem the notes in the event of a transaction of the nature described above.

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Certain statements in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein are considered “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the safe harbor from civil liability provided for such statements by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (set forth in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act). Forward-looking statements involve numerous risks and uncertainties and you should not rely on them as predictions of future events. Forward-looking statements depend on assumptions, data or methods which may be incorrect or imprecise and we may not be able to realize them. We do not guarantee that the transactions and events described will happen as described or that they will happen at all. You can identify forward-looking statements by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “should,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates” or “anticipates” and variations of such words or similar expressions or the negative of such words. You can also identify forward-looking statements by discussions of strategies, plans or intentions. These forward-looking statements reflect our current views about our plans, intentions, expectations, strategies and prospects, which are based on the information currently available to us and on assumptions we have made. Although we believe that our plans, intentions, expectations, strategies and prospects as reflected in or suggested by those forward-looking statements are reasonable, we can give no assurance that the plans, intentions, expectations or strategies will be attained or achieved. Furthermore, actual results may differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements and will be affected by a variety of risks and factors that are beyond our control including, without limitation:

 

   

the factors included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on February 19, 2020, in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on May 6, 2020 and in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2020 filed with the SEC on August 5, 2020, including those set forth under the headings “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”, and beginning on page S-6 of this prospectus supplement under the heading “Risk Factors”;

 

   

economic, business and financial conditions, and changes in our industry and changes in the real estate markets in particular;

 

   

economic and other developments in markets where we have a high concentration of properties;

 

   

our business strategy;

 

   

our projected operating results;

 

   

rental rates and/or vacancy rates;

 

   

frequency and magnitude of defaults on, early terminations of or non-renewal of leases by tenants;

 

   

bankruptcy, insolvency or general downturn in the business of a major tenant or a significant number of smaller tenants;

 

   

adverse impact of e-commerce developments and shifting consumer retail behavior on our tenants;

 

   

interest rates or operating costs;

 

   

the discontinuation of London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR);

 

   

real estate and zoning laws and changes in real property tax rates;

 

   

real estate valuations;

 

   

our leverage;

 

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our ability to generate sufficient cash flows to service our outstanding indebtedness and make distributions to our shareholders;

 

   

changes in the dividend policy for our Class A common stock and our ability to resume the payment of dividends at past levels;

 

   

our ability to obtain necessary outside financing;

 

   

the availability, terms and deployment of capital;

 

   

general volatility of the capital and credit markets and the market price of our Class A common stock;

 

   

risks generally associated with real estate acquisitions and dispositions, including our ability to identify and pursue acquisition and disposition opportunities;

 

   

risks generally associated with redevelopment, including the impact of construction delays and cost overruns and related impact on our estimated investments in such redevelopment, our ability to lease redeveloped space, our ability to identify and pursue redevelopment opportunities and the risk that it takes longer than expected for development assets to stabilize or that we do not achieve our estimated returns on such investments;

 

   

composition of members of our senior management team;

 

   

our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel;

 

   

our ability to continue to qualify as a REIT;

 

   

governmental regulations, tax laws and rates and similar matters;

 

   

our compliance with laws, rules and regulations;

 

   

environmental uncertainties and exposure to natural disasters;

 

   

pandemics or other public health crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and the related impact on (i) our ability to manage our properties, finance our operations and perform necessary administrative and reporting functions and (ii) our tenants’ ability to operate their businesses, generate sales and meet their financial obligations, including the obligation to pay rent and other charges as specified in their leases;

 

   

insurance coverage; and

 

   

the likelihood or actual occurrence of terrorist attacks in the U.S.

The extent to which COVID-19 impacts us and our tenants will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, including the scope, severity and duration of the pandemic, the actions taken to contain the pandemic or mitigate its impact, and the direct and indirect economic effects of the pandemic and containment measures, among others. You should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which are based only on information currently available to us (or to third parties making the forward-looking statements). We undertake no obligation to publicly release any revisions to such forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus supplement, except as required by applicable law. Investors should also refer to our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q for future periods and current reports on Form 8-K as we file them with the SEC and to other materials we may furnish to the public from time to time through Forms 8-K or otherwise.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $391.2 million, after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering costs payable by us. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for the repayment of debt, including the repayment of our $250.0 million unsecured term loan due 2021 and outstanding borrowings under our $850.0 million unsecured revolving line of credit, and for general business purposes. Pending such uses, we may invest the net proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing deposit accounts or interest-bearing U.S. government and government agency securities.

Our $850.0 million unsecured revolving line of credit and our $250.0 million unsecured term loan due 2021 comprise our $1.1 billion unsecured credit facility, which is governed by the Fifth Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, or the Credit Agreement, dated as of April 23, 2018, as amended, with a syndicate of financial institutions led by Wells Fargo Bank, National Association serving as syndication agent and KeyBank National Association serving as administrative agent.

Our unsecured revolving line of credit bears interest at a variable rate per annum equal to LIBOR plus a credit spread based on a leverage grid ranging from 1.05% to 1.50%. The applicable credit spread was 1.15% as of June 30, 2020. Our unsecured revolving line of credit is scheduled to mature on April 22, 2022 (with two six-month extension options subject to compliance with the terms of the Credit Agreement and payment of an extension fee). As of June 30, 2020 and August 10, 2020, $135.0 million and $35.0 million, respectively, was outstanding under our unsecured revolving line of credit. The outstanding borrowings on our unsecured revolving line of credit primarily have been used to fund the acquisition of a ground lease and for general working capital and other general corporate purposes.

Our unsecured term loan due 2021 bears interest at a variable rate per annum based on LIBOR, but has been swapped to a fixed rate of 2.00% plus a credit spread based on a leverage grid ranging from 1.20% to 1.70% through January 5, 2021. The applicable credit spread was 1.35% as of June 30, 2020. Our unsecured term loan due 2021 matures on January 5, 2021.

Affiliates of certain of our underwriters are lenders and/or agents under the Credit Agreement and, therefore, will receive their pro rata share of the net proceeds from this offering that are used to repay our unsecured term loan due 2021 and our unsecured revolving line of credit, respectively. See “Underwriting” in this prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF NOTES

The following description summarizes key terms and provisions of the notes and the indenture referred to below, does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, the actual terms and provisions of the notes and the indenture. The information in this section supplements and, to the extent inconsistent therewith, replaces the information in the accompanying prospectus under the caption “Description of Debt Securities.”

Capitalized terms used but not otherwise defined herein shall have the meanings given to them in the notes or the indenture, as applicable. As used in this “Description of Notes,” references to the “Company,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer solely to Retail Properties of America, Inc. and not to our subsidiaries. Capitalized terms used in this section have the meaning set forth below in “—Definitions.”

General

The notes will be issued pursuant to an indenture between the Company and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee, as supplemented by a supplemental indenture. We refer to the indenture, as supplemented from time to time, as the “indenture.” The indenture will comply with the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act.

The terms of the notes include those provisions contained in the notes and the indenture and those made part of the indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act. The notes are subject to all such terms, and holders of notes are referred to the notes, the indenture and the Trust Indenture Act for a statement thereof. You may request copies of the indenture and the form of the notes from us.

The notes will be issued only in fully registered, book-entry form, in denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof, except under the limited circumstances described below under “—Book-entry, Delivery and Form.” The principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on, the notes will be payable in U.S. dollars. The registered holder of a note will be treated as its owner for all purposes. Only registered holders will have rights under the indenture.

If any interest payment date, stated maturity date or redemption date is not a business day, the payment otherwise required to be made on such date will be made on the next business day without any additional payment as a result of such delay. The term “business day” means, with respect to any note, any day, other than a Saturday, Sunday or any other day on which banking institutions in New York, New York are authorized or obligated by law or executive order to close. All payments will be made in U.S. dollars.

The terms of the notes provide that the Company is permitted to reduce interest payments and payments upon a redemption of notes otherwise payable to a holder for any amounts it is required to withhold by law. For example, non-United States holders of the notes may, under some circumstances, be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax with respect to payments of interest on the notes. The Company will set-off any such withholding tax that it is required to pay against payments of interest payable on the notes and payments upon a redemption of notes.

Ranking

The notes will be the Company’s direct, senior unsecured obligations and will rank equally in right of payment with all of its existing and future unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness from time to time outstanding. The notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to the Company’s existing and future secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness. The notes will also be structurally subordinated in right of payment to all existing and future liabilities and indebtedness, whether secured or unsecured, of our Subsidiaries. As June 30, 2020, we had approximately $93.7 million of secured indebtedness and $1.7 billion of unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness outstanding on a consolidated basis. Of such indebtedness, all of the secured indebtedness and none of the unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness was attributable to our Subsidiaries, all of which would have been effectively senior to the notes.

 

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Except as described under “—Certain Covenants” and in the accompanying prospectus under “Description of Debt Securities—Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets,” the indenture pursuant to which the notes will be issued will not prohibit the Company or any of its Subsidiaries from incurring additional indebtedness or issuing preferred equity in the future, nor will the indenture afford holders of the notes protection in the event of (1) a recapitalization transaction or other highly leveraged or similar transaction involving the Company, (2) a change of control of the Company or (3) a merger, consolidation, reorganization, restructuring or transfer or lease of substantially all of the Company’s assets or similar transaction that may adversely affect the holders of the notes. The Company may, in the future, enter into certain transactions such as the sale of all or substantially all of its assets or a merger or consolidation that may increase the amount of its indebtedness or substantially change its assets, which may have an adverse effect on the Company’s ability to service its indebtedness, including the notes. See “Risk Factors—Holders of the notes will not be entitled to require us to redeem or repurchase the notes upon the occurrence of change of control or highly levered transactions or other designated events.”

Additional Notes

The notes will initially be limited to an aggregate principal amount of $400.0 million. The Company may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of existing holders of the notes, increase the principal amount of the notes outstanding by issuing additional notes in the future on the same terms and conditions as the notes offered by this prospectus supplement in all respects, except for any difference in the issue date and, under certain circumstances, the issue price, interest accrued prior to the issue date of the additional notes and the first interest payment date with the same CUSIP number as the notes offered hereby so long as such additional notes are fungible for U.S. federal income tax purposes with the notes offered hereby. The notes offered by this prospectus supplement and any additional notes would rank equally and ratably in right of payment and would be treated as a single series of debt securities for all purposes under the indenture.

Interest

Interest on the notes will accrue at the rate of 4.750% per year from and including August 25, 2020 or the most recent interest payment date to which interest has been paid or provided for, and will be payable semi-annually in arrears on March 15 and September 15 of each year, beginning March 15, 2021. The interest so payable will be paid to each holder in whose name a note is registered at the close of business on the March 1 or September 1 (whether or not a business day) immediately preceding the applicable interest payment date. Interest on the notes will be computed on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months.

If any interest payment date, stated maturity date or redemption date falls on a day that is not a business day, the required payment shall be made on the next business day as if it were made on the date such payment was due and no interest shall accrue on the amount so payable from and after such interest payment date, stated maturity date or redemption date, as the case may be, to such next business day.

If we redeem the notes in accordance with the terms of such note and the indenture, we will pay accrued and unpaid interest and premium, if any, to the holder that surrenders such note for redemption. However, if a redemption falls after a record date and on or prior to the corresponding interest payment date, we will pay the full amount of accrued and unpaid interest and premium, if any, due on such interest payment date to the holder of record at the close of business on the corresponding record date (instead of the holder surrendering its notes for redemption).

Maturity

The notes will mature on September 15, 2030 and will be paid against presentation and surrender thereof at the corporate trust office of the trustee unless earlier redeemed by us at our option as described under “—Redemption of the Notes at the Option of the Company” below. The notes will not be entitled to the benefits of, or be subject to, any sinking fund.

 

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Redemption of the Notes at the Option of the Company

We may at any time redeem the notes, in whole or in part, at a redemption price equal to (i) 100% of the principal amount of the notes being redeemed plus accrued and unpaid interest on such notes up to, but not including, the date of redemption, and (ii) the Make-Whole Amount, as defined below, if any, with respect to such notes, provided, however, that if the redemption date falls after a record date and on or prior to the corresponding interest payment date, we will pay the full amount of accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on such interest payment date to the holder of record at the close of business on the corresponding record date (instead of surrendering the notes for redemption). Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the notes are redeemed on or after the Par Call Date, as defined below, the redemption price will not include the Make-Whole Amount.

As used herein:

“Make-Whole Amount” means, in connection with any optional redemption of the notes, the excess, if any, of

 

   

the aggregate present value as of the date of such redemption of each dollar of principal being redeemed or paid and the amount of interest, exclusive of interest accrued to the date of redemption, that would have been payable in respect of each such dollar if such redemption had been made on the Par Call Date, determined by discounting, on a semi-annual basis (assuming a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30 day months), such principal and interest at the applicable Reinvestment Rate (determined on the third Business Day preceding the date such notice of redemption is given) from the respective dates on which such principal and interest would have been payable if such redemption had been made on the Par Call Date, over

 

   

the aggregate principal amount of the notes being redeemed.

“Par Call Date” means June 15, 2030, (three months prior to the maturity date of the notes).

“Reinvestment Rate” means the yield on treasury securities at a constant maturity corresponding to the remaining life to maturity (rounded up to the nearest month) of the principal of the notes being redeemed as of the date of such redemption (which maturity shall be deemed to be the Par Call Date) (the “Treasury Yield”), plus 0.500% for the notes being redeemed. For the purposes of calculating the Reinvestment Rate, the Treasury Yield will be equal to the arithmetic mean of the yields published in the Statistical Release under the heading “Week Ending” for “U.S. Government Securities—Treasury Constant Maturities” with a maturity equal to the deemed remaining life to maturity of the notes being redeemed. However, if no published maturity exactly corresponds to such remaining life, then the Treasury Yield will be interpolated or extrapolated on a straight-line basis from the arithmetic means of the yields for the next shortest and next longest published maturities. For purposes of calculating the Reinvestment Rate, the most recent Statistical Release published prior to the date of determination of the Make-Whole Amount will be used. If the format or content of the Statistical Release changes in a manner that precludes determination of the Treasury Yield in the above manner, then the Treasury Yield will be determined in the manner that most closely approximates the above manner, as we reasonably determine.

“Statistical Release” means the statistical release designated “H.15” or any successor publication that is published weekly by the Federal Reserve System and that reports yields on actively traded United States government securities adjusted to constant maturities, or, if that statistical release is not published at the time of any required determination under the indenture, then another reasonably comparable publication in accordance with customary market practice which we will designate.

Notice of any redemption will be mailed at least 15 days but not more than 60 days before the redemption date to each holder of the notes to be redeemed. Unless we default in payment of the redemption price, on and after the redemption date, interest will cease to accrue on the notes or portions thereof called for redemption.

 

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If we decide to redeem the notes in part, the trustee will select the notes to be redeemed (in principal amounts of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof) by lot or by such other method that is required by the depository for the notes.

In the event of any redemption of notes in part, we will not be required to:

 

   

issue or register the transfer or exchange of any note during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the mailing of a notice of redemption of the notes selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing; or

 

   

register the transfer or exchange of any note so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any note being redeemed in part.

If the paying agent holds funds sufficient to pay the redemption price of the notes on the redemption date, then on and after such date:

 

   

such notes will cease to be outstanding;

 

   

interest on such notes will cease to accrue; and

 

   

all rights of holders of such notes will terminate except the right to receive the redemption price.

Such will be the case whether or not book-entry transfer of the notes in book-entry form is made and whether or not notes in certificated form, together with the necessary endorsements, are delivered to the paying agent.

We will not redeem the notes on any date if the principal amount of the notes has been accelerated, and such an acceleration has not been rescinded or cured on or prior to such date.

Certain Covenants

Limitation on total outstanding debt.    The Company will not, and will not permit any Subsidiary to, incur any Debt (including, without limitation, Acquired Debt) if, immediately after giving effect to the incurrence of such Debt and the application of the proceeds from such Debt on a pro forma basis, the aggregate principal amount of all of its and its Subsidiaries’ outstanding Debt (determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with GAAP) is greater than 60% of the sum of the following (without duplication): (1) its and its Subsidiaries’ Total Assets as of the last day of the then most recently ended fiscal quarter for which financial statements are available and (2) the aggregate purchase price of any real estate assets or mortgages receivable acquired, and the aggregate amount of any securities offering proceeds received (to the extent such proceeds were not used to acquire real estate assets or mortgages receivable or used to reduce Debt), by the Company or any Subsidiary since the end of such fiscal quarter, including the proceeds obtained from the incurrence of such additional Debt.

Secured debt test.    The Company will not, and will not permit any of its Subsidiaries to, incur any Debt (including, without limitation, Acquired Debt) secured by any Lien on any of its or any of its Subsidiaries’ property or assets, whether owned on the date of the indenture or subsequently acquired, if, immediately after giving effect to the incurrence of such Debt and the application of the proceeds from such Debt on a pro forma basis, the aggregate principal amount (determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with GAAP) of all of its and its Subsidiaries’ outstanding Debt which is secured by a Lien on any of the Company’s or any of its Subsidiaries’ property or assets is greater than 40% of the sum of (without duplication): (1) its and its Subsidiaries’ Total Assets as of the last day of the then most recently ended fiscal quarter for which financial statements are available; and (2) the aggregate purchase price of any real estate assets or mortgages receivable acquired, and the aggregate amount of any securities offering proceeds received (to the extent such proceeds were not used to acquire real estate assets or mortgages receivable or used to reduce Debt), by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries since the end of such fiscal quarter, including the proceeds obtained from the incurrence of such additional Debt.

Debt service test.    The Company will not, and will not permit any of its Subsidiaries to, incur any Debt (including without limitation Acquired Debt) if the ratio of Consolidated Income Available for Debt

 

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Service to Annual Debt Service Charge for the period consisting of the four consecutive fiscal quarters most recently ended, for which financial statements are available, prior to the date on which such additional Debt is to be incurred shall have been less than 1.5:1 on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the incurrence of such Debt and the application of the proceeds from such Debt (determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with GAAP), and calculated on the following assumptions: (1) such Debt and any other Debt (including, without limitation, Acquired Debt) incurred by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries since the first day of such four-quarter period had been incurred, and the application of the proceeds from such Debt (including to repay or retire other Debt) had occurred, on the first day of such period; (2) the repayment or retirement of any other Debt of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries since the first day of such four-quarter period had occurred on the first day of such period (except that, in making this computation, the amount of Debt under any revolving credit facility, line of credit or similar facility will be computed based upon the average daily balance of such Debt during such period); and (3) in the case of any acquisition or disposition by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries since the first day of such four-quarter period, whether by merger, stock purchase or sale or asset purchase or sale or otherwise, such acquisition or disposition had occurred as of the first day of such period with the appropriate adjustments with respect to such acquisition or disposition being included in such pro forma calculation.

If the Debt giving rise to the need to make the calculation described above or any other Debt incurred after the first day of the relevant four-quarter period bears interest at a floating rate, then, for purposes of calculating the Annual Debt Service Charge, the interest rate on such Debt will be computed on a pro forma basis by applying the average daily rate which would have been in effect during the entire four quarter period to the greater of the amount of such Debt outstanding at the end of such period or the average amount of such Debt outstanding during such period. For purposes of the foregoing, Debt will be deemed to be incurred by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries whenever the Company or any of its Subsidiaries shall create, assume, guarantee or otherwise become liable in respect thereof.

Maintenance of total unencumbered assets.    The Company will not have at any time Total Unencumbered Assets of less than 150% of the aggregate principal amount of all of its and its Subsidiaries’ outstanding Unsecured Debt determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with GAAP.

Existence.    Except as permitted under “Description of Debt Securities—Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets” in the accompanying prospectus, the Company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its existence, rights (charter and statutory) and franchises. However, the Company will not be required to preserve any right or franchise if the Company’s board of directors (or any duly authorized committee of that board of directors), as the case may be, determines that the preservation of the right or franchise is no longer desirable in the conduct of the Company’s business.

Maintenance of properties.    The Company will cause all of its properties used or useful in the conduct of its business or any of its Subsidiaries’ business to be maintained and kept in good condition, repair and working order, normal wear and tear casualty and condemnation excepted, and supplied with all necessary equipment and cause all necessary repairs, renewals, replacements, betterments and improvements to be made, all as in the Company’s judgment may be necessary in order for it to at all times properly and advantageously conduct its business carried on in connection with such properties. The Company will not be prevented from (1) removing permanently any property that has been condemned or suffered a casualty loss, if, in the Company’s reasonable judgment, such removal is in its best interest and is not disadvantageous in any material respect to the holders of the notes, (2) discontinuing maintenance or operation of any property if, in the Company’s reasonable judgment, it is in its best interest, or (3) selling or otherwise disposing for value its properties in the ordinary course of business consistent with the terms of the indenture.

Insurance.    The Company will, and will cause each of its Subsidiaries to, keep in force upon all of its and each of its Subsidiaries’ properties and operations insurance policies carried with responsible companies in such amounts and covering all such risks as is customary in the industry in which the Company and its Subsidiaries do business in accordance with prevailing market conditions and availability.

 

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Payment of taxes and other claims.    The Company will pay or discharge or cause to be paid or discharged before it becomes delinquent:

 

   

all taxes, assessments and governmental charges levied or imposed on it or any of its respective Subsidiaries or on its respective or any such Subsidiary’s income, profits or property, if material to the Company; and

 

   

all lawful claims for labor, materials and supplies that, if unpaid, might by law become a Lien upon its property or the property of any of its Subsidiaries, if material to the Company.

However, the Company will not be required to pay or discharge or cause to be paid or discharged any tax, assessment, charge or claim the amount, applicability or validity of which is being contested in good faith.

Provision of financial information.    The Company will:

 

   

file with the trustee, within 15 days after we are required to file them with the SEC, copies of the annual reports and information, documents and other reports which we may be required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; or, if we are not required to file information, documents or reports pursuant to those Sections, then we will file with the trustee copies of the quarterly and annual financial statements and accompanying Item 303 of Regulation S-K (“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”) disclosure that would be required to be contained in annual reports on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q required to be filed with the SEC if we were subject to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act or any successor provision, within 15 days of the filing date that would be applicable to us at that time pursuant to applicable SEC rules and regulations; and

 

   

file with the trustee and the SEC, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the SEC, such additional information, documents and reports with respect to compliance by the Company with the conditions and covenants of the indenture as may be required from time to time by such rules and regulations.

Reports, information and documents filed with the SEC via the EDGAR system will be deemed to be delivered to the trustee as of the time of such filing via EDGAR for purposes of this covenant; provided, however, that the trustee shall have no obligation whatsoever to determine whether or not such information, documents or reports have been filed via EDGAR. Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the trustee is for informational purposes only and the trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including its compliance with any of its covenants relating to the notes (as to which the trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on an officers’ certificate).

Calculations in Respect of the Notes

Except as explicitly specified otherwise herein, the Company will be responsible for making all calculations required under the notes. The Company will make all these calculations in good faith and, absent manifest error, its calculations will be final and binding on holders of the notes. The Company will provide a schedule of its calculations to the trustee, and the trustee is entitled to rely upon the accuracy of its calculations without independent verification. The trustee will forward the Company’s calculations to any holder of notes upon written request.

Events of Default

The indenture will provide that the following events are “Events of Default” with respect to the notes:

 

   

default for 30 days in the payment of any installment of interest under the notes;

 

   

default in the payment of the principal amount or redemption price due with respect to the notes, when the same becomes due and payable; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity

 

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of the notes in accordance with the terms of the indenture shall not constitute a default in the payment in principal;

 

   

the Company’s failure to comply with any of its other agreements in the notes or the indenture upon the Company’s receipt of notice of such default by the trustee or by holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the notes then outstanding and the Company’s failure to cure (or obtain a waiver of) such default within 60 days after it receives such notice;

 

   

the Company or its Subsidiaries’ failure to pay any Recourse Indebtedness for money borrowed in an outstanding principal amount in excess of $50.0 million at final maturity or upon acceleration after the expiration of any applicable grace period, which Recourse Indebtedness is not discharged, or such default in payment or acceleration is not cured or rescinded, within 30 days after written notice to the Company from the trustee (or to the Company and the trustee from holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding notes); or

 

   

certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, court appointment of a receiver, liquidator or trustee of the Company or any Material Subsidiary or any substantial part of their respective property, or commencement of an involuntary case or other proceeding against the Company or any Material Subsidiary seeking liquidation, reorganization or other relief with respect to the Company or any Material Subsidiary or its debts under any bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law (which involuntary case or other proceeding remains undismissed and unstayed for 30 days). For the purposes of this provision, a “Material Subsidiary” means any Subsidiary that meets either of the following conditions: (1) the Company and its other Subsidiaries’ investments in and advances to the Subsidiary exceed 10% of the Company and its Subsidiaries’ total consolidated assets (determined in accordance with GAAP) as of the end of the most recent fiscal quarter for which a periodic report has been filed under the Exchange Act; or (2) the Company and its other Subsidiaries’ proportionate share of the total assets (after intercompany eliminations) of the Subsidiary exceeds 10% of the Company and its Subsidiaries’ total consolidated assets (determined in accordance with GAAP) as of the end of the most recent fiscal quarter for which a period report has been filed under the Exchange Act.

Defeasance

The Company may, at its option and at any time, elect to have its obligations discharged with respect to the outstanding notes (“Legal Defeasance”). Legal Defeasance means that the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness represented by the outstanding notes, and to have satisfied all other obligations under such notes and the indenture, except as to:

 

   

the rights of holders of outstanding notes to receive payments in respect of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, such notes when such payments are due from the trust funds referred to below;

 

   

the Company’s obligations with respect to such notes concerning exchange and registration of transfer of notes, mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen notes, issuing temporary notes, and the maintenance of an office or agency for payment and money for security payments held in trust;

 

   

the rights, powers, trust, duties, and immunities of the trustee, and the Company’s obligations in connection therewith; and

 

   

the Legal Defeasance provisions of the indenture.

In addition, the Company may, at its option and at any time, elect to have its obligations released with respect to certain covenants under the indenture, including the covenants listed under “—Certain Covenants” above, as described in the indenture (“Covenant Defeasance”), and thereafter any omission to comply with such obligations shall not constitute a default or an Event of Default. In the event Covenant Defeasance occurs, certain Events of Default (not including non-payment, bankruptcy, receivership,

 

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rehabilitation and insolvency events) will no longer apply. Except as specified herein, however, the remainder of the indenture and such notes will be unaffected by the occurrence of Covenant Defeasance, and the notes will continue to be deemed “outstanding” for all other purposes under the indenture other than for the purposes of any direction, waiver, consent or declaration or act of holders (and the consequences of any thereof) in connection with any of the defeased covenants.

In order to exercise either Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance:

 

   

the Company must irrevocably deposit with the trustee, in trust, for the benefit of the holders, cash in U.S. dollars, non-callable government securities, or a combination thereof, in such amounts as will be sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized investment bank, appraisal firm, or firm of independent public accountants, to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on, the outstanding notes on the stated date for payment thereof or on the redemption date of the notes, as the case may be, and the Company must specify whether the notes are being defeased to such stated date for payment or to a particular redemption date;

 

   

in the case of Legal Defeasance, the Company must deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel confirming that:

 

   

the Company has received from, or there has been published by the Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or

 

   

since the date of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable U.S. federal income tax law,

in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion of counsel shall confirm that, the holders of the outstanding notes will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of such Legal Defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such Legal Defeasance had not occurred;

 

   

in the case of Covenant Defeasance, the Company must deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel confirming that the holders of the outstanding notes will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of such Covenant Defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such Covenant Defeasance had not occurred;

 

   

no default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit (other than a default or Event of Default resulting from the borrowing of funds to be applied to such deposit (and any similar concurrent deposit relating to other indebtedness being defeased, discharged or replaced), and the granting of liens to secure such borrowings);

 

   

such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance shall not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, any material agreement or instrument (other than the indenture and the agreements governing any other indebtedness being defeased, discharged or replaced) to which the Company is a party or by which the Company is bound;

 

   

the Company must deliver to the trustee an officers’ certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of preferring the holders of the notes over their other creditors with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any of their creditors or others; and

 

   

the Company must deliver to the trustee an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent relating to the Legal Defeasance or the Covenant Defeasance have been complied with.

Modification, Waiver and Meetings

Modifications and amendments of, and supplements to, the indenture and the notes (other than certain modifications, supplements and amendments for administrative purposes or for the benefit of note holders,

 

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in each case as further described below) will be permitted to be made only with the consent of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of all outstanding notes; provided, however, that no modification or amendment may, without the consent of the holder of each note affected thereby:

 

   

change the stated maturity of the principal of or any installment of interest on the notes issued under such indenture, reduce the principal amount of, or the rate or amount of interest on, or any premium payable on redemption of, the notes, or adversely affect any right of repayment of the holder of the notes, change the place of payment, or the coin or currency, for payment of principal of or interest on any note or impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on or with respect to the notes;

 

   

reduce the above-stated percentage of outstanding notes necessary to modify or amend the indenture, to waive compliance with certain provisions thereof or certain defaults and consequences thereunder or to reduce the quorum or change voting requirements set forth in the indenture;

 

   

modify or affect in any manner adverse to the holders the terms and conditions of our obligations in respect of the payment of principal and interest; or

 

   

modify any of the foregoing provisions or any of the provisions relating to the waiver of certain past defaults or certain covenants, except to increase the required percentage to effect the action or to provide that certain other provisions may not be modified or waived without the consent of the holders of the notes.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, modifications and amendments of the indenture will be permitted to be made by the Company and the trustee without the consent of any holder of the notes for any of the following purposes:

 

   

to evidence a successor to the Company as obligor under the indenture;

 

   

to add to the Company’s covenants for the benefit of the holders of the notes or to surrender any right or power conferred upon the Company in the indenture;

 

   

to add Events of Default for the benefit of the holders of the notes;

 

   

to amend or supplement any provisions of the indenture; provided, that no amendment or supplement shall materially adversely affect the interests of the holders of any notes then outstanding;

 

   

to secure the notes;

 

   

to provide for the acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee or facilitate the administration of the trusts under the indenture by more than one trustee;

 

   

to provide for rights of holders of the notes if any consolidation, merger or sale of all or substantially all of our property or assets occurs;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture; provided, that the action shall not adversely affect the interests of holders of the notes in any material respect;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of additional notes in accordance with the limitations set forth in the indenture;

 

   

to supplement any of the provisions of the indenture to the extent necessary to permit or facilitate defeasance and discharge of any series of the notes; provided, that the action shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of the notes in any material respect; or

 

   

to conform the text of the indenture or the notes to any provision of this “Description of Notes” to the extent that such provision in this “Description of Notes” was intended to be a verbatim recitation of a provision of the indenture or the notes.

 

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In determining whether the holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding notes have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver thereunder or whether a quorum is present at a meeting of holders of the notes, the indenture provides that notes owned by the Company or any of its affiliates shall be disregarded.

The indenture contains provisions for convening meetings of the holders of the notes. A meeting will be permitted to be called at any time by the trustee, and also, upon request, by the Company or the holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the outstanding notes, in any case upon notice given as provided in the indenture. Except for any consent that must be given by the holder of each note affected by certain modifications and amendments of the indenture, any resolution presented at a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum is present will be permitted to be adopted by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding notes; provided, however, that, except as referred to above, any resolution with respect to any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action that may be made, given or taken by the holders of a specified percentage, which is less than a majority, in principal amount of the outstanding notes may be adopted at a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum is present by the affirmative vote of the holders of the specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding notes. Any resolution passed or decision taken at any meeting of holders of the notes duly held in accordance with the indenture will be binding on all holders of the notes. The quorum at any meeting called to adopt a resolution, and at any adjourned meeting duly reconvened, will be holders holding or representing a majority in principal amount of the outstanding notes; provided, however, that if any action is to be taken at the meeting with respect to a consent or waiver which may be given by the holders of not less than a specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding notes, holders holding or representing the specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding notes will constitute a quorum.

Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, any action to be taken at a meeting of holders of the notes with respect to any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action that the indenture expressly provides may be made, given or taken by the holders of a specified percentage which is less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding notes may be taken at a meeting at which a quorum is present by the affirmative vote of holders of the specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding notes.

Trustee

U.S. Bank National Association will initially act as the trustee, registrar and paying agent for the notes, subject to replacement at the Company’s option as provided in the indenture.

If an Event of Default occurs and is continuing, the trustee will be required to use the degree of care and skill of a prudent man in the conduct of its own affairs. The trustee will become obligated to exercise any of its powers under the indenture at the request of any of the holders of the required percentage under the indenture of holders of the notes only after those holders have offered the trustee indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it.

If the trustee becomes one of our creditors, it will be subject to limitations on its rights to obtain payment of claims or to realize on some property received for any such claim, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions with the Company. If, however, it acquires any conflicting interest, it must eliminate that conflict or resign.

No Conversion or Exchange Rights

The notes will not be convertible into or exchangeable for any shares of stock of the Company.

No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees and Stockholders

No past, present or future director, officer, employee, incorporator or stockholder of the Company, as such, will have any liability for any of our obligations under the notes, the indenture or for any claim based

 

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on, in respect of, or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. Each holder of notes by accepting a note waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for issuance of the notes. The waiver may not be effective to waive liabilities under the federal securities laws.

Book-entry, Delivery and Form

The notes will be issued in the form of one or more fully registered global securities (“Global Notes”) that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”), and registered in the name of DTC’s nominee, Cede & Co. The Global Notes may be transferred, in whole and not in part, only to another nominee of DTC or to a successor of DTC or its nominee. Beneficial interests in the Global Notes may not be exchanged for definitive notes in registered certificated form (“Certificated Notes”) except in the limited circumstances described below. See “ —Exchange of Global Notes for Certificated Notes.” Except in the limited circumstances described below, owners of beneficial interests in the Global Notes will not be entitled to receive physical delivery of notes in certificated form. Investors may elect to hold their interest in the Global Securities through either DTC, Clearstream or Euroclear if they are participants in these systems, or indirectly through organizations which are participants in these systems. Clearstream and Euroclear will hold interests on behalf of their participants though customers’ securities accounts in Clearstream and Euroclear’s names on the books of their respective depositaries, which in turn will hold interests in customers’ securities accounts in the depositaries’ names on the books of DTC. At the present time, Citibank, N.A. acts as U.S. depositary for Clearstream and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. acts as U.S. depositary for Euroclear.

Depository Procedures

The following description of the operations and procedures of DTC, Euroclear and Clearstream is provided solely as a matter of convenience. These operations and procedures are solely within the control of the respective settlement systems and are subject to changes by them. The Company takes no responsibility for these operations and procedures and urges investors to contact the system or its participants directly to discuss these matters.

DTC has advised us that DTC is a limited-purpose trust company created to hold securities for its participating organizations (collectively, the “Participants”) and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of transactions in those securities between the Participants through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of its Participants. The Participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations. Access to DTC’s system is also available to other entities such as banks, brokers, dealers and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a Participant, either directly or indirectly (collectively, the “Indirect Participants”). Persons who are not Participants may beneficially own securities held by or on behalf of DTC only through the Participants or the Indirect Participants. The ownership interests in, and transfers of ownership interests in, each security held by or on behalf of DTC are recorded on the records of the Participants and Indirect Participants.

DTC has also advised the Company that, pursuant to procedures established by it:

 

   

upon deposit of the Global Notes, DTC will credit the accounts of the Participants designated by the underwriters with portions of the principal amount of the Global Notes; and

 

   

ownership of these interests in the Global Notes will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership of these interests will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC (with respect to the Participants) or by the Participants and the Indirect Participants (with respect to other owners of beneficial interest in the Global Notes).

Investors in the Global Notes who are Participants may hold their interests therein directly through DTC. Investors in the Global Notes who are not Participants may hold their interests therein indirectly through organizations (including Euroclear and Clearstream) which are Participants. All interests in a Global Note, including those held through Euroclear or Clearstream, may be subject to the procedures and

 

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requirements of DTC. Those interests held through Euroclear or Clearstream may also be subject to the procedures and requirements of such systems. The laws of some states require that certain persons take physical delivery in definitive form of securities that they own. Consequently, the ability to transfer beneficial interests in a Global Note to such persons will be limited to that extent. Because DTC can act only on behalf of the Participants, which in turn act on behalf of the Indirect Participants, the ability of a person having beneficial interests in a Global Note to pledge such interests to persons that do not participate in the DTC system, or otherwise take actions in respect of such interests, may be affected by the lack of a physical certificate evidencing such interests.

Except as described below, owners of interests in the Global Notes will not have notes registered in their names, will not receive physical delivery of notes in certificated form and will not be considered the registered owners or “holders” thereof under the indenture pursuant to which the notes will be issued for any purpose.

Payments in respect of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, a Global Note registered in the name of DTC or its nominee will be payable to DTC in its capacity as the registered holder under the indenture pursuant to which the notes will be issued. Under the terms of the indenture, the Company and the trustee will treat the persons in whose names the notes, including the Global Notes, are registered as the owners of the notes for the purpose of receiving payments and for all other purposes. Consequently, neither we, the trustee nor any agent of the Company or the trustee has or will have any responsibility or liability for:

 

   

any aspect of DTC’s records or any Participant’s or Indirect Participant’s records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interest in the Global Notes or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any of DTC’s records or any Participant’s or Indirect Participant’s records relating to the beneficial ownership interests in the Global Notes; or

 

   

any other matter relating to the actions and practices of DTC or any of its Participants or Indirect Participants.

DTC has advised the Company that its current practice, upon receipt of any payment in respect of securities such as the notes (including principal and interest), is to credit the accounts of the relevant Participants with the payment on the payment date unless DTC has reason to believe that it will not receive payment on such payment date. Each relevant Participant is credited with an amount proportionate to its beneficial ownership of an interest in the principal amount of the relevant security as shown on the records of DTC. Payments by the Participants and the Indirect Participants to the beneficial owners of notes will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices and will be the responsibility of the Participants or the Indirect Participants and will not be the responsibility of DTC, the trustee or us. Neither we nor the trustee will be liable for any delay by DTC or any of the Participants or the Indirect Participants in identifying the beneficial owners of the notes, and we and the trustee may conclusively rely on and will be protected in relying on instructions from DTC or its nominee for all purposes.

DTC has advised the Company that it will take any action permitted to be taken by a holder of notes only at the direction of one or more Participants to whose account DTC has credited the interests in the notes and only in respect of such portion of the aggregate principal amount at maturity of the notes as to which such Participant or Participants has or have given such direction. However, if there is an Event of Default under the notes, DTC reserves the right to exchange the notes for legended notes in certificated form and to distribute such notes to its Participants.

Exchange of Global Notes for Certificated Notes

A Global Note is exchangeable for Certificated Notes if:

 

   

DTC (1) notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as depositary for the Global Notes or (2) has ceased to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor depositary;

 

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the Company, at its option, notifies the trustee in writing that it elects to cause the issuance of the Certificated Notes; or

 

   

upon request from DTC if there has occurred and is continuing a default or Event of Default with respect to the notes.

In addition, beneficial interests in a Global Note may be exchanged for Certificated Notes upon prior written notice given to the trustee by or on behalf of DTC in accordance with the indenture. In all cases, Certificated Notes delivered in exchange for any Global Note or beneficial interests in Global Notes will be registered in the names, and issued in any approved denominations, requested by or on behalf of the depositary (in accordance with its customary procedures).

Exchange of Certificated Notes for Global Notes

Certificated Notes may be exchanged for beneficial interests in Global Notes.

Same Day Settlement and Payment

The underwriters will settle the notes in immediately available funds. The Company will make payments in respect of the notes represented by the Global Notes (including principal, premium, if any, and interest) by wire transfer of immediately available funds to the accounts specified by DTC or its nominee. The Company will make all payments of principal, interest and premium, if any, with respect to Certificated Notes by wire transfer of immediately available funds to the accounts specified by the holders of the Certificated Notes or, if no such account is specified, by mailing a check to each such holder’s registered address. The notes represented by the Global Notes are expected to trade in DTC’s Same-Day Funds Settlement System, and any permitted secondary market trading activity in such notes will, therefore, be required by DTC to be settled in immediately available funds. The Company expects that secondary trading in any Certificated Notes will also be settled in immediately available funds.

Because of time zone differences, the securities account of a Euroclear or Clearstream participant purchasing an interest in a Global Note from a Participant will be credited, and any such crediting will be reported to the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream participant, during the securities settlement processing day (which must be a business day for Euroclear and Clearstream) immediately following the settlement date of DTC. DTC has advised us that cash received in Euroclear or Clearstream as a result of sales of interests in a Global Note by or through a Euroclear or Clearstream participant to a Participant will be received with value on the settlement date of DTC but will be available in the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream cash account only as of the business day for Euroclear or Clearstream following DTC’s settlement date.

Notices

Except as otherwise provided in the indenture, notices to holders of the notes will be given by mail to the addresses of holders of the notes as they appear in the note register; provided that notices given to holders holding notes in book-entry form may be given through the facilities of DTC or any successor depository.

Governing Law

The indenture and the notes will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the law of the State of New York.

Definitions

As used in the indenture, the following terms have the respective meanings specified below:

“Acquired Debt” means Debt of a person:

 

   

existing at the time such person is merged or consolidated with or into the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or becomes a Subsidiary; or

 

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assumed by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries in connection with the acquisition of assets from such person.

Acquired Debt shall be deemed to be incurred on the date the acquired person is merged or consolidated with or into the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or becomes a Subsidiary or the date of the related acquisition, as the case may be.

“Annual Debt Service Charge” means, for any period, the interest expense of the Company and its Subsidiaries for such period, determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with GAAP.

“Consolidated Income Available for Debt Service” for any period means Consolidated Net Income of the Company and its Subsidiaries for such period, plus amounts which have been deducted, and minus amounts which have been added in determining Consolidated Net Income for such period, for, without duplication:

 

   

interest expense of the Company and its Subsidiaries (including amortization of debt discount, premium and deferred financing costs or other deferred charges, the hedge income or expense attributable to transactions involving derivative instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting in accordance with GAAP and gains or losses on early extinguishment of debt);

 

   

provision for taxes;

 

   

losses and gains on sales or other dispositions of properties and other investments, property valuation losses and impairment charges;

 

   

depreciation and amortization;

 

   

net amount of extraordinary items or non-recurring items, as may be determined by us in good faith,

all determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with GAAP. Consolidated Income Available for Debt Service will be adjusted, without duplication, to give pro forma effect in the case of any assets having been placed in service or removed from service from the beginning of the period date of determination, to include or exclude, as the case may be, any Consolidated Income Available for Debt Service earned or eliminated as a result of the placement of the assets in service or the removal of the assets from service as if the placement of the assets in service or the removal of the assets from service occurred at the beginning of the period.

“Consolidated Net Income” means for any period, the amount of net income (or loss) of the Company and its Subsidiaries for such period determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with GAAP, excluding, without duplication, (1) extraordinary items and (2) the portion of net income (but not losses) of the Company and its Subsidiaries allocable to minority interests in unconsolidated persons to the extent that cash dividends or distributions have not actually been received by the Company or one of its Subsidiaries.

“Debt” means, with respect to any person, without duplication:

 

   

indebtedness of such person in respect of borrowed money or evidenced by bonds, notes, debentures or similar instruments;

 

   

indebtedness secured by any Lien on any property or asset owned by such person, but only to the extent of the lesser of (1) the amount of indebtedness so secured and (2) the fair market value (determined in good faith by the board of directors of such person or, in the case of the Company and a Subsidiary, by the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof) of the property subject to such Lien;

 

   

reimbursement obligations, contingent or otherwise, in connection with any letters of credit actually issued or amounts representing the balance (other than letters of credit issued to provide credit enhancement or support with respect to other indebtedness otherwise reflected as Debt under this definition) or unconditional obligations to pay the deferred and unpaid purchase price

 

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of any property, which purchase price is due more than six months after the date of placing such property in service or taking delivery and title thereto, except any such balance that constitutes an accrued expense or trade payable; or

 

   

any lease of property by such person as lessee which is required to be reflected on such person’s balance sheet as a financing lease in accordance with GAAP,

in the case of the items under the first three bullet points above, to the extent that any such items (other than letters of credit) would appear as liabilities on such person’s balance sheet in accordance with GAAP; provided, however, that the term “Debt” will also include, to the extent not otherwise included, any non-contingent obligation of such person to be liable for, or to pay, as obligor, guarantor or otherwise (other than for purposes of collection in the ordinary course of business), Debt of the types referred to above of another person other than obligations to be liable for the Debt of another person solely as a result of non-recourse carveouts (it being understood that Debt shall be deemed to be incurred by such person whenever such person shall create, assume, guarantee (on a non-contingent basis) or otherwise become liable in respect thereof) and (2) exclude any such indebtedness (or obligation referenced in clause (1) above) that has been the subject of an “in substance” defeasance in accordance with GAAP and Intercompany Indebtedness that is subordinate in right of payment to the notes (or an obligation to be liable for, or to pay, Intercompany Indebtedness that is subordinate in right of payment to the notes). In the case of indebtedness under the fourth bullet point, the term “Debt” will exclude operating lease liabilities on such person’s balance sheet in accordance with GAAP.

“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America in effect as of the date of any required calculation or determination.

“Intercompany Indebtedness” means Debt to which the only parties are the Company and any of its Subsidiaries; provided, however, that with respect to any such Debt of which the Company is the borrower, such Debt is subordinate in the right of payment to the notes.

“Lien” means any lien (statutory or other), mortgage, pledge, hypothecation, assignment deposit arrangement, encumbrance or preference, priority or other security agreement of any kind or nature whatsoever.

“Recourse Indebtedness” means any indebtedness of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries with respect to which the liability of the obligor is not limited to the obligor’s interest in specified assets securing such indebtedness, other than with respect to customary exceptions for certain acts or types of liability such as environmental liability, fraud and other customary non-recourse carveouts unless they are judicially determined to have been triggered and then only to the extent of such determination.

“Subsidiary” means a corporation, partnership, association, joint venture, limited liability company or other business entity which is required to be consolidated with the Company in accordance with GAAP.

“Total Assets” means the sum of, without duplication:

 

   

Undepreciated Real Estate Assets; and

 

   

all other assets (excluding accounts receivable, non-real estate intangibles and right-of-use assets associated with an operating lease in accordance with GAAP) of the Company and its Subsidiaries,

all determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with GAAP.

“Total Unencumbered Assets” means the sum of, without duplication:

 

   

those Undepreciated Real Estate Assets which are not subject to a Lien securing Debt; and

 

   

all other assets (excluding accounts receivable, non-real estate intangibles and right-of-use assets associated with an operating lease in accordance with GAAP) of the Company and its Subsidiaries not subject to a Lien securing Debt,

 

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all determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with GAAP; provided, however, that, in determining Total Unencumbered Assets as a percentage of outstanding Unsecured Debt for purposes of the covenant set forth above in “Certain covenants—Maintenance of total unencumbered assets,” all investments in unconsolidated joint ventures, unconsolidated limited partnerships, unconsolidated limited liability companies and other unconsolidated entities shall be excluded from Total Unencumbered Assets to the extent such investments would have otherwise been included.

“Undepreciated Real Estate Assets” means, as of any date, the cost (original acquisition cost plus capital improvements) of real estate assets, right-of-use assets associated with a financing lease in accordance with GAAP and related intangibles of the Company and its Subsidiaries on such date, before depreciation and amortization, all determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with GAAP, provided, however, that “Undepreciated Real Estate Assets” shall not include the right-of-use assets associated with an operating lease in accordance with GAAP.

“Unsecured Debt” means Debt of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries which is not secured by a Lien on any property or assets of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries.

 

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SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

This summary supplements and should be read together with the general discussion of the tax considerations relating to our qualification as a REIT and the ownership and disposition of the notes described in the accompanying prospectus under the title “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.” To the extent any information set forth under the title “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus is inconsistent with this supplemental information, this supplemental information will apply and supersede the information in the accompanying prospectus. This supplemental information is provided on the same basis and subject to the same qualifications as are set forth in the first three paragraphs under the title “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus as if those paragraphs were set forth in this prospectus supplement.

The discussion herein does not address additional considerations that may apply to persons subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of any item of gross income with respect to the notes being taken into account in an applicable financial statement, and does not apply to debt holders who have made the election described in Treasury Regulations Section 1.1272-3 to treat all interest on the notes as original issue discount. Prospective investors in the notes should consult their tax advisors regarding such election.

Recent Partnership Audit Regulations

On December 21, 2018, the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, adopted final Treasury Regulations under Sections 6221-6241 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or the Code, to implement the centralized partnership audit regime. The applicable finalized Treasury Regulations retain the ability of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership to use deficiency dividend procedures with respect to partnership adjustments resulting from a “push-out election.”

Another procedure would allow the partnership to reduce its liability if one or more partners agree to recognize the IRS-imposed adjustment at the partner level, either by filing amended tax returns for the audited year or by complying with the so-called “pull-in” procedure.

Recent FIRPTA Proposed Regulations

On June 7, 2019, the IRS promulgated proposed Treasury Regulations under Section 897 of the Code regarding qualified foreign pension funds. While these proposed Treasury Regulations have not yet been finalized, taxpayers generally may rely on the proposed Treasury Regulations. As a result, the disclosure set forth in the accompanying prospectus is revised so that the second paragraph under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Non-U.S. Shareholders—Special FIRPTA Rules” is replaced with the following paragraph:

For purposes of the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980, or FIRPTA, neither a “qualified foreign pension fund” (as defined below) nor a “qualified controlled entity” (as defined below) is treated as a non-U.S. shareholder. Accordingly, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of ordinary dividends received by qualified foreign pension funds and qualified controlled entities will be determined without regard to the FIRPTA rules discussed above, and their gain from the sale or exchange of our stock, as well as our capital gain dividends and distributions treated as gain from the sale or exchange of our stock, will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless such gain is treated as effectively connected with the qualified foreign pension fund’s (or the qualified controlled entity’s) conduct of a U.S. trade or business. A “qualified foreign pension fund” is an organization or arrangement (i) created or organized in a foreign country, (ii) established to provide retirement or pension benefits to current or former employees (including self-employed individuals) or their designees by either (A) such foreign country as a result of services rendered by such employees to their employers, or (B) one or more employers in consideration for services rendered by such employees to such employers, (iii) which does not have a single participant or beneficiary that has a right to more than 5% of its assets or income, (iv) which is subject to government regulation and with respect to which annual information about its beneficiaries is provided, or is otherwise available, to relevant local tax authorities, and (v) with respect to which, under its local laws, (A) contributions that

 

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would otherwise be subject to tax are deductible or excluded from its gross income or taxed at a reduced rate, or (B) taxation of its investment income is deferred, or such income is excluded from its gross income or taxed at a reduced rate. A “qualified controlled entity” for purposes of the above summary means an entity all the interests of which are held by a qualified foreign pension fund. Alternatively, under proposed Treasury Regulations that taxpayers generally may rely on, but which are subject to change, a “qualified controlled entity” is a trust or corporation organized under the laws of a foreign country all of the interests of which are held by one or more qualified foreign pension funds either directly or indirectly through one or more qualified controlled entities or partnerships.

Recent FATCA Regulations

On December 18, 2018, the IRS promulgated proposed Treasury Regulations under Sections 1471-1474 of the Code (commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, provisions), which proposed regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on gross proceeds of a disposition of property that can produce U.S. source interest or dividends and thus implicate certain tax-related disclosures contained in the accompanying prospectus. While these proposed Treasury Regulations have not yet been finalized, taxpayers are generally entitled to rely on the proposed Treasury Regulations (subject to certain limited exceptions). As a result, the following revisions are made to the disclosure set forth in the accompanying prospectus:

 

   

In the first sentence under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Holders of Certain Fixed Rate Debt Securities—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Debt Securities—Disposition of the Debt Securities,” the phrase “(subject to the discussion below regarding FATCA withholding)” is deleted; and

 

   

The last two sentences in the paragraph under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Foreign Accounts Tax Compliance Act Withholding Rules” are replaced with the following: “Withholding under this legislation applies with respect to any payment of interest, dividends, and certain other types of generally passive income if such payment is from sources within the United States. However, the following payments are not subject to FATCA withholding: (i) income from our stock or our debt securities that is treated as income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States; or (ii) distributions and proceeds from a sale or other disposition of our stock or our debt securities.”

Clarifications

Finally, certain discussions set forth in the accompanying prospectus are clarified.

The discussion of taxable REIT subsidiaries, or TRSs, is clarified in light of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act that, among other amendments, deleted former Section 163(j)(3)(C) of the Code, which imposed certain limits on the ability of a TRS of a REIT to deduct interest payments made by such TRS to such REIT. As a result, the following revisions are made to the disclosure set forth in the accompanying prospectus in the second paragraph under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Investments in TRSs”:

 

   

the third sentence is deleted; and

 

   

the fourth sentence is revised as follows: “For example, we will be obligated to pay a 100% penalty tax on some payments that we receive or on certain expenses deducted by the TRS if the economic arrangements among us, our tenants, and/or the TRS are not comparable to similar arrangements among unrelated parties.”

The discussion under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of U.S. Shareholders— Distributions” is modified to reflect the withdrawal of proposed Treasury Regulations by deleting the last sentence of the third paragraph and replacing it with the following:

 

   

Previously proposed Treasury Regulations, since withdrawn, would have applied a return of capital distribution pro rata, on a share-by-share basis, to each share of stock held by the shareholder with

 

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the class of stock upon which the return of capital distribution is made. This share-by-share approach could result in taxable gain with respect to some of a U.S. shareholder’s shares, even though the U.S. shareholder’s aggregate basis for such shares would be sufficient to absorb the portion of the distribution that is not treated as being made out of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. Although these proposed Treasury Regulations have been withdrawn, the notice withdrawing the proposed Treasury Regulations reiterated that the Treasury Department and IRS believe that under current law, the results of such distributions should derive from the consideration received by a shareholder on a share-by-share basis.

The discussion under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Non-U.S. Shareholders—Distributions” is clarified to explain that the exception to withholding under FIRPTA on distributions with respect to a class of our common stock or preferred stock that are attributable to gain from our sale or exchange of United States real property interests for 10% or smaller holders may apply only if such class of common stock or preferred stock is regularly traded on an established securities market located in the United States.

In the fifth paragraph under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Non-U.S. Shareholders—Distributions,” the reference to “capital gains rates” is hereby replaced by “ordinary income or capital gains rates.”

In the sixth paragraph under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Non-U.S. Shareholders—Distributions,” the reference to “any class of our stock” is hereby replaced with “such class of our stock.”

The discussion under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Holders of Certain Fixed Rate Debt Securities” is limited to persons holding our debt securities as capital assets for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which generally means property held for investment.

 

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UNDERWRITING

Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the underwriting agreement between us and the underwriters named below, for whom Citigroup Global Markets Inc. and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC are acting as representatives, dated the date of this prospectus supplement, we have agreed to sell to each of the underwriters, and each of the underwriters has severally and not jointly agreed to purchase from us, the principal amount of notes set forth opposite its name below.

 

Underwriter

   Principal
Amount
of Securities
 

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

   $ 64,000,000  

Wells Fargo Securities, LLC

   $ 64,000,000  

Jefferies LLC

   $ 40,000,000  

KeyBanc Capital Markets Inc.

   $ 40,000,000  

U.S. Bancorp Investments, Inc.

   $ 40,000,000  

BofA Securities, Inc.

   $ 28,000,000  

Truist Securities, Inc.

   $ 28,000,000  

Capital One Securities, Inc.

   $ 20,000,000  

Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC

   $ 20,000,000  

Regions Securities LLC

   $ 20,000,000  

TD Securities (USA) LLC

   $ 20,000,000  

Samuel A. Ramirez & Company, Inc.

   $ 8,000,000  

Scotia Capital (USA) Inc.

   $ 8,000,000  
  

 

 

 

Total

   $ 400,000,000  
  

 

 

 

The underwriters have agreed, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the underwriting agreement, to purchase all of the principal amount of the notes if any of the notes are purchased.

The underwriters propose to offer the notes directly to the public at the public offering price specified on the cover page to this prospectus supplement and may also offer the notes to certain dealers at the respective public offering prices less a concession not to exceed 0.400% of the principal amount of the notes. The underwriters may allow, and these dealers may reallow, a concession to certain brokers and dealers not to exceed 0.250% of the principal amount of the notes. After the initial offering of the notes, the underwriters may change the public offering price and other selling terms.

The following table shows the underwriting discount that we are to pay the underwriters in connection with this offering (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount of the notes):

 

     Payable by the
Company
 

Per Note

     0.650

The notes are a new issue of securities with no established trading market. We currently have no intention to apply to list the notes on any securities exchange or automated dealer quotation system. The underwriters may make a market in the notes after the completion of this offering but will not be obligated to make a market in the notes and may discontinue such market making at any time at their sole discretion. No assurance can be given as to the liquidity of the trading market for the notes or that an active public market for the notes will develop. If an active public trading market for the notes does not develop, the market price and liquidity of the notes may be adversely affected.

We estimate our expenses for this offering, other than the underwriting discount, to be approximately $900,000, and will be payable by us.

We will agree to indemnify the several underwriters against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or to contribute to payments which the underwriters may be required to make in respect thereof.

 

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In order to facilitate the offering, the underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the notes. Specifically, the underwriters may over-allot in connection with the offering, creating short positions in the notes for their own accounts. In addition, to cover over-allotments or to stabilize the price of the notes, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, notes in the open market. The underwriters may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or dealer for distributing notes in the offering if the underwriters repurchase previously distributed notes in transactions to cover short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or

maintain the market price of the notes above independent market levels. The underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time without notice.

The underwriters also may impose a penalty bid. This occurs when a particular underwriter repays to the underwriters a portion of the underwriting discount received by it because the representatives have repurchased notes sold by or for the account of such underwriter in stabilizing or short covering transactions.

In general, purchases of a security for the purpose of stabilization or to reduce a short position could cause the price of the security to be higher than it might be in the absence of such purchases. The imposition of a penalty bid might also have an effect on the price of a security to the extent that it was to discourage resales of the security.

Neither we nor any underwriter makes any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of the notes. In addition, neither we nor any underwriter makes any representation that the underwriters will engage in such transactions or that such transactions once commenced will not be discontinued without notice.

Other Relationships

The underwriters and their respective affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, commercial and investment banking, financial advisory, investment management, investment research, principal investment, hedging, financing and brokerage activities. Certain of the underwriters and their affiliates have engaged and may in the future engage in transactions with, and, from time to time, have performed and may perform investment banking, corporate trust and/or commercial banking services for, us and certain of our affiliates in the ordinary course of business, for which they have received and will receive customary compensation.

In the ordinary course of their various business activities, the underwriters and their respective affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments including serving as counterparties to certain derivative and hedging arrangements and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers, and such investment and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of the issuer or its affiliates. Certain of the underwriters or their affiliates that have a lending relationship with us may hedge their credit exposure to us consistent with their customary risk management policies. These underwriters and their affiliates could hedge such exposure by entering into transactions which consist of either the purchase of credit default swaps or the creation of short positions in our securities, including potentially the notes offered hereby. Any such credit default swaps or short positions could adversely affect future trading prices of the notes offered hereby. The underwriters and their respective affiliates may also make investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views with respect to such securities or instruments and may at any time hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.

In particular, affiliates of certain of the underwriters are lenders and/or agents under the Credit Agreement, which is comprised of our $850.0 million unsecured revolving line of credit and our $250.0 million unsecured term loan due 2021, as well as under our term loans due 2023, 2024 and 2026 and have previously served as agents for us in private placement transactions. Since we intend to use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to repay our unsecured term loan due 2021 and amounts outstanding under our unsecured revolving line of credit, these lenders will receive a portion of the net proceeds from

 

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this offering through the repayment of such borrowings. The aggregate amount received by the underwriters and their affiliates, as applicable, from the repayment of borrowings may exceed 5% of the proceeds of this offering (not including the underwriting discount). Additionally, Associated Investment Services, Inc. (AIS), a Financial Industry Regulatory Authority member, a subsidiary of Associated Banc-Corp, is being paid a referral fee by Samuel A. Ramirez & Company, Inc.

An affiliate of U.S. Bancorp Invesments, Inc. is acting as trustee under the indenture.

Selling Restrictions

Prohibition of Sales to European Economic Area and United Kingdom Retail Investors

The notes are not intended to be offered, sold or otherwise made available to and should not be offered, sold or otherwise made available to any retail investor in the European Economic Area (“EEA”) or in the United Kingdom (“UK”). For these purposes, a retail investor means a person who is one (or more) of: (i) a retail client as defined in point (11) of Article 4(1) of Directive 2014/65/EU (as amended, “MiFID II”); or (ii) a customer within the meaning of Directive (EU) 2016/97 (as amended, the “Insurance Distribution Directive”), where that customer would not qualify as a professional client as defined in point (10) of Article 4(1) of MiFID II; or (iii) not a qualified investor as defined in Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 (as amended, the “Prospectus Regulation”). Consequently no key information document required by Regulation (EU) No 1286/2014 (as amended, the “PRIIPs Regulation”) for offering or selling the notes or otherwise making them available to retail investors in the EEA or in the UK has been prepared and therefore offering or selling the notes or otherwise making them available to any retail investor in the EEA or in the UK may be unlawful under the PRIIPs Regulation. This prospectus supplement has been prepared on the basis that any offer of notes in any Member State of the EEA will be made pursuant to an exemption under the Prospectus Regulation from the requirement to publish a prospectus for offers of notes. This prospectus supplement is not a prospectus for the purposes of the Prospectus Regulation. References to Regulations or Directives include, in relation to the UK, those Regulations or Directives as they form part of UK domestic law by virtue of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 or have been implemented in UK domestic law, as appropriate.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Canada

The notes may be sold only to purchasers purchasing, or deemed to be purchasing, as principal that are accredited investors, as defined in National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions or subsection 73.3(1) of the Securities Act (Ontario), and are permitted clients, as defined in National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations. Any resale of the notes must be made in accordance with an exemption from, or in a transaction not subject to, the prospectus requirements of applicable securities laws.

Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if this prospectus (including any amendment thereto) contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.

Pursuant to section 3A.3 (or, in the case of securities issued or guaranteed by the government of a non-Canadian jurisdiction, section 3A.4) of National Instrument 33-105 Underwriting Conflicts (NI 33-105), the underwriters are not required to comply with the disclosure requirements of NI 33-105 regarding underwriter conflicts of interest in connection with this offering.

Notice to Prospective Investors in the United Arab Emirates

The notes have not been, and are not being, publicly offered, sold, promoted or advertised in the United Arab Emirates (including the Dubai International Financial Centre) other than in compliance with the laws of the United Arab Emirates (and the Dubai International Financial Centre) governing the issue,

 

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offering and sale of securities. Further, this prospectus does not constitute a public offer of securities in the United Arab Emirates (including the Dubai International Financial Centre) and is not intended to be a public offer. This prospectus has not been approved by or filed with the Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates, the Securities and Commodities Authority or the Dubai Financial Services Authority.

Notice to Prospective Investors in the Dubai International Financial Centre

This prospectus supplement relates to an Exempt Offer in accordance with the Offered Securities Rules of the Dubai Financial Services Authority (“DFSA”). This prospectus supplement is intended for distribution only to persons of a type specified in the Offered Securities Rules of the DFSA. It must not be delivered to, or relied on by, any other person. The DFSA has no responsibility for reviewing or verifying any documents in connection with Exempt Offers. The DFSA has not approved this prospectus supplement nor taken steps to verify the information set forth herein and has no responsibility for the prospectus supplement. The notes to which this prospectus supplement relates may be illiquid and/or subject to restrictions on their resale. Prospective purchasers of the notes offered should conduct their own due diligence on the notes. If you do not understand the contents of this prospectus supplement, you should consult an authorized financial advisor.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Hong Kong

The notes have not been offered or sold and will not be offered or sold in Hong Kong, by means of any document, other than (a) to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571) of Hong Kong and any rules made under that Ordinance; or (b) in other circumstances which do not result in the document being a “prospectus” as defined in the Companies Ordinance (Cap. 32) of Hong Kong or which do not constitute an offer to the public within the meaning of that Ordinance. No advertisement, invitation or document relating to the notes has been or may be issued or has been or may be in the possession of any person for the purposes of issue, whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere, which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public of Hong Kong (except if permitted to do so under the securities laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to notes which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance and any rules made under that Ordinance.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Taiwan

The notes have not been and will not be registered or filed with, or approved by, the Financial Supervisory Commission of Taiwan and/or any other regulatory authority of Taiwan pursuant to relevant securities laws and regulations and may not be sold, issued or offered within Taiwan through a public offering or in circumstances which could constitute an offer within the meaning of the Securities and Exchange Act of Taiwan or relevant laws and regulations that require a registration, filing or approval of the Financial Supervisory Commission of Taiwan and/or any other regulatory authority of Taiwan. No person or entity in Taiwan has been authorized to offer or sell the Notes in Taiwan through a public offering or in any offering that requires registration, filing or approval of the Financial Supervisory Commission of Taiwan except pursuant to the applicable laws and regulations of Taiwan and the competent authority’s rulings thereunder.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Singapore

Each underwriter has acknowledged that this prospectus supplement has not been registered as a prospectus with the Monetary Authority of Singapore. Accordingly, each underwriter has represented and agreed that it has not offered or sold any notes or caused the notes to be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase and will not offer or sell any notes or cause the notes to be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, and has not circulated or distributed, nor will it circulate or distribute, this prospectus supplement or any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of the notes, whether directly or indirectly, to any person in Singapore other than:

 

  (a)

to an institutional investor (as defined in Section 4A of the Securities and Futures Act (Chapter 289) of Singapore, as modified or amended from time to time (the “SFA”)) pursuant to Section 274 of the SFA;

 

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  (b)

to a relevant person (as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA) pursuant to Section 275(1) of the SFA, or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A) of the SFA, and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275 of the SFA; or

 

  (c)

otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with the conditions of, any other applicable provision of the SFA.

Where the notes are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is:

 

  (a)

a corporation (which is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an accredited investor; or

 

  (b)

a trust (where the trustee is not an accredited investor) whose sole purpose is to hold investments and each beneficiary of the trust is an individual who is an accredited investor,

securities or securities-based derivatives contracts (each term as defined in Section 2(1) of the SFA) of that corporation or the beneficiaries’ rights and interest (howsoever described) in that trust shall not be transferred within six months after that corporation or that trust has acquired the notes pursuant to an offer made under Section 275 of the SFA except:

 

  (a)

to an institutional investor or to a relevant person, or to any person arising from an offer referred to in Section 275(1A) or Section 276(4)(i)(B) of the SFA;

 

  (b)

where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer;

 

  (c)

where the transfer is by operation of law;

 

  (d)

as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA; or

 

  (e)

as specified in Regulation 37A of the Securities and Futures (Offers of Investments) (Securities and Securities-based Derivatives Contracts) Regulations 2018.

Singapore Securities and Futures Act Product Classification: Solely for the purpose of its obligations pursuant to Sections 309B(1)(a) and 309B(1)(c) of the SFA, the Company has determined, and hereby notifies all relevant persons (as defined in Section 309A of the SFA) that the Notes are “prescribed capital markets products” (as defined in the Securities and Futures (Capital Markets Products) Regulations 2018) and Excluded Investment Products (as defined in MAS Notice SFA 04-N12: Notice on the Sale of Investment Products and MAS Notice FAA-N16: Notice on Recommendations on Investment Products).

Extended Settlement

We expect that delivery of the notes will be made against payment therefore on or about August 25, 2020, which is the fifth business day following the date of pricing of the notes (such settlement being referred to as “T+5”). Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade the notes on the date of the prospectus supplement or the next     succeeding business days will be required, by virtue of the fact that the notes initially will settle in T+5, to specify an alternative settlement arrangement at the time of any such trade to prevent a failed settlement. Purchasers of the notes who wish to trade the notes on the date of the prospectus supplement or the next succeeding business day should consult their own advisors.

 

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

We incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. We incorporate by reference the following documents we filed with the SEC:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed on February 19, 2020;

 

   

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March  31, 2020 filed on May 6, 2020 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2020 filed on August 5, 2020;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on March 30, 2020 (only with respect to Item 2.03), June  2, 2020, July 17, 2020 and July 21, 2020 (only with respect to Items 8.01 and 9.01); and

 

   

the description of our shares of common stock included in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A (File No. 001-35481) filed on March  28, 2012, as updated by Exhibit 4.4 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed on February 19, 2020.

All documents filed by us under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act on or after the date of this prospectus supplement and prior to the date of the termination of this offering shall also be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and to be a part of this prospectus supplement from the date of filing of those documents; provided, however, that we are not incorporating any information furnished under either Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K. Any statement contained in this prospectus supplement or in a previously filed document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus supplement to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus supplement or in any other subsequently filed document that also is or was deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement modifies or supersedes that statement. Any statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus supplement.

The information relating to us contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus should be read together with the information in the documents incorporated by reference.

You can obtain any of the documents incorporated by reference in this document from us, or from the SEC through the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Documents incorporated by reference are available from us without charge, excluding any exhibits to those documents, unless the exhibit is specifically incorporated by reference as an exhibit in this document. You can obtain documents incorporated by reference in this document, at no cost, by requesting them in writing or by telephone from us at the following address or telephone number:

Retail Properties of America, Inc.

Investor Relations

2021 Spring Road, Suite 200

Oak Brook, Illinois 60523

Telephone (630) 634-4200

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-228142) under the Securities Act with respect to the notes offered by this prospectus supplement. In addition, we file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, which forms a part of the registration statement, do not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and its exhibits and schedules, certain parts of which are omitted in accordance with the SEC’s rules and regulations. For further information about us and the notes offered hereby, we refer you to the registration statement and to such exhibits and schedules. You may review a copy of the registration statement and any other documents filed by us at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Please be aware that statements in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus referring to a contract or other document are summaries and you should refer to the exhibits that are part of the registration statement for a copy of the contract or document.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters with respect to the validity of the notes offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Goodwin Procter LLP. Certain legal matters related to this offering are being passed upon for the underwriters by Hogan Lovells US LLP.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements, and the related financial statement schedules, incorporated in the accompanying Prospectus as supplemented by this Prospectus Supplement by reference from Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, and the effectiveness of Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their reports, which are incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedules have been so incorporated in reliance upon the reports of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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LOGO

 

RETAIL PROPERTIES OF AMERICA, INC.

Class A Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Depositary Shares

Debt Securities

Warrants

Stock Purchase Contracts

Units

 

 

This prospectus provides you with a general description of debt and equity securities that Retail Properties of America, Inc. and selling security holders may offer and sell from time to time. Each time we or selling security holders sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that sale and may add to or update the information in this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement carefully before you invest in our securities.

Retail Properties of America, Inc. may offer and sell these securities to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and/or agents on a continuous or delayed basis.

Our Class A common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol “RPAI.” On November 1, 2018, the last reported sale price of our Class A common stock on the NYSE was $12.06.

Investing in our securities involves various risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 4 as well as the risk factors contained in documents Retail Properties of America, Inc. files with the Securities and Exchange Commission and which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities, or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is November 2, 2018


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     4  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     4  

HOW WE INTEND TO USE THE PROCEEDS

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF STOCK PURCHASE CONTRACTS

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK AND PREFERRED STOCK

     10  

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

     15  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     17  

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     33  

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     39  

SELLING SECURITY HOLDERS

     63  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     64  

INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

     69  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     70  

EXPERTS

     71  

LEGAL MATTERS

     71  

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary only highlights the more detailed information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. It may not contain all of the information that is important to you. You should carefully read the entire prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus before deciding whether to invest in our securities.

Unless the context otherwise requires, or unless otherwise specified, all references in this prospectus to the terms “we,” “us,” “our” and “our company” refer to Retail Properties of America, Inc., a Maryland corporation, together with its consolidated subsidiaries.

About This Prospectus

This document is called a “prospectus” and it provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement containing specific information about the terms of the securities being offered. That prospectus supplement may include a discussion of any risk factors or other special considerations that apply to those securities. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change the information in this prospectus. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and in a prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in that prospectus supplement. You should read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Retail Properties of America, Inc. has filed a registration statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a shelf registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may offer and sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, in one or more offerings.

Our SEC registration statement containing this prospectus, including exhibits, provides additional information about us and the securities offered under this prospectus. The registration statement can be read on the SEC’s website, which is provided under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

When acquiring securities, you should rely only on the information provided in this prospectus and in the related prospectus supplement, including any information incorporated by reference. No one is authorized to provide you with information different from that which is contained, or deemed to be contained, in the prospectus and related prospectus supplement. We and the selling security holders, if applicable, are not offering securities in any state where the offer of such securities is prohibited. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any document incorporated by reference is truthful or complete as of any date other than the date indicated on the cover page of these documents.

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements. You should read the explanation of the qualifications and limitations on such forward-looking statements on page 4 of this prospectus. You should also carefully consider the various risk factors incorporated by reference into this prospectus from our SEC filings, which risk factors may cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated by such forward-looking statements. You should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements.

Unless otherwise stated, currency amounts in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement are stated in United States dollars.

About Retail Properties of America, Inc.

We are a real estate investment trust, or REIT, that owns and operates high quality, strategically located open-air shopping centers, including properties with a mixed-use component. As of September 30, 2018, we



 

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owned 105 retail operating properties in the United States representing 19,466,000 square feet of gross leasable area, or GLA. Our retail operating portfolio includes (i) neighborhood and community centers, (ii) power centers, and (iii) lifestyle centers and multi-tenant retail-focused mixed-use properties, as well as single-user retail properties.

The following table summarizes our retail operating portfolio as of September 30, 2018:

 

Property Type

  Number of
Properties
    GLA
(in thousands)
    Occupancy     Percent
Leased
Including
Leases
Signed (a)
 

Retail operating portfolio:

       

Multi-tenant retail:

       

Neighborhood and community centers

    61       9,798       91.8     94.2

Power centers

    26       5,512       92.1     93.4

Lifestyle centers and mixed-use properties

    15       3,800       92.0     93.7
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total multi-tenant retail

    102       19,110       91.9     93.9

Single-user retail

    3       356       100.0     100.0
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total retail operating portfolio

    105       19,466       92.1     94.0
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Redevelopment projects:

       

Reistertown Road Plaza

    1        

Circle East—redevelopment portion (b)

    —          

Carillon (c)

    1        
 

 

 

       

Total number of wholly-owned properties

    107        
 

 

 

       

 

(a)

Includes leases signed but not commenced.

(b)

This portion of the property was formerly known as Towson Circle and the operating portion, which was formerly known as Towson Square, is included in lifestyle centers and mixed-use properties within the property count for our retail operating portfolio.

(c)

We have begun activities in anticipation of future redevelopment of this property, which was formerly known as Boulevard at the Capital Centre.

Our principal executive office is located at 2021 Spring Road, Suite 200, Oak Brook, Illinois 60523, and our telephone number is (630) 634-4200. We maintain an internet website at www.rpai.com that contains information concerning us. The information included, or referenced to, on, or otherwise accessible through, our website is not intended to form a part of or be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges

The following table sets forth Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s consolidated ratio of earnings to fixed charges for each of the periods shown:

 

     Nine Months
Ended
September 30,
2018
     Year Ended
December 31,
2017
     Year Ended
December 31,
2016
     Year Ended
December 31,
2015
     Year Ended
December 31,
2014
     Year Ended
December 31,
2013
 

Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges

     2.10        2.67        2.47        1.88        1.34        —   (a) 

 

(a)

The ratio was less than 1:1 for the year ended December 31, 2013 as earnings were inadequate to cover fixed charges by a deficiency of approximately $28.7 million.



 

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The ratio of earnings to fixed charges was computed by dividing earnings by fixed charges. Earnings consist of (a) pretax income or loss from continuing operations and gain on sales of investment properties before adjustment for income or loss from unconsolidated joint ventures, plus (b) fixed charges, plus (c) amortization of capitalized interest, plus (d) distributions on investments in unconsolidated joint ventures, plus (e) the Company’s share of pretax losses of investments in unconsolidated joint ventures for which charges arising from guarantees are included in fixed charges, less (f) interest capitalized, less (g) preference security dividend requirements of consolidated subsidiaries, less (h) the noncontrolling interests in pretax income of subsidiaries that have not incurred fixed charges. Fixed charges consist of the sum of (a) interest expensed and capitalized, (b) amortized premiums, discounts and capitalized expenses related to indebtedness, (c) an estimate of the interest within rental expense, and (d) preference security dividend requirements of consolidated subsidiaries.

Ratio of Earnings to Combined Fixed Charges and Preferred Stock Dividends

The following table sets forth Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s consolidated ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends for each of the periods shown:

 

     Nine Months
Ended
September 30,
2018
     Year Ended
December 31,
2017
     Year Ended
December 31,
2016
     Year Ended
December 31,
2015
     Year Ended
December 31,
2014
     Year Ended
December 31,
2013
 

Ratio of Earnings to Combined Fixed Charges and Preferred Stock Dividends

     2.10        2.45        2.28        1.76        1.25        —   (a) 

 

(a)

The ratio was less than 1:1 for the year ended December 31, 2013 as earnings were inadequate to cover fixed charges by a deficiency of approximately $38.1 million.

The ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends was computed by dividing earnings by fixed charges and preferred stock dividends. Earnings consist of (a) pretax income or loss from continuing operations and gain on sales of investment properties before adjustment for income or loss from unconsolidated joint ventures, plus (b) fixed charges, plus (c) amortization of capitalized interest, plus (d) distributions on investments in unconsolidated joint ventures, plus (e) the Company’s share of pretax losses of investments in unconsolidated joint ventures for which charges arising from guarantees are included in fixed charges, less (f) interest capitalized, less (g) preference security dividend requirements of consolidated subsidiaries, less (h) the noncontrolling interests in pretax income of subsidiaries that have not incurred fixed charges. Fixed charges consist of the sum of (a) interest expensed and capitalized, (b) amortized premiums, discounts and capitalized expenses related to indebtedness, (c) an estimate of the interest within rental expense, and (d) preference security dividend requirements of consolidated subsidiaries. Preferred stock dividends are the amount of pretax earnings that are required to pay the dividends on outstanding preferred stock. During the year ended December 31, 2017, we redeemed all outstanding shares of our preferred stock.



 

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RISK FACTORS

You should carefully consider the risks described in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus before making an investment decision. These risks are not the only ones facing our company. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by the occurrence of any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to the materialization of any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks described in the documents incorporated herein by reference, including (i) Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, (ii) Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2018, June 30, 2018 and September 30, 2018 and (iii) documents Retail Properties of America, Inc. files with the SEC after the date of this prospectus that are deemed incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Certain statements in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein may constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the safe harbor from civil liability provided for such statements by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (set forth in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act). Forward-looking statements involve numerous risks and uncertainties and you should not rely on them as predictions of future events. Forward-looking statements depend on assumptions, data or methods which may be incorrect or imprecise and we may not be able to realize them. We do not guarantee that the transactions and events described will happen as described (or that they will happen at all). You can identify forward-looking statements by use of forward-looking terminology such as “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “should,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates,” “contemplates,” “would” or “anticipates” and variations of such words or similar expressions or the negative of such words. You can also identify forward-looking statements by discussions of strategies, plans or intentions. Risks, uncertainties and changes in the following factors, among others, could cause actual results and future events to differ materially from those set forth or contemplated in the forward-looking statements:

 

   

economic, business and financial conditions, and changes in our industry and changes in the real estate markets in particular;

 

   

economic and other developments in markets where we have a high concentration of properties;

 

   

our business strategy;

 

   

our projected operating results;

 

   

rental rates and/or vacancy rates;

 

   

frequency and magnitude of defaults on, early terminations of or non-renewal of leases by tenants;

 

   

bankruptcy or insolvency of a major tenant or a significant number of smaller tenants;

 

   

adverse impact of e-commerce developments and shifting consumer retail behavior on our tenants;

 

   

interest rates or operating costs;

 

   

real estate and zoning laws and changes in real property tax rates;

 

   

real estate valuations;

 

   

our leverage;

 

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our ability to generate sufficient cash flows to service our outstanding indebtedness and make distributions to our shareholders;

 

   

our ability to obtain necessary outside financing;

 

   

the availability, terms and deployment of capital;

 

   

general volatility of the capital and credit markets and the market price of our Class A common stock;

 

   

risks generally associated with real estate acquisitions and dispositions, including our ability to identify and pursue acquisition and disposition opportunities;

 

   

risks generally associated with redevelopment, including the impact of construction delays and cost overruns, our ability to lease redeveloped space and our ability to identify and pursue redevelopment opportunities;

 

   

composition of members of our senior management team;

 

   

our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel;

 

   

our ability to continue to qualify as a REIT;

 

   

governmental regulations, tax laws and rates and similar matters;

 

   

our compliance with laws, rules and regulations;

 

   

environmental uncertainties and exposure to natural disasters;

 

   

insurance coverage; and

 

   

the likelihood or actual occurrence of terrorist attacks in the U.S.

Readers should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which are based only on information currently available to us (or to third parties making the forward-looking statements). We undertake no obligation to publicly release any revisions to such forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus, except as required by applicable law. Investors should also refer to Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s annual reports on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q for future periods and current reports on Form 8-K as it files them with the SEC, and to other materials Retail Properties of America, Inc. may furnish to the public from time to time through Forms 8-K or otherwise.

 

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HOW WE INTEND TO USE THE PROCEEDS

Unless we provide otherwise in a supplement to this prospectus, we expect to use the net proceeds from any sale of securities by us under this prospectus for one or more of the following:

 

   

the acquisition, development, redevelopment and improvement of properties;

 

   

the repayment of debt;

 

   

the possible repurchase of shares of our stock;

 

   

capital expenditures;

 

   

working capital; and

 

   

other general business purposes.

Pending such uses, we may temporarily invest the net proceeds. The precise amounts and timing of the application of proceeds will depend upon our funding requirements and the availability of other funds. Except as mentioned in any prospectus supplement, specific allocations of the proceeds to such purposes will not have been made at the date of that prospectus supplement.

Based upon our historical and anticipated future growth and our financial needs, we may engage in additional financings of a character and amount that we determine as the need arises.

We will not receive any of the proceeds of the sale by selling security holders of the securities covered by this prospectus.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

Please note that in the sections entitled “Description of Warrants,” “Description of Stock Purchase Contracts,” “Description of Units,” “Description of Common and Preferred Stock,” “Description of Depositary Shares” and “Description of Debt Securities,” references to “we,” “our” and “us” refer only to Retail Properties of America, Inc. and not to its consolidated subsidiaries. The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer from time to time. This summary does not contain all of the information that you may find useful. The particular terms of any of the warrants that we may offer and the related agreements will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those warrants. For more information, you should review the relevant form of warrant agreement and the relevant form of warrant certificate, if any, which will be filed with the SEC.

We may issue warrants for the purchase of one or more of the other securities described in this prospectus. Warrants may be issued independently, together with any other securities offered by any prospectus supplement and may be attached to or separate from such securities. We may issue warrants under a warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a warrant agent. We will name any warrant agent in the applicable prospectus supplement. You should review the applicable prospectus supplement for the specific terms of any warrants that may be offered, including:

 

   

the title of such warrants;

 

   

the aggregate number of the warrants;

 

   

the price or prices at which the warrants will be issued;

 

   

the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants will be issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security;

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which the warrants and the related security, if any, will be separately transferable;

 

   

the price at which each security that can be purchased upon exercise of such warrants may be purchased;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and the date on which such right will expire;

 

   

the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which may be exercised at any one time, if applicable;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

a discussion of certain federal income tax considerations; and

 

   

any other terms of such warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the transferability, exchange and exercise of such warrants.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF STOCK PURCHASE CONTRACTS

The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the stock purchase contracts that we may offer from time to time. This summary does not contain all of the information that you may find useful. The particular terms of any purchase contract that we may offer and the related agreements will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those stock purchase contracts. For more information, you should review the relevant form of stock purchase contract and the relevant form of pledge agreement for stock purchase contracts, if any, which will be filed with the SEC.

If we offer any stock purchase contracts, certain terms of that series of stock purchase contracts will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following:

 

   

the price of the securities or other property subject to the stock purchase contracts (which may be determined by reference to a specific formula described in the stock purchase contracts);

 

   

any requirement for us to make periodic payments to holders or vice versa, and whether the payments are unsecured or pre-funded;

 

   

any provisions relating to any security provided for the stock purchase contracts;

 

   

whether the stock purchase contracts obligate the holder or us to purchase or sell, or both purchase and sell, the securities subject to purchase or sale under the stock purchase contract, and the nature and amount of each of those securities, or the method of determining those amounts;

 

   

whether the stock purchase contracts are to be prepaid or not;

 

   

whether the stock purchase contracts are to be settled by delivery, or by reference or linkage to the value, performance or level of the securities subject to purchase under the stock purchase contract;

 

   

any acceleration, cancellation, termination or other provisions relating to the settlement of the stock purchase contracts;

 

   

whether the stock purchase contracts will be issued in fully registered or global form;

 

   

a discussion of certain federal income tax considerations; and

 

   

any other terms of such stock purchase contracts and any securities subject to such stock purchase contracts.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the units that we may offer from time to time. This summary does not contain all of the information that you may find useful. The particular terms of any of the units that we may offer and the related agreements will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those units. For more information, you should review the relevant form of unit agreement and the relevant form of unit certificate, if any, which will be filed with the SEC.

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities described in this prospectus in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The prospectus supplement will describe:

 

   

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances the securities comprising the units may be held or transferred separately;

 

   

a description of the terms of any unit agreement governing the units;

 

   

a description of the provisions for the payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units;

 

   

the applicable U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to the units; and

 

   

any other terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK AND PREFERRED STOCK

The following description of our common stock and preferred stock is not complete but is a summary of the rights and preferences of our common stock and preferred stock. While we believe that the following description covers the material terms of our common stock and preferred stock, the description may not contain all of the information that is important to you. We encourage you to read carefully our charter and bylaws and the applicable provisions of Maryland law for a more complete understanding of our common stock and preferred stock. Any series of preferred stock we issue will be governed by our charter (as amended and in effect as of the date of such issuance). Copies of our charter and bylaws are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and the following summary, to the extent it relates to those documents, is qualified in its entirety by reference thereto.

General

Our charter provides that we may issue up to 475,000,000 shares of Class A common stock, 55,000,000 shares of Class B-1 common stock, 55,000,000 shares of Class B-2 common stock, 55,000,000 shares of Class B-3 common stock and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, each having a par value of $0.001 per share. As of October 26, 2018, there were 215,457,346 shares of Class A common stock issued and outstanding and no shares of preferred stock issued and outstanding. We issued shares of our Class B-1 common stock, Class B-2 common stock and Class B-3 common stock, collectively our Class B common stock, as a stock dividend in March 2012 in anticipation of the listing of our Class A common stock on the NYSE. All outstanding shares of our Class B common stock subsequently converted into shares of our Class A common stock in accordance with their terms and we do not intend to issue any shares of our Class B common stock in the future. Our board of directors, without any action on the part of our shareholders, may authorize the issuance of common stock or preferred stock, may establish the terms of any stock to be issued, and, with the approval of a majority of the entire board, may amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series. Under Maryland law, our shareholders generally are not personally liable for our debts and obligations solely as a result of their status as shareholders.

Common Stock

All shares of our common stock have equal rights as to earnings, assets, dividends and voting. Subject to our charter restrictions on the transfer and ownership of our stock and the preferential rights of holders of any other class or series of our stock, distributions may be made to the holders of our common stock if, as and when authorized by our board of directors out of funds legally available therefor. Shares of our Class A common stock generally have no preemptive, appraisal, preferential exchange, conversion, sinking fund or redemption rights and are freely transferable, except where their transfer is restricted by federal and state securities laws, by contract or by the restrictions in our charter. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, each share of our common stock would be entitled to share ratably in all of our assets that are legally available for distribution after payment of or adequate provision for all of our known debts and other liabilities and subject to any preferential rights of holders of our preferred stock, if any preferred stock is outstanding at such time, and our charter restrictions on the transfer and ownership of our stock. Subject to our charter restrictions on the transfer and ownership of our stock and except as may otherwise be specified in the terms of any class or series of common stock, each share of our common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of shareholders, including the election of directors. Except as may be provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, the holders of our common stock will possess exclusive voting power. Except as required under Maryland law, holders of all classes of our common stock will vote together as a single class.

Under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation generally cannot amend its charter, consolidate, merge, sell all or substantially all of its assets, engage in a share exchange or dissolve unless the action is advised by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast with respect to such matter. However, a Maryland corporation may provide in its charter for approval of these matters by a

 

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lesser percentage, but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast with respect to such matter. As permitted by Maryland law, our charter provides that any of these actions may be approved by the affirmative vote of a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast with respect to such matter. In addition, all other matters to be voted on by shareholders, other than the election of directors, must be approved by a majority of the votes cast at a meeting at which a quorum is present, voting together as a single class, subject to any voting rights granted to holders of any then outstanding preferred stock. Pursuant to our bylaws, in a contested election, a director is elected by a plurality of all of the votes cast in the election of directors, and in an uncontested election, a director is elected if he or she receives more votes for his or her election than votes against his or her election. There is no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which means that holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock can elect all of our directors. For more information regarding the voting standard for director elections, see “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws—Annual Elections; Majority Voting.”

Preferred Stock

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to designate and issue one or more classes or series of preferred stock without shareholder approval. Our board of directors may determine the relative rights, preferences and privileges of each class or series of preferred stock so issued. The specific terms of a particular class or series of preferred stock will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series.

Power to Reclassify Our Unissued Shares of Stock

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of common or preferred stock into other classes or series of shares of stock. Prior to the issuance of shares of each class or series, our board of directors is required by Maryland law and by our charter to set, subject to our charter restrictions on transfer and ownership of shares of stock, the terms, preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms or conditions of redemption for each class or series. Therefore, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of common or preferred stock with terms and conditions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for our shares of common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our shareholders.

Power to Increase or Decrease Authorized Shares of Common Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Common and Preferred Stock

We believe that the power of our board of directors to amend our charter to increase or decrease the number of authorized shares of stock, to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of common or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of common or preferred stock and thereafter to issue such classified or reclassified shares of stock will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise. The additional classes or series, as well as the shares of common stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our shareholders, unless such action is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or market system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Therefore, our board of directors could authorize us to issue a class or series that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for our shares of common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our shareholders.

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

In order for us to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or the Code, our stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been

 

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made). Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of our stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer “individuals” (as defined in the Code to include certain entities such as private foundations) during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first taxable year for which an election to be a REIT has been made).

Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock. The relevant sections of our charter provide that, after the amendment and restatement of our charter and subject to the exceptions and the constructive ownership rules described below, no person may beneficially or constructively own more than 9.8% in value of the aggregate of our outstanding shares of stock or more than 9.8% in value or number (whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of our common stock. We refer to these restrictions as the “ownership limits.”

The applicable constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be treated as owned by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% in value of our outstanding stock or less than 9.8% in value or number of our outstanding shares of common stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns, actually or constructively, our stock) by an individual or entity could nevertheless cause that individual or entity, or another individual or entity, to own, constructively or beneficially, in excess of 9.8% in value of our outstanding stock or 9.8% in value or number of our outstanding shares of common stock.

In addition to the ownership limits, our charter prohibits any person from actually or constructively owning shares of our stock to the extent that such ownership would cause any of our income that would otherwise qualify as “rents from real property” for purposes of Section 856(d) of the Code to fail to qualify as such. Our charter also prohibits any person from beneficially owning shares of our stock to the extent that such ownership would result in our being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code, without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year.

Our board of directors may, in its sole discretion, exempt a person from the ownership limits and certain other limits on ownership and transfer of our stock described above, and may establish a different limit on ownership for any such person. However, the board of directors may not exempt any person whose ownership of our outstanding stock in violation of these limits would result in our failing to qualify as a REIT. In order to be considered by the board of directors for exemption, a person must make such representations and undertakings as are reasonably necessary to ascertain that such person’s beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock will not now or in the future jeopardize our ability to qualify as a REIT under the Code and must agree that any violation or attempted violation of such representations or undertakings will result in the shares of stock being automatically transferred to a trust as described below. As a condition of its waiver, our board of directors may require an opinion of counsel or Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, ruling satisfactory to our board of directors with respect to our qualification as a REIT and may impose such other conditions as it deems appropriate in connection with the granting of the waiver.

In connection with the waiver of the ownership limits or at any other time, our board of directors may from time to time increase the ownership limits for one or more persons and decrease the ownership limits for all other persons; provided that the new ownership limits may not, after giving effect to such increase, result in us being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interests are held during the last half of a taxable year). Reduced ownership limits will not apply to any person whose percentage ownership of our shares of common stock or total shares of stock, as applicable, is in excess of such decreased ownership limits until such time as such person’s percentage of our shares of common stock or total shares of stock, as applicable, equals or falls below the decreased ownership limits, but any further acquisition of our shares of common stock or total shares of stock, as applicable, in excess of such percentage ownership of our shares of common stock or total shares of stock will be in violation of the ownership limits.

 

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Our charter further prohibits:

 

   

any person from transferring shares of our stock if such transfer would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution); and

 

   

any person from beneficially or constructively owning shares of our stock if such ownership would result in our failing to qualify as a REIT.

Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that will or may violate the ownership limits or any of the other foregoing restrictions on transferability and ownership will be required to give notice to us immediately (or, in the case of a proposed or attempted transaction, at least 15 days prior to such transaction) and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of such transfer on our qualification as a REIT. The foregoing provisions on transferability and ownership will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT.

Pursuant to our charter, if there is any purported transfer of our stock or other event that, if effective, would violate any of the restrictions described above, then the number of shares causing the violation (rounded up to the nearest whole share) will be automatically transferred to a trust for the exclusive benefit of a designated charitable beneficiary, except that any transfer that results in the violation of the restriction relating to our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons will be automatically void and of no force or effect. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the purported transfer or other event that results in a transfer to the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the purported transferee, prior to our discovery that the shares had been automatically transferred to a trust as described above, must be repaid to the trustee upon demand. If the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent violation of the applicable restriction contained in our charter, then the transfer of the excess shares will be automatically void and of no force or effect.

Shares of our stock transferred to the trustee are deemed to be offered for sale to us or our designee at a price per share equal to the lesser of (i) the price per share in the transaction that resulted in such transfer to the trust (or, in the case of a devise or gift, the market price at the time of such devise or gift) and (ii) the market price on the date we accept, or our designee accepts, such offer. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our stock held in the trust pursuant to the clauses discussed below. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates and the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the purported transferee, except that the trustee may reduce the amount payable to the purported transferee by the amount of any dividends or other distributions that we paid to the purported transferee prior to our discovery that the shares had been transferred to the trust and that is owed by the purported transferee to the trustee as described above. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the purported transferee shall be immediately paid to the charitable beneficiary, and any dividends or other distributions held by the trustee with respect to such stock will be paid to the charitable beneficiary.

If we do not buy the shares, the trustee must, as soon as reasonably practicable (and, if the shares are listed on a national securities exchange, within 20 days) of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, sell the shares to a person or entity designated by the trustee who could own the shares without violating the restrictions described above. Upon such a sale, the trustee must distribute to the purported transferee an amount equal to the lesser of (i) the price paid by the purported transferee for the shares or, if the purported transferee did not give value for the shares in connection with the event causing the shares to be held in trust (e.g., in the case of a gift, devise or other such transaction), the market price of the shares on the day of the event causing the shares to be held in the trust, and (ii) the sales proceeds (net of commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trustee for the shares. The trustee may reduce the amount payable to the purported transferee by the amount of any dividends or other distributions that we paid to the purported transferee before our discovery that the shares had been transferred to the trust and that is owed by the purported transferee to the trustee as described above.

 

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Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the purported transferee will be immediately paid to the charitable beneficiary, together with any dividends or other distributions thereon. In addition, if prior to discovery by us that shares of our stock have been transferred to a trust, such shares of stock are sold by a purported transferee, then such shares shall be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and, to the extent that the purported transferee received an amount for or in respect of such shares that exceeds the amount that such purported transferee was entitled to receive, such excess amount shall be paid to the trustee upon demand. The purported transferee has no rights in the shares held by the trustee.

The trustee shall be designated by us and shall be unaffiliated with us and with any purported transferee. Prior to the sale of any shares by the trust, the trustee will receive, in trust for the beneficiary, all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to the shares, and may also exercise all voting rights with respect to the shares.

Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee shall have the authority, at the trustee’s sole discretion:

 

   

to rescind as void any vote cast by a purported transferee prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust; and

 

   

to recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the beneficiary of the trust.

However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind and recast the vote.

In addition, if our board of directors determines in good faith that a proposed transfer would violate the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter, our board of directors will take such action as it deems advisable to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such violation, including, but not limited to, causing the company to redeem shares of common stock or preferred stock, refusing to give effect to the transfer on our books or instituting proceedings to enjoin the transfer.

Following the end of each REIT taxable year, every owner of 5% or more (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder) of the outstanding shares of any class or series of our stock, must, upon request, provide us written notice of the person’s name and address, the number of shares of each class and series of our stock that the person beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner shall also provide us with such additional information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of such owner’s beneficial ownership on our qualification as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits. In addition, each beneficial owner or constructive owner of our stock, and any person (including the shareholder of record) who is holding shares of our stock for a beneficial owner or constructive owner shall, upon demand, be required to provide us with such information as we may request in good faith in order to determine our qualification as a REIT and to comply with the requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance.

All certificates representing shares of stock, if any, will bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.

These ownership limits could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our shareholders.

Stock Exchange Listing

Our shares of common stock are listed on the NYSE under the symbol “RPAI.”

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

The following description of shares represented by depositary shares sets forth certain general terms and provisions of depositary agreements, depositary shares and depositary receipts. This summary does not contain all of the information that you may find useful. The particular terms of the depositary shares and related agreements and receipts will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those depositary shares. For more information, you should review the relevant form of deposit agreement and relevant form of depositary receipts, which will be filed with the SEC.

Interest in a Fractional Share, or Multiple Shares, of Preferred Stock

We may, at our option, elect to offer depositary shares, each of which would represent an interest in a fractional share, or multiple shares, of preferred stock instead of whole shares of preferred stock. If so, we will allow a depositary to issue depositary shares to the public, each of which will represent an interest in a fractional share, or multiple shares, of preferred stock as described in the prospectus supplement.

Deposit Agreement

The shares of preferred stock underlying any depositary shares will be deposited under a separate deposit agreement between us and a bank or trust company acting as depositary with respect to those shares of preferred stock. The prospectus supplement relating to a series of depositary shares will specify the name and address of the depositary. Under the deposit agreement, each owner of a depositary share will be entitled, in proportion of its interest in a fractional share, or multiple shares, of the preferred stock underlying that depositary share, to all the rights and preferences of that preferred stock, including dividend, voting, redemption, conversion, and exchange and liquidation rights.

Depositary shares will be evidenced by one or more depositary receipts issued under the deposit agreement. We will distribute depositary receipts to those persons purchasing such depositary shares in accordance with the terms of the offering made by the related prospectus supplement.

Dividends and Other Distributions

If we pay a cash distribution or dividend on a series of preferred stock represented by depositary shares, the depositary will distribute such dividends to the record holders of such depositary shares. If the distributions are in property other than cash, the depositary will distribute the property to the record holders of the depositary shares. However, if the depositary determines that it is not feasible to make the distribution of property, the depositary may, with our approval, sell such property and distribute the net proceeds from such sale to the record holders of the depositary shares.

Withdrawal of Preferred Stock

Upon surrender of depositary receipts at the office of the depositary and upon payment of the charges provided in the deposit agreement and subject to the terms thereof, a holder of depositary receipts is entitled to have the depositary deliver to such holder the applicable number of shares of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares evidenced by the surrendered depositary receipts. There may be no market, however, for the underlying preferred stock and once the underlying preferred stock is withdrawn from the depositary, it may not be redeposited.

Redemption and Liquidation

The terms on which the depositary shares relating to the preferred stock of any series may be redeemed, and any amounts distributable upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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Voting

Upon receiving notice of any meeting at which the holders of preferred stock represented by depositary shares are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the notice to the record holders of the depositary shares relating to such series of preferred stock. Each record holder of such depositary shares on the record date may instruct the depositary on how to vote the shares of preferred stock underlying that holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will vote the shares of preferred stock underlying those depositary shares according to those instructions, and we will take reasonably necessary actions to enable the depositary to do so. If the depositary does not receive specific instructions from the record holders of such depositary shares, it will abstain from voting those shares of preferred stock, unless otherwise discussed in the prospectus supplement.

Amendment and Termination of Deposit Agreement

We and the depositary may amend the form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and the related deposit agreement. However, any amendment that significantly affects the rights of the holders of depositary shares will not be effective unless holders of a majority of the then outstanding depositary shares approve that amendment. No amendment, however, may impair the right of any holder of depositary shares to receive any money or other property to which he or she may be entitled under the terms of the deposit agreement at the times and in the manner and amount provided for therein. We or the depositary may terminate a deposit agreement only if:

 

   

we redeemed or reacquired all outstanding depositary shares relating to the deposit agreement;

 

   

if applicable, all outstanding depositary shares have been converted into shares of Class A common stock or another series of preferred stock; or

 

   

there has been a final distribution with respect to the preferred stock of any series in connection with our liquidation, dissolution or winding up and such distribution has been made to the related depositary shareholders.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

Debt Securities May Be Senior or Subordinated

Retail Properties of America, Inc. may issue senior or subordinated debt securities at one or more times in one or more series. Each series of debt securities may have different terms. Neither the senior debt securities nor the subordinated debt securities will be secured by any property or assets of Retail Properties of America, Inc. or its subsidiaries. Thus, by owning a debt security, you are an unsecured creditor of Retail Properties of America, Inc.

No principal, shareholder, officer, director or employee of Retail Properties of America, Inc. or of any successor of Retail Properties of America, Inc. has any obligation for payment of debt securities or for any of Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s obligations, covenants or agreements contained in the debt securities or the applicable indenture. By accepting the debt securities, you waive and release all liability of this kind. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issuance of debt securities.

The senior debt securities of Retail Properties of America, Inc. will be issued under the senior debt indenture, as described below, and will rank equally with all of Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s other senior unsecured and unsubordinated debt.

The subordinated debt securities of Retail Properties of America, Inc. will be issued under the subordinated debt indenture, as described below, and will be subordinate in right of payment to all of Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s “senior indebtedness,” as defined in the subordinated debt indenture, as described under “Description of Debt Securities—Subordination Provisions” beginning on page 28 and in the applicable prospectus supplement. The prospectus supplement for any series of subordinated debt securities or the information incorporated in this prospectus by reference will indicate the approximate amount of senior indebtedness outstanding as of the end of Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s most recent fiscal quarter. None of the indentures limit Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s ability to incur additional senior indebtedness, unless otherwise described in the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities.

Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s senior indebtedness will be structurally subordinate to the indebtedness of our subsidiaries. See—“Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s Debt Securities Are Structurally Subordinated to Indebtedness of Its Subsidiaries” below.

When we refer to “senior debt securities” in this prospectus, we mean the senior debt securities of Retail Properties of America, Inc., unless the context requires otherwise. When we refer to “subordinated debt securities” in this prospectus, we mean the subordinated debt securities of Retail Properties of America, Inc., unless the context requires otherwise. When we refer to “debt securities” in this prospectus, we mean both the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities of Retail Properties of America, Inc., unless the context requires otherwise.

If we issue debt securities at a discount from their principal amount, then, for purposes of calculating the aggregate initial offering price of the offered securities issued under this prospectus, we will include only the initial offering price of the debt securities and not the principal amount of the debt securities.

We have summarized below the material provisions of the indentures and the debt securities, or indicated which material provisions will be described in the related prospectus supplement. The prospectus supplement relating to any particular securities offered will describe the specific terms of the securities, which may be in addition to or different from the general terms summarized in this prospectus. Because the summary in this prospectus and in any prospectus supplement does not contain all of the information that you may find useful, you should read the documents relating to the securities that are described in this prospectus or in any applicable prospectus supplement. Please read “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 70 to find out how you can obtain a copy of those documents.

 

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The Senior Debt Indenture and the Subordinated Debt Indenture of Retail Properties of America, Inc.

Senior debt securities of Retail Properties of America, Inc. will be issued under an indenture, dated as of March 12, 2015, between Retail Properties of America, Inc. as the issuer of the debt securities and U.S. Bank National Association as trustee, as amended or supplemented from time to time. We will refer to any such indenture throughout this prospectus as the “senior indenture.” The subordinated debt securities of Retail Properties of America, Inc. will be issued under a separate indenture, dated as of a date prior to such issuance, between Retail Properties of America, Inc. as the issuer of the debt securities and U.S. Bank National Association as trustee or such other qualified trustee, as amended or supplemented from time to time. We will refer to any such indenture throughout this prospectus as the “subordinated indenture” and to any trustee under the senior indenture or subordinated indenture as the “trustee.”

The indentures will be subject to and governed by the Trust Indenture Act. We included copies of the indentures as exhibits to our registration statement and they are incorporated into this prospectus by reference. Except as otherwise indicated, the terms of the indentures are identical. As used in this prospectus, the term “debt securities” includes the debt securities being offered by this prospectus and all other debt securities issued by Retail Properties of America, Inc. under the indentures. When we refer to the indenture or the trustee with respect to any debt securities of Retail Properties of America, Inc., we mean the indenture under which those debt securities are issued and the trustee under that indenture.

General

The indentures:

 

   

do not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue;

 

   

allow us to issue debt securities with terms different from those of the debt securities previously issued under the indenture;

 

   

allow us to issue debt securities in one or more series;

 

   

do not require us to issue all of the debt securities of a series at the same time;

 

   

allow us to reopen a series to issue additional debt securities without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of such series; and

 

   

provide that the debt securities will be unsecured.

Except as described under “Description of Debt Securities—Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets” beginning on page 23 or as may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that (1) would limit our ability to incur indebtedness or (2) would afford holders of debt securities protection in the event of (a) a highly leveraged or similar transaction involving Retail Properties of America, Inc. or any of our affiliates or (b) a change of control or reorganization, restructuring, merger or similar transaction involving us that may adversely affect the holders of the debt securities. In the future, we may enter into transactions, such as the sale of all or substantially all of our assets or a merger or consolidation, that may have an adverse effect on our ability to service our indebtedness, including the debt securities, by, among other things, substantially reducing or eliminating our assets. Neither governing law, nor our governing instruments, define the term “substantially all” as it relates to the sale of assets. Consequently, to determine whether a sale of “substantially all” of our assets has occurred, a holder of debt securities must review the financial and other information that we have disclosed to the public.

Each indenture provides that we may, but need not, designate more than one trustee under an indenture. Any trustee under an indenture may resign or be removed and a successor trustee may be appointed to act with respect to the series of debt securities administered by the resigning or removed trustee. If two or more persons are acting as trustee with respect to different series of debt securities, each trustee shall be a trustee of a trust under the

 

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applicable indenture separate and apart from the trust administered by any other trustee. Except as otherwise indicated in this prospectus, any action described in this prospectus to be taken by each trustee may be taken by each trustee with respect to, and only with respect to, the one or more series of debt securities for which it is trustee under the applicable indenture.

Information in the Prospectus Supplement

When we refer to a series of debt securities, we mean a series issued under the applicable indenture. When we refer to a prospectus supplement, we mean the prospectus supplement describing the specific terms of the debt securities of a particular series being offered. The terms used in any prospectus supplement have the meanings described in this prospectus, unless otherwise specified.

We will describe most of the financial and other specific terms of a particular series of debt securities being offered, whether it be a series of senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities, in a prospectus supplement accompanying this prospectus. Those terms may vary from the terms described herein.

The applicable prospectus supplement will also contain the terms of a given offering, the initial offering price and our net proceeds. Where applicable, a prospectus supplement will also describe any material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to the debt securities offered and indicate whether the securities offered are or will be listed on any securities exchange.

Disclosure of the specific terms of a particular series of debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement may include some or all of the following:

 

   

the title of the debt securities;

 

   

whether they are senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities and, if they are subordinated debt securities, any changes in the subordination provisions described in this prospectus applicable to those subordinated debt securities;

 

   

the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities outstanding as of the most recent practicable date and any limit on their aggregate principal amount, including the aggregate principal amount of debt securities authorized;

 

   

the stated maturity;

 

   

the price at which the debt securities will be issued, expressed as a percentage of the principal amount, and the original issue date;

 

   

the portion of the principal payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity, if other than the principal amount;

 

   

the date or dates, or the method for determining the date or dates, on which the principal of the debt securities will be payable;

 

   

the fixed or variable interest rate or rates of the debt securities, or the method by which the interest rate or rates is determined;

 

   

the date or dates, or the method for determining the date or dates, from which interest will accrue;

 

   

the date or dates on which interest will be payable;

 

   

the record dates for interest payment dates, or the method by which those dates will be determined;

 

   

the persons to whom interest will be payable;

 

   

the basis upon which interest will be calculated if other than a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

 

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any make-whole amount, which is the amount in addition to principal and interest that is required to be paid to the holder of a debt security as a result of any optional redemption or accelerated payment of such debt security, or the method for determining the make-whole amount;

 

   

whether the debt securities may be converted into Class A common stock or preferred stock of Retail Properties of America, Inc. or other securities, the terms on which such conversion may occur, including whether such conversion is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option, the period during which such conversion may occur, the initial conversion price or rate, and the circumstances or manner in which the shares of Class A common stock or preferred stock issuable upon conversion may be adjusted or calculated according to the market price of Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s Class A common stock or preferred stock or such other securities or other applicable parameters;

 

   

the place or places where the principal of, and any premium (or make-whole amount) and interest on, the debt securities will be payable;

 

   

where the debt securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer or conversion or exchange;

 

   

where notices or demands to or upon us with respect to the debt securities and the applicable indenture may be served;

 

   

the times, prices and other terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;

 

   

any obligation we have to redeem, repay or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provision or at the option of the holders of the debt securities, and the times and prices at which we must redeem, repay or purchase the debt securities as a result of such an obligation;

 

   

any deletions from, modifications of, or additions to our events of default or covenants with regard to such debt securities, and any change in the right of any trustee or any of the holders to declare the principal amount of any of such debt securities due and payable;

 

   

the denominations in which the debt securities will be issuable, if other than denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof;

 

   

the currency or currencies in which the debt securities are denominated and in which principal and/or interest is payable if other than United States dollars, which may be a foreign currency or units of two or more foreign currencies or a composite currency or currencies, and the terms and conditions relating thereto, and the manner of determining the equivalent of such foreign currency in United States dollars;

 

   

whether the principal of, and any premium (or make-whole amount) or interest on, the debt securities of the series are to be payable, at our election or at the election of a holder, in a currency or currencies other than that in which the debt securities are denominated or stated to be payable, and other related terms and conditions;

 

   

whether the amount of payments of principal of, and any premium (or make-whole amount) or interest on, the debt securities may be determined according to an index, formula or other method and how such amounts will be determined;

 

   

the person to whom any interest shall be payable, if other than the person in whose name the security is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest;

 

   

the identity of the depository for securities in registered form, if such series are to be issuable as a global security;

 

   

whether any debt securities of the series are to be issuable initially in temporary global form and whether any debt securities of the series are to be issuable in permanent global form and, if so, whether beneficial owners of interests in any such permanent global security may or shall be required to exchange their interests for other debt securities of the series, and the manner in which interest shall be paid;

 

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the date as of which any debt securities in temporary global form shall be dated if other than the original issuance date of the first security of the series to be issued;

 

   

the applicability, if any, of the defeasance and covenant defeasance provisions described in this prospectus or in the applicable indenture;

 

   

whether and under what circumstances we will pay any additional amounts on the debt securities in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge and, if so, whether we will have the option to redeem the debt securities in lieu of making such a payment;

 

   

the circumstances, if any, under which beneficial owners of interests in the global security may obtain definitive debt securities and the manner in which payments on a permanent global debt security will be made if any debt securities are issuable in temporary or permanent global form;

 

   

any provisions granting special rights to holders of securities upon the occurrence of such events as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement;

 

   

if the debt securities are to be issuable in definitive form only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, then the form and/or terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

 

   

the name of the applicable trustee and the nature of any material relationship with us or with any of our affiliates, and the percentage of debt securities of the class necessary to require the trustee to take action; and

 

   

any other terms of such debt securities not inconsistent with the provisions of the applicable indenture.

Original Issue Discount Securities

We may issue debt securities at a discount below their principal amount and provide for less than the entire principal amount thereof to be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof. We refer to any such debt securities throughout this prospectus as “original issue discount securities.” A fixed rate debt security, a floating rate debt security or an indexed debt security may be an original issue discount debt security. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the material U.S. federal income tax consequences and other relevant considerations applicable to original issue discount securities.

Fixed Rate Debt Securities

We may issue fixed rate debt securities. A debt security of this type will bear interest at a fixed rate described in the applicable prospectus supplement. This type includes zero coupon debt securities, which bear no interest and are instead issued at a price usually significantly lower than the principal amount. Each fixed rate debt security, except any zero coupon debt security, will bear interest from its original issue date or from the most recent date to which interest on the debt security has been paid or made available for payment. Interest will accrue on the principal of a fixed rate debt security at the fixed yearly rate stated in the applicable prospectus supplement, until the principal is paid or made available for payment or the debt security is exchanged.

Floating Rate Debt Securities

We may issue floating rate debt securities. A debt security of this type will bear interest at rates that are determined by reference to an interest rate formula. In some cases, the rates may also be adjusted by adding or subtracting a spread or multiplying by a spread multiplier and may be subject to a minimum rate or a maximum rate. If a debt security is a floating rate debt security, the formula and any adjustments that apply to the interest rate will be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Indexed Debt Securities

We may issue indexed debt securities. Payments of principal of, and premium and interest on, indexed debt securities are determined with reference to the rate of exchange between the currency or currency unit in which

 

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the debt security is denominated and any other currency or currency unit specified by us, to the relationship between two or more currencies or currency units or by other similar methods or formulas specified in the prospectus supplement.

Amounts That We May Issue

None of the indentures limit the aggregate amount of debt securities that we may issue or the number of series or the aggregate amount of any particular series. In addition, the indentures and the debt securities do not limit Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s ability to incur other indebtedness or to issue other securities, unless otherwise described in the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities. Also, Retail Properties of America, Inc. is not subject to financial or similar restrictions by the terms of the debt securities, unless otherwise described in the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities.

Payment

Unless we give you different information in the applicable prospectus supplement, the principal of, and any premium (or make-whole amount) and interest on, any series of debt securities will be payable at the corporate trust office of the applicable trustee. We will provide you with the address of the trustee in the applicable prospectus supplement. We may also pay interest by mailing a check to the address of the person entitled to it as it appears in the applicable register for the debt securities or by wire transfer of funds to that person at an account maintained within the United States.

All monies that we pay to a paying agent or a trustee for the payment of the principal of, and any premium (or make-whole amount) or interest on, any debt security will be repaid to us if unclaimed at the end of two years after the obligation underlying payment becomes due and payable. After funds have been returned to us, the holder of the debt security may look only to us for payment, without payment of interest for the period which we hold the funds.

Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s Debt Securities Are Structurally Subordinate to Indebtedness of Its Subsidiaries

Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s indebtedness is structurally subordinate to debt of our subsidiaries. In addition, because our assets consist principally of interests in the subsidiaries through which we own our properties and conduct our business, our right to participate as an equity holder in any distribution of assets of any of our subsidiaries upon the subsidiary’s liquidation or otherwise, and thus the ability of our security holders to benefit from the distribution, is junior to creditors of the applicable subsidiary, except to the extent that any claims we may have as a creditor of such subsidiary are recognized. We may also guarantee some obligations of our subsidiaries. Any liability we may have for our subsidiaries’ obligations could reduce our assets that are available to satisfy our direct creditors, including investors in our debt securities.

Denomination, Interest, Registration and Transfer

Unless otherwise described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities of any series will be issuable in denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof.

Subject to the limitations imposed upon debt securities that are issued in book-entry form and represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary, a holder of debt securities of any series may:

 

   

exchange them for any authorized denomination of other debt securities of the same series and of a like aggregate principal amount and kind upon surrender of such debt securities at the corporate trust office of the applicable trustee or at the office of any transfer agent that we designate for such purpose; and

 

   

surrender them for registration of transfer or exchange at the corporate trust office of the applicable trustee or at the office of any transfer agent that we designate for such purpose.

 

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Every debt security surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange must be duly endorsed or accompanied by a written instrument of transfer satisfactory to the applicable trustee or transfer agent. Payment of a service charge will not be required for any registration of transfer or exchange of any debt securities, but we or the trustee may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection therewith. If in addition to the applicable trustee, the applicable prospectus supplement refers to any transfer agent initially designated by us for any series of debt securities, we may at any time rescind the designation of any such transfer agent or approve a change in the location through which any such transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for such series. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents for any series of debt securities.

Neither we nor any trustee will be required to:

 

   

issue, register the transfer of or exchange debt securities of any series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day that the notice of redemption of any debt securities selected for redemption is mailed and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing;

 

   

register the transfer of or exchange any debt security, or portion thereof, so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt security being redeemed in part; and

 

   

issue, register the transfer of or exchange any debt security that has been surrendered for repayment at the option of the holder, except the portion, if any, of such debt security not to be so repaid.

Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets

The indentures provide that Retail Properties of America, Inc. may, without the consent of the holders of any outstanding debt securities, (1) consolidate with, (2) sell, lease or convey all or substantially all of its assets to, or (3) merge with or into, any other entity provided that:

 

   

either it is the continuing entity, or the successor entity, if other than Retail Properties of America, Inc., is an entity organized and existing under the laws of the United States and assumes its obligations (A) to pay the principal of, and any premium (or make-whole amount) and interest on, all of its debt securities and (B) to duly perform and observe all of its covenants and conditions contained in the applicable indenture;

 

   

immediately after giving effect to the transaction and treating any indebtedness that becomes the obligation of Retail Properties of America, Inc. or the obligation of any of our subsidiaries as having been incurred by us or by such subsidiary at the time of the transaction, no event of default under the applicable indenture, and no event which, after notice or the lapse of time, or both, would become such an event of default, occurs and continues; and

 

   

an officers’ certificate and legal opinion covering such conditions and a legal opinion regarding the applicable supplemental indenture, if any, are delivered to each trustee.

Covenants

Existence. Except as described under “—Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets” above, the indentures require us to do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect our existence, rights and franchises. However, the indentures do not require us to preserve any right or franchise if the board of directors of Retail Properties of America, Inc. determines that any right or franchise is no longer desirable in the conduct of our business.

Provision of Financial Information. The indentures require us to (1) within 15 days of each of the respective dates by which we are required to file our annual reports, quarterly reports and other documents with the SEC, file copies of such reports and documents with the trustee and (2) within 30 days after the filing of such reports and documents with the trustee, mail to all holders of debt securities, as their names and addresses appear in the applicable register for such debt securities, summary of the annual reports, quarterly reports and other documents that we file with the SEC under Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

 

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Additional covenants. The applicable prospectus supplement will set forth any additional covenants of Retail Properties of America, Inc. relating to any series of debt securities.

Events of Default, Notice and Waiver

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement states otherwise, when we refer to “events of default” as defined in the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities, we mean:

 

   

default in the payment of any installment of interest on any debt security of such series continuing for 30 days;

 

   

default in the payment of principal of, or any premium (or make-whole amount) on, any debt security of such series at its maturity;

 

   

default in making any sinking fund payment as required for any debt security of such series;

 

   

default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty of Retail Properties of America, Inc. contained in the indenture (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series), which default continues for 60 days after written notice to Retail Properties of America, Inc. as provided in the applicable indenture;

 

   

certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of Retail Properties of America, Inc.; and

 

   

any other event of default provided with respect to a particular series of debt securities.

If an event of default occurs and is continuing with respect to debt securities of any series outstanding, then the applicable trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the debt securities of that series will have the right to declare the principal amount of all the debt securities of that series to be due and payable immediately. If the debt securities of that series are original issue discount securities or indexed securities, then the applicable trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the debt securities of that series will have the right to declare the portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms thereof to be due and payable immediately. However, at any time after such a declaration of acceleration has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the applicable trustee, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of outstanding debt securities of such series or of all debt securities then outstanding under the applicable indenture may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if:

 

   

we have paid or deposited with the applicable trustee all required payments of the principal, any premium (or make-whole amount), interest and, to the extent permitted by law, interest on overdue installments of interest, plus applicable fees, expenses, disbursements and advances of the applicable trustee;

 

   

all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal, or a specified portion thereof, and any premium (or make-whole amount), have been cured or waived; and

 

   

there has been paid to or deposited with the applicable trustee all required payments due to the applicable trustee under the applicable indenture and to reimburse the applicable trustee for any and all fees, expenses and disbursements incurred by the applicable trustee, its agents and its counsel, in such capacity, in connection with such acceleration.

The indentures also provide that the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series or of all debt securities then outstanding under the applicable indenture may on behalf of all holders waive any past default with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default:

 

   

in the payment of the principal, any premium (or make-whole amount) or interest;

 

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with respect to a covenant or provision contained in the applicable indenture that cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of the outstanding debt security that is affected by the default; or

 

   

with respect to a covenant or provision for the benefit or protection of the trustee, without its express written consent.

The indentures require each trustee to give notice to the holders of debt securities within 90 days of a default unless such default has been cured or waived. However, the trustee may withhold notice if specified persons of such trustee consider such withholding to be in the interest of the holders of debt securities. The trustee may not withhold notice of a default in the payment of principal, any premium (or make-whole amount, if any) or interest on any debt security of such series or in the payment of any sinking fund installment in respect of any debt security of such series.

The indentures provide that holders of debt securities of any series may not institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to such indenture or any such debt security, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy under the indenture or under such debt security, unless the trustee fails to act for a period of 60 days after the trustee has received a written request to institute proceedings with respect to an event of default from the holders of no less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series, as well as an offer of indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the trustee and no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the trustee during such 60-day period by the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of that series. However, this provision will not prevent any holder of debt securities from instituting suit for the enforcement of payment of the principal of, and any premium (or make-whole amount) and interest on, such debt securities at the respective due dates thereof.

The indentures provide that, subject to provisions in each indenture relating to its duties in the case of a default, a trustee has no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers at the request or direction of any holders of any series of debt securities then outstanding under the indenture, unless the holders have offered to the trustee reasonable security or indemnity. The holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series or of all debt securities then outstanding under an indenture shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the applicable trustee, or of exercising any trust or power conferred upon such trustee. However, a trustee may refuse to follow any direction which:

 

   

is in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture;

 

   

may involve the trustee in personal liability; or

 

   

may be unduly prejudicial to the holders of debt securities of the series not joining the proceeding.

Within 120 days after the close of each fiscal year, we will be required to deliver to each trustee a certificate, signed by one of our specified officers stating whether or not that officer has knowledge of any default under the applicable indenture. If the officer has knowledge of any default, the notice must specify the nature and status of the default.

Modification of the Indentures

The indentures provide that modifications and amendments may be made only with the consent of the affected holders of at least a majority in principal amount of all outstanding debt securities issued under that indenture. However, no such modification or amendment may, without the consent of the holders of the debt securities affected by the modification or amendment:

 

   

change the stated maturity of the principal of, or any premium (or make-whole amount) on, or any installment of principal of or interest on, any such debt security;

 

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reduce the principal amount of, the rate or amount of interest on or any premium (or make-whole amount) payable on redemption of any such debt security;

 

   

reduce the amount of principal of an original issue discount security that would be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof or would be provable in bankruptcy, or adversely affect any right of repayment of the holder of any such debt security;

 

   

change the place of payment or the coin or currency for payment of principal of, or any premium (or make-whole amount) or interest on, any such debt security;

 

   

impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on or with respect to any such debt security;

 

   

reduce the percentage in principal amount of any outstanding debt securities necessary to modify or amend the applicable indenture with respect to such debt securities, to waive compliance with particular provisions thereof or defaults and consequences thereunder or to reduce the quorum or voting requirements set forth in the applicable indenture; and

 

   

modify any of the foregoing provisions or any of the provisions relating to the waiver of particular past defaults or covenants, except to increase the required percentage to effect such action or to provide that some of the other provisions may not be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of such debt security.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series may, on behalf of all holders of debt securities of that series, waive, insofar as that series is concerned, our compliance with material restrictive covenants of the applicable indenture.

Retail Properties of America, Inc. and the respective trustee may make modifications and amendments of an indenture without the consent of any holder of debt securities for any of the following purposes:

 

   

to evidence the succession of another person to us as obligor under such indenture;

 

   

to add to the covenants of Retail Properties of America, Inc. for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in such indenture;

 

   

to add events of default for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities;

 

   

to add or change any provision of an indenture to permit or facilitate the issuance of debt securities in uncertificated form, provided that such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of the debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

   

to change or eliminate any provisions of an indenture, provided that any such change or elimination shall become effective only when there are no debt securities outstanding of any series created prior to thereto which are entitled to the benefit of such provision;

 

   

to secure the debt securities;

 

   

to establish the form or terms of debt securities;

 

   

to provide for the acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee or facilitate the administration of the trusts under an indenture by more than one trustee;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in an indenture, provided that such action shall not adversely affect the interests of holders of debt securities of any series issued under such indenture; and

 

   

to supplement any of the provisions of an indenture to the extent necessary to permit or facilitate defeasance and discharge of any series of such debt securities, provided that such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of the outstanding debt securities of any series.

 

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Voting

The indentures provide that in determining whether the holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding debt securities of a series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver under the indentures or whether a quorum is present at a meeting of holders of debt securities:

 

   

the principal amount of an original issue discount security that shall be deemed to be outstanding shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

   

the principal amount of any debt security denominated in a foreign currency that shall be deemed outstanding shall be the United States dollar equivalent, determined on the issue date for such debt security, of the principal amount or, in the case of an original issue discount security, the United States dollar equivalent on the issue date of such debt security of the amount determined as provided in the preceding bullet point;

 

   

the principal amount of an indexed security that shall be deemed outstanding shall be the principal face amount of such indexed security at original issuance, unless otherwise provided for such indexed security under such indenture; and

 

   

debt securities owned by us or any other obligor upon the debt securities or by any affiliate of ours or of such other obligor shall be disregarded.

The indentures contain provisions for convening meetings of the holders of debt securities of a series. A meeting will be permitted to be called at any time by the applicable trustee, and also, upon request, by us or the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series, in any such case upon notice given as provided in such indenture. Except for any consent that must be given by the holder of each debt security affected by the modifications and amendments of an indenture described above, any resolution presented at a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum is present may be adopted by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series represented at such meeting.

Notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, except as referred to above, any resolution relating to a request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action that may be made, given or taken by the holders of a specified percentage, which is less than a majority, of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series may be adopted at a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum is present by the affirmative vote of such specified percentage.

Any resolution passed or decision taken at any properly held meeting of holders of debt securities of any series will be binding on all holders of such series. The quorum at any meeting called to adopt a resolution, and at any reconvened meeting, will be persons holding or representing a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series. However, if any action is to be taken relating to a consent or waiver which may be given by the holders of at least a specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series, the persons holding such percentage will constitute a quorum.

Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, the indentures provide that if any action is to be taken at a meeting with respect to any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action that such indenture expressly provides may be made, given or taken by the holders of a specified percentage in principal amount of all outstanding debt securities affected by such action, or of the holders of such series and one or more additional series:

 

   

there shall be no minimum quorum requirement for such meeting; and

 

   

the principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series that vote in favor of such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action shall be taken into account in determining whether such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action has been made, given or taken under such indenture.

 

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Subordination Provisions

Holders of subordinated debt securities should recognize that contractual provisions in the subordinated debt indenture may prohibit the issuer of subordinated debt securities from making payments on those securities. Subordinated debt securities are subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner stated in the subordinated debt indenture or in the provisions of the applicable debt securities, to all of the issuer’s senior debt, as defined in the subordinated debt indenture, including all debt securities the issuer has issued and will issue under the senior debt indenture.

The subordinated debt indenture defines “senior debt” as the principal of and premium, if any, and interest on all indebtedness of the issuer, other than the subordinated debt securities, whether outstanding on the date of the indenture or thereafter created, incurred or assumed, which is (a) for money borrowed, (b) evidenced by a note or similar instrument given in connection with the acquisition of any businesses, properties or assets of any kind or (c) obligations the issuer, as lessee under leases required to be capitalized on the balance sheet of the lessee under generally accepted accounting principles or leases of property or assets, made as part of any sale and lease-back transaction to which the issuer is a party. For the purpose of this definition, “interest” includes interest accruing on or after the filing of any petition in bankruptcy or for reorganization relating to the issuer, to the extent that the claim for post-petition interest is allowed in the proceeding. Also for the purpose of this definition, “indebtedness of the issuer” includes indebtedness of others guaranteed by the issuer and amendments, renewals, extensions, modifications and refundings of any indebtedness or obligation of the kinds described in the first sentence of this paragraph. However, “indebtedness of the issuer” for the purpose of this definition does not include any indebtedness or obligation if the instrument creating or evidencing the indebtedness or obligation, or under which the indebtedness or obligation is outstanding, provides that the indebtedness or obligation is not superior in right of payment to the subordinated debt securities.

The subordinated debt indenture provides that, unless all principal of and any premium (or make-whole amount, if any) or interest on the senior debt has been paid in full, no payment or other distribution may be made with respect to any subordinated debt securities in the following circumstances:

 

   

in the event of any insolvency or bankruptcy proceedings, or any receivership, liquidation, reorganization or other similar proceeding involving the issuer or its assets;

 

   

in the event of any liquidation, dissolution or other winding up of the issuer, whether voluntary or involuntary and whether or not involving insolvency or bankruptcy;

 

   

in the event of any assignment for the benefit of creditors or any other marshalling of assets and liabilities of the issuer;

 

   

if any subordinated debt securities of the issuer have been declared due and payable before their stated maturity;

 

   

in the event and during the continuation of any default in the payment of principal, premium (or make-whole amount, if any) or interest on any senior debt beyond any applicable grace period or if any event of default with respect to any senior debt of the issuer has occurred and is continuing, permitting the holders of that senior debt of the issuer or a trustee to accelerate the maturity of that senior debt, unless the event of default has been cured or waived or ceased to exist and any related acceleration has been rescinded; or

 

   

if any judicial proceeding is pending with respect to a payment default or an event of default described in the immediately preceding clause.

If the trustee under the subordinated debt indenture or any holders of the subordinated debt securities receive any payment or distribution that they know is prohibited under the subordination provisions, then the trustee or the holders will have to repay that money to the holders of the senior debt.

Even if the subordination provisions prevent Retail Properties of America, Inc. from making any payment when due on the subordinated debt securities of any series, Retail Properties of America, Inc. will be in default

 

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on its obligations under that series if it does not make the payment when due. This means that the trustee under the subordinated debt indenture and the holders of that series can take action against us, but they will not receive any money until the claims of the holders of senior debt have been fully satisfied.

If this prospectus is being delivered in connection with the offering of a series of subordinated securities, the accompanying prospectus supplement or the information incorporated in this prospectus by reference will set forth the approximate amount of senior debt outstanding as of the end of our most recent fiscal quarter.

Modification of Subordination Provisions

Retail Properties of America, Inc. may not amend the subordinated debt indenture governing any series of subordinated debt securities it has already issued to alter the subordination of any outstanding subordinated debt securities without the written consent of each holder of senior debt then outstanding who would be adversely affected. In addition, Retail Properties of America, Inc. may not modify the subordination provisions of the subordinated debt indenture governing any series of subordinated debt securities it has already issued in a manner that would adversely affect the outstanding subordinated debt securities of any one or more series in any material respect, without the consent of the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all affected series, voting together as one class.

Discharge, Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the indentures allow us to discharge our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities issued under any indenture when:

 

   

either (1) all securities of such series have already been delivered to the applicable trustee for cancellation; or (2) all securities of such series have not already been delivered to the applicable trustee for cancellation but (A) have become due and payable, (B) will become due and payable within one year, or (C) if redeemable at our option, are to be redeemed within one year, and we have irrevocably deposited with the applicable trustee, in trust, funds in such currency or currencies, currency unit or units or composite currency or currencies in which such debt securities are payable, an amount sufficient to pay the entire indebtedness on such debt securities in respect of principal (and any premium or make-whole amount) and interest to the date of such deposit if such debt securities have become due and payable or, if they have not, to the stated maturity or redemption date;

 

   

we have paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable; and

 

   

we have delivered to the trustee an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that the conditions to discharging the debt securities have been satisfied.

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the indentures provide that, upon our irrevocable deposit with the applicable trustee, in trust, of an amount, in such currency or currencies, currency unit or units or composite currency or currencies in which such debt securities are payable at stated maturity, or government obligations, or both, applicable to such debt securities, which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms will provide money in an amount sufficient to pay the principal of, and any premium (or make-whole amount) and interest on, such debt securities, and any mandatory sinking fund or analogous payments thereon, on the scheduled due dates therefor, we may, at our option and at any time, elect to have our obligations either:

 

   

defeased and discharged with respect to such debt securities, which we refer to as “legal defeasance;” or

 

   

released with respect to certain covenants under the applicable indenture, which we refer to as “covenant defeasance.”

 

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With respect to legal defeasance, we shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness represented by the debt securities, and to have satisfied all other obligations under such debt securities and the applicable indenture, except as to:

 

   

the rights of holders of such outstanding debt securities to receive payments with respect to the principal of, or interest or premium (or make-whole amount, if any), if any, on such debt securities when such payments are due from the trust funds referred to above;

 

   

our obligations with respect to such debt securities concerning exchange and registration of transfer of debt securities, mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities, issuing temporary debt securities, and the maintenance of an office or agency for payment and money for security payments held in trust;

 

   

the rights, powers, trust, duties and immunities of the trustee, and our obligations in connection therewith; and

 

   

the legal defeasance provisions of the applicable indenture.

With respect to covenant defeasance, once we are released from our obligations with respect to such certain covenants contained in the applicable indenture, any omission to comply with such obligations thereafter shall not constitute an event of default with respect to such debt securities. In the event covenant defeasance occurs, certain events of default (excluding nonpayment, bankruptcy, receivership, rehabilitation and insolvency events) will no longer apply. Except as otherwise specified, the remainder of such indenture and such debt security will be unaffected by the occurrence of covenant defeasance, and the debt securities will continue to be deemed “outstanding” for all other purposes under the applicable indenture other than for the purposes of any direction, waiver, consent or declaration or act of holders (and the consequences of any thereof) in connection with any of the defeased covenants.

Notwithstanding the above, we may not elect to defease and be discharged from the obligation to pay any additional amounts upon the occurrence of particular events of tax, assessment or governmental charge with respect to payments on such debt securities and the obligations to register the transfer or exchange of such debt securities, to replace temporary or mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities, to maintain an office or agency in respect of such debt securities, to hold monies for payment in trust, or if such legal defeasance or covenant defeasance results in a breach or violation of, or constitutes a default under, any material agreement or instrument (other than an indenture and the agreements governing any other indebtedness being defeased, discharged or replaced) to which we are a party or by which we are bound.

The indentures only permit us to establish the trust described in the paragraph above if, among other things, we have delivered to the applicable trustee (1) an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent to the legal defeasance or covenant defeasance (as the case may be) have been complied with, (2) an officers’ certificate stating that the deposit was not made with the intent of preferring the holders of the debt securities over our other creditors with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any of our creditors or others, and (3) an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of such debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of such legal defeasance or covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such legal defeasance or covenant defeasance had not occurred, referred to as a “tax opinion.” Such tax opinion will be required to refer to and be based upon a ruling received from or published by the IRS or a change in applicable U.S. federal income tax law occurring after the date of the indenture. In the event of such legal defeasance or covenant defeasance, the holders of such debt securities would be able to look only to such trust fund for payment of principal, any premium (or make-whole amount), and interest.

When we use the term “government obligations,” we mean securities that are:

 

   

direct obligations of the United States or the government that issued the foreign currency in which the debt securities of a particular series are payable, for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged; or

 

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obligations of a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States or other government that issued the foreign currency in which the debt securities of such series are payable, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States or such other government, which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such government obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such government obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt. However, except as required by law, such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the government obligation or the specific payment of interest on or principal of the government obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, if after we have deposited funds and/or government obligations to effect legal defeasance or covenant defeasance with respect to debt securities of any series, (1) the holder of a debt security of such series is entitled to, and does, elect under the terms of the applicable indenture or the terms of such debt security to receive payment in a currency, currency unit or composite currency other than that in which such deposit has been made in respect of such debt security, or (2) a conversion event occurs in respect of the currency, currency unit or composite currency in which such deposit has been made, the indebtedness represented by such debt security will be deemed to have been, and will be, fully discharged and satisfied through the payment of the principal of, and premium (or make-whole amount) and interest on, such debt security as they become due out of the proceeds yielded by converting the amount so deposited in respect of such debt security into the currency, currency unit or composite currency in which such debt security becomes payable as a result of such election or such cessation of usage based on the applicable market exchange rate.

When we use the term “conversion event,” we mean the cessation of use of:

 

   

a currency, currency unit or composite currency both by the government of the country or the confederation that issued such currency and for the settlement of transactions by a central bank or other public institutions of or within the international banking community; or

 

   

any currency unit or composite currency for the purposes for which it was established.

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, all payments of principal of, and premium (or make-whole amount), if any, and interest on, any debt security that is payable in a foreign currency that ceases to be used by its government of issuance shall be made in United States dollars.

In the event that (1) we effect covenant defeasance with respect to any debt securities and (2) such debt securities are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any event of default, the amount in such currency, currency unit or composite currency in which such debt securities are payable, and government obligations on deposit with the applicable trustee, will be sufficient to pay amounts due on such debt securities at the time of their stated maturity but may not be sufficient to pay amounts due on such debt securities at the time of the acceleration resulting from such event of default. However, we would remain liable to make payments of such amounts due at the time of acceleration.

The applicable prospectus supplement may further describe the provisions, if any, permitting such defeasance or covenant defeasance, including any modifications to the provisions described above, with respect to the debt securities of or within a particular series.

Conversion Rights

The terms and conditions, if any, upon which debt securities of Retail Properties of America, Inc. are convertible into shares of Class A common stock or preferred stock of Retail Properties of America, Inc. or other

 

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securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Such terms will include the terms on which such conversion may occur, including whether such conversion is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option, the period or periods during which such conversion may occur, the initial conversion price or rate, the circumstances under or manner in which the number of shares of Class A common stock or preferred stock of Retail Properties of America, Inc. or other securities issuable upon conversion may be adjusted or calculated according to the market price of such common stock or preferred stock of Retail Properties of America, Inc. or other securities or based on other parameters, and provisions affecting conversion in the event that the debt securities are redeemed.

Global Securities

The debt securities of a series may be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a depository identified in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to such series. Global securities, if any, issued in the United States are expected to be deposited with The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, as depository. We may issue global securities in registered form and in either temporary or permanent form. We will describe the specific terms of the depository arrangement with respect to a series of debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to such series.

No Recourse

No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement contained in any indenture or the debt securities, or because of any indebtedness evidenced thereby, shall be had against any past, present or future shareholder, employee, officer or director, as such, of Retail Properties of America, Inc. or any successor under any rule of law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise. Each holder of debt securities waives and releases all such liability by accepting the debt securities. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issue of the debt securities.

Trustee

U.S. Bank National Association is initially serving as the trustee under the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities. We may appoint other parties to serve as trustee or co-trustee as may be indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. If an actual or potential event of default occurs with respect to any of the debt securities, the trustee may be considered to have a conflicting interest for purposes of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. In that case, the trustee may be required to resign under one or more of the indentures, and the issuer of the debt securities would be required to appoint a successor trustee. For this purpose, a “potential” event of default means an event that would be an event of default if the requirements for giving the issuer of the debt securities default notice or for the default having to exist for a specific period of time were disregarded.

 

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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW

AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

The following description of the terms of our stock and of certain provisions of Maryland law is only a summary and to the extent the following describes our charter and bylaws, it is qualified entirely by reference to such documents. You can access complete information by referring to Maryland General Corporation Law and our charter and bylaws.

Number of Directors; Vacancies

Our charter provides that the number of directors will be set only by our board of directors in accordance with our bylaws. Our bylaws provide that a majority of our entire board of directors may at any time increase or decrease the number of directors. However, the number of directors may never be less than the minimum number required by the Maryland General Corporation Law, or MGCL, which is one.

Our charter also provides that we elect to be subject to the provision of Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL regarding the filling of vacancies on our board of directors. Accordingly, except as may be provided by our board of directors in setting the terms of any class or series of shares, any and all vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors in office, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum, and any individual elected to fill such vacancy will serve for the remainder of the full term of the class in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is duly elected and qualifies.

Annual Elections; Majority Voting

Each of our directors will be elected by our shareholders to serve until our next annual meeting of shareholders and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. Our bylaws provide for majority voting in uncontested director elections. Pursuant to our bylaws, in a contested election, directors are elected by a plurality of all of the votes cast in the election of directors, and in an uncontested election, a director is elected if he or she receives more votes for his or her election than votes against his or her election.

Removal of Directors

Our charter provides that, subject to the rights, if any, of holders of any class or series of preferred stock to elect or remove one or more directors, a director may be removed only for cause, and then only by the affirmative vote of at least a majority of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. “Cause” is defined in our charter to mean conviction of a director of a felony or a final judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction holding that a director caused demonstrable, material harm to us through bad faith or active and deliberate dishonesty.

Calling of Special Meetings of Shareholders

Our bylaws provide that special meetings of shareholders may be called by our board of directors and certain of our officers. Additionally, our bylaws provide that, subject to the satisfaction of certain procedural and informational requirements by the shareholders requesting the meeting, a special meeting of shareholders to act on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of shareholders shall be called by the secretary of the corporation upon the written request of shareholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on such matter at such meeting.

Action by Shareholders

Our charter provides that shareholder action can be taken at an annual or special meeting of shareholders or by written consent in lieu of a meeting only if it is approved unanimously. These provisions, combined with the

 

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requirements of our bylaws regarding advance notice of nominations and other business to be considered at a meeting of shareholders and the calling of a shareholder-requested special meeting of shareholders discussed below, may have the effect of delaying consideration of a shareholder proposal.

Advance Notice Provisions for Shareholder Nominations and Shareholder Proposals

Our bylaws provide that, with respect to an annual meeting of shareholders, nominations of individuals for election to the board of directors and the proposal of business to be considered by shareholders may be made only (i) by or at the direction of the board of directors or (ii) by a shareholder who was a shareholder of record both at the time of giving of notice by such shareholder as provided for in our bylaws and at the time of the annual meeting and who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated or on any such other business and who has complied with the advance notice procedures and provided the information required by our bylaws. With respect to special meetings of shareholders, only the business specified in the notice of the meeting may be brought before the meeting.

The purpose of requiring shareholders to give us advance notice of nominations and other business is to afford our board of directors a meaningful opportunity to consider the qualifications of the proposed nominees and the advisability of any other proposed business and, to the extent deemed necessary or desirable by our board of directors, to inform shareholders and make recommendations about such qualifications or business. Although our bylaws do not give our board of directors any power to disapprove shareholder nominations for the election of directors or proposals recommending certain action, they may have the effect of precluding a contest for the election of directors or the consideration of shareholder proposals if proper procedures are not followed and of discouraging or deterring a third party from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect its own slate of directors or to approve its own proposal without regard to whether consideration of such nominees or proposals might be harmful or beneficial to us and our shareholders.

Approval of Extraordinary Corporate Actions, Amendment of Charter and Bylaws

Under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation generally cannot amend its charter, consolidate, merge, sell all or substantially all of its assets, engage in a share exchange or dissolve unless the action is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast with respect to such matter. However, a Maryland corporation may provide in its charter for approval of these matters by a lesser percentage, but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast with respect to such matter. As permitted by Maryland law, our charter provides that any of these actions may be approved by the shareholders entitled to cast at least a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Our bylaws may be altered, amended or repealed by our board of directors or by the affirmative vote of a majority of all votes entitled to be cast by the holders of the issued and outstanding shares of our common stock at a meeting of our stockholders duly called and at which a quorum is present, except the following bylaw provisions, each of which may be amended only with the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on such an amendment by holders of outstanding shares of our common stock at a meeting of our stockholders duly called and at which a quorum is present:

 

   

provisions opting out of the control share acquisition statute; and

 

   

provisions prohibiting our board of directors without the approval of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast by the holders of outstanding shares of our common stock, from revoking, altering or amending any resolution, or adopting any resolution inconsistent with any previously-adopted resolution of our board of directors, that exempts any business combination between us and any other person or entity from the business combination provisions of the MGCL.

In addition, any amendment to the provisions governing amendments of our bylaws requires the approval of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast by the holders of outstanding shares of our common stock.

 

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No Shareholder Rights Plan

We have no shareholder rights plan. In the future, we do not intend to adopt a shareholder rights plan unless our shareholders approve in advance the adoption of a plan or, if adopted by our board of directors, we submit the shareholder rights plan to our shareholders for a ratification vote within 12 months of adoption or the plan will terminate.

Business Combinations

Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” (including a merger, consolidation, share exchange or, in certain circumstances, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a Maryland corporation and an interested shareholder (defined as any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s shares or an affiliate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of the then-outstanding voting stock of the corporation), or an affiliate of an interested shareholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested shareholder becomes an interested shareholder. A person is not an interested shareholder under the statute if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested shareholder. The board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance with any terms and conditions determined by it.

Any such business combination entered into after the five-year prohibition must be recommended by the board of directors of such corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least (a) 80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation and (b) two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested shareholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected, unless, among other conditions, the corporation’s common shareholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the MGCL) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested shareholder for its shares.

These provisions of the MGCL do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by a board of directors prior to the time that the interested shareholder becomes an interested shareholder. Our board of directors has adopted a resolution exempting any business combination between us and any other person or entity from the business combination provisions of the MGCL. Our bylaws provide that this resolution or any other resolution of our board of directors exempting any business combination from the business combination provisions of the MGCL may only be revoked, altered or amended, and our board of directors may only adopt any resolution inconsistent with any such resolution, with the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by holders of outstanding shares of our common stock. We cannot assure you that our board of directors will not recommend to shareholders that the board of directors alter or repeal this resolution in the future.

Control Share Acquisitions

The MGCL provides that holders of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights with respect to any control shares except to the extent approved at a special meeting of shareholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding shares of stock of a corporation with respect to which any of the following persons is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power of such shares in the election of directors: (i) a person who makes or proposes to make a control share acquisition, (ii) an officer of the corporation or (iii) an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock previously acquired by the acquiror or in respect of which the acquiror is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquiror to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of

 

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voting power: (i) one-tenth or more but less than one-third, (ii) one-third or more but less than a majority, or (iii) a majority or more of all voting power. Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained shareholder approval. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition of control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses and making an “acquiring person statement” as described in the MGCL), may compel our board of directors to call a special meeting of shareholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares acquired or to be acquired in the control share acquisition. If no request for a special meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any shareholders meeting.

If voting rights of control shares are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an “acquiring person statement” as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquiror or of any meeting of shareholders at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a shareholders meeting and the acquiror becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other shareholders may exercise appraisal rights, unless appraisal rights are eliminated under the charter. Our charter eliminates all appraisal rights of shareholders.

The control share acquisition statute does not apply (a) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (b) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.

Our bylaws exempt any and all acquisitions of shares of our stock from the control share acquisition statute, and this provision of our bylaws may not be amended without the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by holders of outstanding shares of our common stock.

Certain Elective Provisions of Maryland Law

Title 3, Subtitle 8 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any of (1) a classified board, (2) a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director, (3) a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors, (4) a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred, or (5) a majority requirement for the calling of a special meeting of shareholders. Our charter provides that we elect to be subject to the provisions of Subtitle 8 regarding the filling of vacancies on our board of directors. Additionally, through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we already (1) vest in the board the exclusive power to fix the number of directors and (2) require, unless called by our chairman of the board, chief executive officer or president or the board of directors, the written request of shareholders of not less than a majority of all votes entitled to be cast at such a meeting to call a special meeting. Otherwise, we have not elected to be governed by these specific provisions. However, in the future, our board of directors could elect, without shareholder approval, to create a classified board or elect to be subject to one or more of the other provisions of Subtitle 8.

Anti-Takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and Our Charter and Bylaws

The provisions of the MGCL, our charter and our bylaws described above including, among others, the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the exclusive power of our board of directors to fill vacancies

 

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on the board of directors and the advance notice provisions of our bylaws could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our shareholders. Likewise, if our board of directors were to opt in to the provisions of Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL, or if our board of directors were to opt in to the business combination provisions or the control share acquisition provisions of the MGCL, with the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by holders of outstanding shares of our common stock, these provisions of the MGCL could have similar anti-takeover effects.

Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its shareholders for money damages, except to the extent that (i) it is proved that the person actually received an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services for the amount of the benefit or profit in money, property or services actually received; or (ii) a judgment or other final adjudication adverse to the person is entered in a proceeding based on a finding in the proceeding that the person’s action or failure to act was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty and was material to the cause of action adjudicated in the proceeding. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

Our charter authorizes us, to the maximum extent that Maryland law in effect from time to time permits, to obligate us to indemnify any present or former director or officer or any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise as a director, officer, partner, member, manager or trustee, from and against any claim or liability to which that individual may become subject or which that individual may incur by reason of his or her service in any such capacity and to pay or reimburse his or her reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding. Our bylaws obligate us, to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:

 

   

any present or former director who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

 

   

any individual who, while a director of our company and at our request, serves or has served another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise as a director, officer, partner, member, manager or trustee of such corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.

Our charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any officer, employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.

The MGCL requires a corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity, or in the defense of any claim, issue or matter in the proceeding, against reasonable expenses incurred by the director or officer in connection with the proceeding, claim, issue or matter. The MGCL permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any

 

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proceeding to which they may be made or are threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

 

   

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (1) was committed in bad faith or (2) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

   

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

   

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct, was adjudged liable to the corporation or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. However, indemnification for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation, or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, is limited to expenses.

In addition, the MGCL permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:

 

   

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

 

   

a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.

Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our executive officers and directors whereby we indemnify such executive officers and directors and pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding, if such director or executive officer is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity, to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law against all expenses and liabilities, subject to limited exceptions. These indemnification agreements also provide that upon an application for indemnity by an executive officer or director to a court of appropriate jurisdiction, such court may order us to indemnify such executive officer or director.

REIT Qualification

Our charter provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without approval of our shareholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to qualify as a REIT.

 

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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following summary addresses U.S. federal income tax considerations related to our election to be subject to taxation as a REIT and the ownership and disposition of our common stock, preferred stock and certain debt instruments that we anticipate being material to holders of such securities. Except to the limited extent discussed below, this summary does not address any foreign, state, or local tax consequences of holding our common stock, preferred stock and debt instruments. The provisions of the Code concerning the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its shareholders and security holders are highly technical and complex; the following discussion sets forth only certain aspects of those provisions. This summary is intended to provide you with general information only, is not intended as a substitute for careful tax planning, and is not tax advice.

This summary is based on provisions of the Code, applicable final and temporary Treasury Regulations, judicial decisions, and administrative rulings and practice, all in effect as of the date of this prospectus, and should not be construed as legal or tax advice. No assurance can be given that future legislative or administrative changes or judicial decisions will not affect the accuracy of the descriptions or conclusions contained in this summary. In addition, any such changes may be retroactive and apply to transactions entered into prior to the date of their enactment, promulgation or release. We do not expect to seek a ruling from the IRS regarding any of the U.S. federal income tax issues discussed in this prospectus, and no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge any of the positions we take and that such a challenge will not succeed. This discussion does not purport to address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation that may be relevant to you in light of your particular investment circumstances, or if you are a type of investor subject to special tax rules. This discussion also does not consider tax considerations that may be relevant with respect to securities we may issue, or selling security holders may sell, other than our common stock, preferred stock and certain debt instruments described below. Each time we or selling security holders sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that sale and may add to or update the discussion below as appropriate. Prospective purchasers of our securities are urged to consult their tax advisors prior to any investment in our common stock, preferred stock and debt instruments concerning the potential U.S. federal, state, local and foreign tax consequences of the investment with specific reference to their own tax situations. Prospective purchasers also are urged to refer to the applicable prospectus supplement for any amendments or changes to this summary.

Except as otherwise noted, references in this discussion of “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” to “we,” “our,” “us” and “our company” refer to Retail Properties of America, Inc.

Taxation of our Company

We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code. We believe that we have been organized and operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code beginning with our taxable year ended December 31, 2003 and that our intended manner of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

In connection with the filing of this prospectus, our tax counsel, Goodwin Procter LLP, is rendering an opinion to us to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2003, we have been organized and operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code and our prior, current and proposed ownership and method of operations will allow us to satisfy the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code for subsequent taxable years. The opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP is based upon various assumptions and our representations as to our past and contemplated future ownership, investments, distributions, share valuations and operations, among other things. The opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP is expressly conditioned upon the accuracy of these and other assumptions and upon our representations, which Goodwin Procter LLP has not verified and will not verify. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT will depend upon our ability to meet, through actual annual operating

 

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results, distribution levels, and diversity of stock ownership, the various and complex REIT qualification tests imposed under the Code, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed or verified by Goodwin Procter LLP. See “—Qualification as a REIT” below. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we have satisfied or will satisfy the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT. The opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP is based upon the law in effect as of the date of the opinion (or, with respect to past years, the law in effect for such years), which is subject to change either prospectively or retroactively. Opinions of counsel impose no obligation on counsel to advise us or the holders of our stock of any subsequent change in the matters stated, represented or assumed, or of any subsequent change in the applicable law. Changes in applicable law could modify the conclusions expressed in the opinion. Unlike a ruling from the IRS, an opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP is not binding on the IRS and no assurance can be given that the IRS could not successfully challenge our qualification as a REIT.

If we qualify as a REIT, we generally will be allowed to deduct dividends paid to our shareholders, and, as a result, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on that portion of our ordinary income and net capital gain that we currently distribute to our shareholders. We intend to make distributions to our shareholders on a regular basis as necessary to avoid material U.S. federal income tax and to comply with the REIT requirements. See “—Qualification as a REIT—Annual Distribution Requirements” below.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, even if we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we nonetheless may be subject to U.S. federal income tax or excise tax in certain circumstances, including the following:

 

   

we will be required to pay U.S. federal income tax on our undistributed REIT taxable income, including net capital gain;

 

   

we may be subject to tax at the highest U.S. federal corporate income tax rate on certain income from “foreclosure property” (generally, property acquired by reason of default on a lease or indebtedness held by us);

 

   

we will be subject to a 100% U.S. federal income tax on net income from “prohibited transactions” (generally, certain sales or other dispositions of property, sometimes referred to as “dealer property,” held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, other than foreclosure property) unless the gain is realized in a “taxable REIT subsidiary,” or TRS, or such property has been held by us for at least two years and certain other requirements are satisfied;

 

   

if we fail to satisfy either the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test (discussed below), but nonetheless maintain our qualification as a REIT pursuant to certain relief provisions, we will be subject to a 100% U.S. federal income tax on the greater of (i) the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test or (ii) the amount by which we fail the 95% gross income test, in either case, multiplied by a fraction intended to reflect our profitability;

 

   

if we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests, and the failure is not a failure of the 5% or the 10% asset test that qualifies under the De Minimis Exception but the failure does qualify under the General Exception, both as described below under “—Qualification as a REIT—Asset Tests,” then we will have to pay an excise tax equal to the greater of (i) $50,000 and (ii) an amount determined by multiplying the net income generated during a specified period by the assets that caused the failure by the highest U.S. federal corporate income tax rate;

 

   

if we fail to satisfy any REIT requirements other than the gross income test or asset test requirements, described below under “—Qualification as a REIT—Income Tests” and “—Qualification as a REIT—Asset Tests,” respectively, and we qualify for a reasonable cause exception, then we will have to pay a penalty equal to $50,000 for each such failure;

 

   

we will be subject to a 4% excise tax on certain undistributed amounts if certain distribution requirements are not satisfied;

 

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we may be required to pay monetary penalties to the IRS in certain circumstances, including if we fail to meet record-keeping requirements intended to monitor our compliance with rules relating to the composition of a REIT’s shareholders, as described below in “—Recordkeeping Requirements;”

 

   

if we dispose of an asset acquired by us from a C corporation in a transaction in which we took the C corporation’s tax basis in the asset, we may be subject to tax at the highest U.S. federal corporate income tax rate on the appreciation inherent in such asset as of the date of acquisition by us;

 

   

we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any re-determined rents, re-determined deductions, excess interest and re-determined TRS service income. In general, re-determined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of services furnished by one of our TRSs. Re-determined deductions and excess interest generally represent amounts that are deducted by a TRS for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s-length negotiations. Re-determined TRS service income generally means the additional gross income a TRS would recognize if it were paid an arm’s length fee for services provided to, or on behalf of, us; and

 

   

income earned by our TRSs or any other subsidiaries that are taxable as C corporations will be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax.

No assurance can be given that the amount of any such U.S. federal income or excise taxes will not be substantial. In addition, we and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes, including payroll taxes and state, local and foreign income, property and other taxes on assets and operations. We could also be subject to tax in situations and on transactions not presently contemplated.

Qualification as a REIT

In General

The REIT provisions of the Code apply to a domestic corporation, trust or association (i) that is managed by one or more trustees or directors, (ii) the beneficial ownership of which is evidenced by transferable shares or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest, (iii) that properly elects to be taxed as a REIT and such election has not been terminated or revoked, (iv) that is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company, (v) that uses a calendar year for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and (vi) that meets the additional requirements discussed below. The discussion below summarizes current law except where expressly noted otherwise. We do not believe any differences between the current requirements for qualification as a REIT and the requirements in effect for any prior year have prevented us from qualifying as a REIT for any period.

Ownership Tests

In order to continue to qualify as a REIT, (i) the beneficial ownership of our stock must be held by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a 12-month taxable year (or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months) for each of our taxable years and (ii) during the last half of each taxable year, no more than 50% in value of our stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by or for five or fewer individuals (the “5/50 Test”). Stock ownership for purposes of the 5/50 Test is determined by applying the constructive ownership provisions of Section 544(a) of the Code, subject to certain modifications. The term “individual” for purposes of the 5/50 Test includes a private foundation, a trust providing for the payment of supplemental unemployment compensation benefits, and a portion of a trust permanently set aside or to be used exclusively for charitable purposes. A “qualified trust” described in Section 401(a) of the Code and exempt from tax under Section 501(a) of the Code generally is not treated as an individual; rather, stock held by it is generally treated as owned proportionately by its beneficiaries.

We believe that we have satisfied and will continue to satisfy the above ownership requirements. In addition, our charter restricts ownership and transfers of our stock that would violate these requirements, although these restrictions may not be effective in all circumstances to prevent a violation. We will be deemed to

 

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have satisfied the 5/50 Test for a particular taxable year if we have complied with all the requirements for ascertaining the ownership of our outstanding stock in that taxable year and have no reason to know that we have violated the 5/50 Test.

Income Tests

In order to maintain qualification as a REIT, we must annually satisfy two gross income requirements:

(1) First, at least 75% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions and certain other income and gains as described below) for each taxable year must be derived, directly or indirectly, from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property or from certain types of temporary investments (or any combination thereof). Qualifying income for purposes of this 75% gross income test generally includes: (a) rents from real property, (b) interest on obligations secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property, (c) dividends or other distributions on, and gain from the sale of, shares in other REITs, (d) gain from the sale of real estate assets (but not including certain debt instruments of publicly offered REITs that are not secured by mortgages on real property or interests on real property and gain from prohibited transactions), (e) income and gain derived from foreclosure property, and (f) income from certain types of temporary investments; and

(2) Second, in general, at least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions and certain other income and gains as described below) for each taxable year must be derived from the real property investments described above and from other types of dividends and interest, gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities that are not dealer property, or any combination of the above.

Rents we receive will qualify as rents from real property in satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if several conditions are met. First, the amount of rent generally must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales. Second, rents received from a “related party tenant” will not qualify as rents from real property in satisfying the gross income tests unless the tenant is a TRS and either (i) at least 90% of the property is leased to unrelated tenants and the rent paid by the TRS is substantially comparable to the rent paid by the unrelated tenants for comparable space, or (ii) the property leased is a “qualified lodging facility,” as defined in Section 856(d)(9)(D) of the Code, or a “qualified health care property,” as defined in Section 856(e)(6)(D)(i), and certain other conditions are satisfied. A tenant is a related party tenant if the REIT, or an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of the REIT, actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the tenant. Third, if rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, is greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease (determined based on the fair market value as of the beginning and end of the taxable year), then the portion of rent attributable to the personal property will not qualify as rents from real property.

Generally, for rents to qualify as rents from real property for the purpose of satisfying the gross income tests, we may provide directly only an insignificant amount of services, unless those services are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of real property and not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” under the applicable tax rules. Accordingly, we may not provide “impermissible services” to tenants (except through an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue and that meets other requirements or through a TRS) without giving rise to “impermissible tenant service income.” Impermissible tenant service income is deemed to be at least 150% of the direct cost to us of providing the service. If the impermissible tenant service income exceeds 1% of our total income from a property, then all of the income from that property will fail to qualify as rents from real property. If the total amount of impermissible tenant service income from a property does not exceed 1% of our total income from the property, the services will not disqualify any other income from the property that qualifies as rents from real property, but the impermissible tenant service income will not qualify as rents from real property.

 

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We do not intend to charge significant rent that is based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person, derive significant rents from related party tenants, derive rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with real property that exceeds 15% of the total rents from that property, or derive impermissible tenant service income that exceeds 1% of our total income from any property if the treatment of the rents from such property as nonqualified rents could cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT.

Distributions that we receive from a TRS will be classified as dividend income to the extent of the earnings and profits of the TRS. Such distributions will generally constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not under the 75% gross income test unless attributable to investments of certain new capital during the one-year period beginning on the date of receipt of the new capital (as described below under “Qualification as a REIT—Income Tests—Qualified temporary investment income”). Any dividends received by us from a REIT will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests.

If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or the 95% gross income tests, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for a particular year if we are entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code. Those relief provisions generally will be available if our failure to meet such tests is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and we file a schedule describing each item of our gross income for such year(s) in accordance with the applicable Treasury Regulations. It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. As discussed above in “—Taxation of Our Company,” even if these relief provisions were to apply, we would be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax to the extent we fail to meet the 75% or 95% gross income tests.

Foreclosure property. Foreclosure property is real property (including interests in real property) and any personal property incident to such real property (1) that is acquired by a REIT as a result of the REIT having bid on the property at foreclosure, or having otherwise reduced the property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law, after there was a default (or default was imminent) on a lease of the property or a mortgage loan held by the REIT and secured by the property, (2) for which the related loan or lease was made, entered into or acquired by the REIT at a time when default was not imminent or anticipated and (3) for which such REIT makes an election to treat the property as foreclosure property. REITs generally are subject to tax at the highest U.S. federal corporate income tax rate on any net income from foreclosure property, including any gain from the disposition of the foreclosure property, other than income that would otherwise be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Any gain from the sale of property for which a foreclosure property election has been made will not be subject to the 100% tax on gains from prohibited transactions described above, even if the property is held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business.

Hedging transactions. We may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Hedging transactions could take a variety of forms, including interest rate swaps or cap agreements, options, futures contracts, forward rate agreements or similar financial instruments. Except to the extent as may be provided by future Treasury Regulations, any income from a hedging transaction which is (1) clearly identified as such before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated or entered into, and (2) accompanied by a substantially contemporaneous identification of the item being hedged, including gain from the disposition or termination of such a transaction, will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests, provided that the hedging transaction is entered into (i) in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of interest rate or price changes or currency fluctuations with respect to indebtedness incurred or to be incurred by us to acquire or carry real estate assets, (ii) primarily to manage the risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income tests (or any property which generates such income or gain), or (iii) to hedge against transactions described in clause (i) or (ii) and is entered into in connection with the extinguishment of debt or a sale of property that is being hedged against by the transaction described in clause (i) or (ii). To the extent we enter into other types of hedging transactions or do not make proper identifications, as applicable, the income from those transactions is likely to be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests. We intend to structure, monitor and document our hedging transactions so that such

 

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transactions do not jeopardize our ability to qualify as a REIT. No assurances can be given, however, that our hedging activities will not give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of either or both of the gross income tests and that such income will not adversely affect our ability to satisfy REIT qualification requirements.

Qualified temporary investment income. Income derived from certain types of temporary stock and debt investments made with the proceeds of certain stock and debt offerings (but not including proceeds received pursuant to a dividend reinvestment plan), not otherwise treated as qualifying income for the 75% gross income test, generally will nonetheless constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test for the year following such an offering. More specifically, qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test includes “qualified temporary investment income,” which generally means any income that is attributable to stock or a debt instrument, is attributable to the temporary investment of new equity capital and certain debt capital, and is received or accrued during the one-year period beginning on the date on which the REIT receives such new capital. After the one-year period following a qualifying equity or debt offering, income from investments of the proceeds of such offering will be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test only if derived from one of the other qualifying sources enumerated above.

Asset Tests

At the close of each quarter of each taxable year, we must also satisfy five tests relating to the nature of our assets. First, real estate assets, cash and cash items, and government securities must represent at least 75% of the value of our total assets. Real estate assets include interests in real property (such as land, buildings, leasehold interests in real property and personal property leased with real property if the rents attributable to the personal property would be rents from real property under the income tests discussed above), interests in mortgages on real property or on interest in real property, shares in other qualifying REITs, debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs, and stock or debt instruments held for less than one year that are purchased with the proceeds from an offering of shares of our stock or certain long-term debt. Second, not more than 25% of our total assets may be represented by securities other than those in the 75% asset class. Third, of the investments that are not included in the 75% asset class and are not securities of our TRSs, (i) the value of any one issuer’s securities owned by us may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets and (ii) we may not own more than 10% by vote or by value of any one issuer’s outstanding securities. For purposes of the 10% value test, debt instruments issued by a partnership are not classified as “securities” to the extent of our interest as a partner in such partnership (based on our proportionate share of the partnership’s equity interests and certain debt securities) or if at least 75% of the partnership’s gross income, excluding income from prohibited transactions, is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. For purposes of the 10% value test, the term “securities” also does not include certain instruments, such as debt securities issued by another REIT, certain “straight debt” securities (for example, qualifying debt securities of a corporation of which we own no more than a de minimis amount of equity interest), loans to individuals or estates, and accrued obligations to pay rent. Fourth, securities of our TRSs cannot represent more than 20% of the value of our total assets. Fifth, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs that are not secured by mortgages on real property or interest in real property. Although we believe we have met these asset tests and we intend to continue to meet them, no assurance can be given that we have met them or will be able to do so. For purposes of these asset tests, we are treated as holding our proportionate share of our subsidiary partnerships’ assets. Also, for purposes of these asset tests, pursuant to an IRS ruling, we generally may treat shares of certain money market mutual funds as “cash items.”

 

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We will monitor the status of our assets for purposes of the various asset tests and will endeavor to manage our portfolio in order to comply at all times with such tests. If we fail to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a calendar quarter, other than our first calendar quarter as a REIT, we will not lose our REIT status if one of the following exceptions applies:

 

   

we satisfied the asset tests at the end of the preceding calendar quarter and the discrepancy between the value of our assets and the asset test requirements arose from changes in the market values of our assets and was not wholly or partly caused by the acquisition of one or more non-qualifying assets; or

 

   

we eliminate any discrepancy within 30 days after the close of the calendar quarter in which it arose.

Moreover, if we fail to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a calendar quarter during a taxable year, we will not lose our REIT status if one of the following additional exceptions applies:

 

   

De Minimis Exception: the failure is due to a violation of the 5% or 10% asset tests referenced above and is “de minimis” (meaning that the failure is one that arises from our ownership of assets the total value of which does not exceed the lesser of 1% of the total value of our assets at the end of the quarter in which the failure occurred and $10 million), and we either dispose of the assets that caused the failure or otherwise satisfy the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which our identification of the failure occurred; or

 

   

General Exception: all of the following requirements are satisfied: (i) the failure does not qualify for the above De Minimis Exception, (ii) the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, (iii) we file a schedule in accordance with the applicable Treasury Regulations providing a description of each asset that caused the failure, and (iv) we either dispose of the assets that caused the failure or otherwise satisfy the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which our identification of the failure occurred. A REIT that utilizes this general relief provision must pay an excise tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 or (b) the product of the net income generated during a specified period by the asset that caused the failure and the highest U.S. federal corporate income tax rate.

Annual Distribution Requirements

In order to qualify as a REIT, each taxable year we must distribute dividends (other than capital gain dividends) to our shareholders in an amount at least equal to (A) the sum of (i) 90% of our “REIT taxable income” (determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding net capital gains), and (ii) 90% of the net income (after tax), if any, from foreclosure property, minus (B) the sum of certain items of non-cash income. We generally must pay such distributions in the taxable year to which they relate (or be treated as having paid such distributions in such year, as described further below under “Distributions”), or in the following taxable year if declared before we timely file our tax return for such year and if paid on or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration. Subject to certain requirements, we may satisfy all or part of our distribution requirement by paying taxable stock dividends.

To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain and REIT taxable income, we will be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax, and potentially, state and local tax, on these retained amounts. Furthermore, if we should fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (i) 85% of our REIT taxable income (subject to certain adjustments) for such year, (ii) 95% of our capital gain net income for such year, and (iii) 100% of any corresponding undistributed amounts from prior periods, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible federal excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over the sum of amounts actually distributed plus retained income from such taxable year on which we paid corporate income tax.

Under certain circumstances, we may be able to rectify a failure to meet the distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our shareholders in a later year that may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. Thus, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as

 

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deficiency dividends; however, we will be required to pay interest based upon the amount of any deduction taken for deficiency dividends.

For taxable years beginning before January 1, 2015, in order for our distributions to have satisfied the annual distribution requirements for REITs and provided us with a REIT-level tax deduction, the distributions must not have been “preferential dividends.” A dividend is not a preferential dividend if the distribution is (i) pro rata among all outstanding shares of stock within a particular class, and (ii) in accordance with the preferences among different classes of stock as set forth in our organizational documents. The preferential dividend rule for publicly offered REITs was repealed for distributions made in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2014. As such, we are no longer subject to these preferential dividend requirements. Any non-publicly offered REIT in which we invest would be subject to the preferential dividend rule regardless of the date of the distribution.

Pursuant to an IRS ruling, the prohibition on preferential dividends applicable to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2015 did not prohibit REITs from offering shares under a distribution reinvestment plan at discounts of up to 5% of fair market value, but a discount in excess of 5% of the fair market value of the shares would have been considered a preferential dividend. Any discount that we offered under a distribution reinvestment plan before January 1, 2015 was intended to fall within the safe harbor for such discounts set forth in the IRS ruling; however, the fair market value of our common stock prior to the listing of our common stock on a national securities exchange was not susceptible to a definitive determination. If the discount in the purchase price under a dividend reinvestment plan in effect prior to the listing of our stock is determined to have exceeded 5% at any time, we could fail to qualify as a REIT for any such affected year. See “—Failure to Qualify.”

Preferential dividends have included certain share repurchases before January 1, 2015 that were taxed to the selling shareholder in the same manner as a regular distribution (e.g., as a taxable dividend to the extent paid out of earnings and profits), rather than as a sale or exchange, but we believe that such repurchases were properly treated as sales or exchanges for federal income tax purposes.

We may retain and pay income tax on net long-term capital gains we received during the tax year. To the extent we so elect, (i) each shareholder must include in its income (as long-term capital gain) its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gains, (ii) each shareholder is deemed to have paid, and receives a credit for, its proportionate share of the tax paid by us on the undistributed long-term capital gains, and (iii) each shareholder’s basis in its stock is increased by the included amount of the undistributed long-term capital gains less their share of the tax paid by us.

To qualify as a REIT, we may not have, at the end of any taxable year, any undistributed earnings and profits accumulated in any non-REIT taxable year. We believe that we have not had any non-REIT earnings and profits at the end of any taxable year and we intend to distribute any non-REIT earnings and profits that we accumulate before the end of any taxable year in which we accumulate such earnings and profits.

Failure to Qualify

If we fail to qualify as a REIT and such failure is not an asset test or gross income test failure subject to the cure provisions described above, or for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2015 the result of preferential dividends, we generally will be eligible for a relief provision if the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect and we pay a penalty of $50,000 with respect to such failure.

If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year and no relief provisions apply, we generally will be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on our taxable income. Distributions to our shareholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible by us nor will they be required to be made. In such event, to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, all distributions to our shareholders will be taxable as dividend income. Subject to certain limitations in the Code, corporate shareholders may be eligible for the dividends received deduction, and individual, trust and estate

 

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shareholders may be eligible to treat the dividends received from us as qualified dividend income taxable as net capital gains, under the provisions of Section 1(h)(11) of the Code. However, non-corporate shareholders (including individuals) will not be able to deduct 20% of certain dividends they receive from us. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we also will be ineligible to elect to be taxed as a REIT again prior to the fifth taxable year following the first year in which we failed to qualify as a REIT under the Code.

Our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes will depend on our continuing to meet the various requirements summarized above governing the ownership of our outstanding stock, the nature of our assets, the sources of our income, and the amount of our distributions to our shareholders. Although we intend to operate in a manner that will enable us to comply with such requirements, there can be no certainty that such intention will be realized. In addition, because the relevant laws may change, compliance with one or more of the REIT requirements may become impossible or impracticable for us.

Prohibited Transaction Tax

Any gain realized by us on the sale of any property held (other than foreclosure property) as inventory or other property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, including our share of any such gain realized by our subsidiary partnerships, will be treated as income from a “prohibited transaction” that is subject to a 100% penalty tax. Whether property is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business depends upon all the facts and circumstances with respect to the particular transaction. However, the Code provides a “safe harbor” pursuant to which sales of properties held for at least two years and meeting certain other requirements will not give rise to prohibited transaction income.

We generally intend to hold properties for investment, but we have made and will make sales of properties consistent with our strategic objectives. We believe our past sales in open tax years are not considered prohibited transactions. In the future, however, we may make sales at a gain that do not satisfy the safe harbor requirements described above. There can be no assurance that the IRS will not contend that one or more of these sales are subject to the 100% penalty tax. The 100% penalty tax will not apply to gains from the sale of property realized through a U.S. TRS or other U.S. taxable corporation, although such income will be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax.

Recordkeeping Requirements

To avoid a monetary penalty, we must request on an annual basis information from certain of our shareholders designed to disclose the actual ownership of our outstanding stock. We intend to comply with these requirements.

Qualified REIT Subsidiaries and Disregarded Entities

If a REIT owns a subsidiary that is a “qualified REIT subsidiary,” or QRS, or if a REIT owns 100% of the membership interests in a domestic limited liability company or other domestic unincorporated entity that does not elect to be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the separate existence of the QRS, limited liability company or other unincorporated entity generally will be disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Generally, a QRS is a corporation, other than a TRS, all of the stock of which is owned by a REIT. All assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of the QRS or disregarded entity will be treated as assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of its owner. To the extent we own a QRS or a disregarded entity, neither will be subject to U.S. federal corporate income taxation, although such entities may be subject to state and local taxation in some states or foreign taxes if they do business or own property outside the United States.

Taxation of Subsidiary Partnerships

We hold investments through entities that are classified as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Under the Code, a partnership generally is not subject to U.S. federal income tax, but is required to file

 

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a partnership tax information return each year. In general, the character of each partner’s share of each item of income, gain, loss, deduction, credit, and tax preference is determined at the partnership level. Each partner is then allocated a distributive share of such items and is required to take such items into account in determining the partner’s income. Each partner includes such amount in income for any taxable year of the partnership ending within or with the taxable year of the partner, without regard to whether the partner has received or will receive any cash distributions from the partnership. Cash distributions, if any, from a partnership to a partner generally are not taxable unless and to the extent they exceed the partner’s basis in its partnership interest immediately before the distribution. Any amounts in excess of such tax basis will generally be treated as a sale of such partner’s interest in the partnership.

While generally the rules described above mean that a partnership is not subject to U.S. federal income tax, new rules applicable to U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 may require the partnership to pay the hypothetical increase in partner-level taxes (including interest and penalties) resulting from an adjustment of partnership tax items on audit or in other tax proceedings, unless the partnership elects an alternative method under which the taxes resulting from the adjustment (and interest and penalties) are assessed at the partner level (often referred to as a “push-out election”), subject to a higher rate of interest than otherwise would apply. Proposed Treasury Regulations provide that when a push-out election affects a partner that is a REIT, such REIT may be able to use deficiency dividend procedures with respect to adjustments resulting from such election. It is possible that partnerships in which we directly and indirectly invest may be subject to U.S. federal income tax, interest and penalties in the event of a U.S. federal income tax audit as a result of these law changes, and as a result, we could be required to bear the economic costs of taxes attributable to our partners.

For purposes of the REIT income and assets tests, a REIT that is a partner in a partnership will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership and will be deemed to earn its proportionate share of the partnership’s income. The assets and gross income of the partnership retain the same character in the hands of the REIT for purposes of the gross income and asset tests applicable to REITs. Our proportionate share of the assets and items of income of any subsidiary partnership, including such partnership’s share of the assets and liabilities and items of income with respect to any partnership or disregarded entity in which it holds an interest, will be treated as our assets and liabilities and items of income for purposes of applying the REIT asset and income tests.

We may form joint ventures taxed as partnerships and our joint venture partners may contribute property to such subsidiary partnerships. If our partner contributes appreciated property (i.e., property with a value in excess of adjusted tax basis) in exchange for a partnership interest, the subsidiary partnership’s initial tax basis in the property acquired generally will be less than the purchase price of the property. Although the partnership tax rules of Section 704(c) of the Code would generally attempt to provide us as the non-contributing partner with the depreciation deductions comparable to what we would receive if the subsidiary partnership purchased the appreciated assets for cash in a taxable transaction (and obtain an initial tax basis equal to the purchase price), absent certain elections, which would accelerate income to the contributor, the depreciation would be limited to tax basis. Consequently, our depreciation deductions for such properties may be less, and our tax gain on a sale of such properties may be more, than the deductions or gain, respectively, that we would have if the subsidiary partnership acquired these properties in taxable transactions. Alternatively, if we contribute appreciated property to a subsidiary partnership, such partnership may elect to use a method of allocation under Section 704(c) of the Code that accelerates income to us.

The discussion above assumes that our subsidiary partnerships will be treated as “partnerships” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Generally, a domestic unincorporated entity with two or more partners is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes unless it affirmatively elects to be treated as a corporation. However, certain “publicly traded partnerships” are treated as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Pursuant to Section 7704 of the Code, a partnership that does not elect to be treated as a corporation nevertheless will be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes if it is a “publicly traded partnership” and it

 

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does not derive at least 90% of its gross income from certain specified sources of “qualifying income” within the meaning of that provision and meet certain other requirements. A “publicly traded partnership” is any partnership (i) the interests in which are traded on an established securities market or (ii) the interests in which are readily tradable on a “secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof.” Under the relevant Treasury Regulations, interests in a partnership will not be considered readily tradable on a secondary market or on the substantial equivalent of a secondary market if the partnership qualifies for specified “safe harbors,” which are based on the specific facts and circumstances relating to the partnership. For example, interests in a partnership are not readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof if (i) all interests in the partnership were issued in a transaction (or transactions) that was not required to be registered under the Securities Act, and (ii) the partnership does not have more than 100 partners at any time during the taxable year of the partnership (determined by counting indirect partners who held their partnership interest through certain flow-through entities). If any subsidiary partnership were a publicly traded partnership, it would be taxed as a corporation unless at least 90% of its gross income consists of “qualifying income” under Section 7704 of the Code. Qualifying income is generally real property rents and other types of passive income, and the income requirements applicable to us to qualify as a REIT under the Code and the definition of qualifying income under the publicly traded partnership rules are very similar. We intend to operate so that our subsidiary partnerships will satisfy at least one of the above-mentioned safe harbors, and/or comply with the qualifying income exception, so as to avoid being taxed as a corporation under these rules. However, we do not control all of our subsidiary partnerships, and treatment of a subsidiary partnership as a corporation could prevent us from qualifying as a REIT.

Investments in Certain Debt Instruments

We may acquire mortgage, mezzanine, bridge loans and other debt investments. If a mortgage loan is secured by both real property and personal property, then such mortgage shall be treated as a wholly qualifying real estate asset and all interest shall be treated as mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test, provided that the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property on the date that we committed to acquire or modify the loan (or on the date of disposition for purposes of whether gain from a disposition of the mortgage is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test), even if the real property collateral value is less than the outstanding balance of the loan. However, if a mortgage loan that is secured by both real property and personal property does not satisfy the 15% test articulated in the previous sentence, and/or with respect to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2016, then such mortgage may not be a qualifying real estate asset in its entirety for purposes of the 75% asset test and/or a portion of the interest income from such mortgage may not constitute qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test if the amount of the loan outstanding exceeds the fair market value of the real property collateral on the date that we committed to acquire or modify the loan.

To the extent that we derive interest income from a mortgage loan where all or a portion of the amount of interest payable is contingent, such income generally will qualify for purposes of the gross income tests only if it is based upon the gross receipts or sales, and not the net income or profits, of the borrower. This limitation does not apply, however, where the borrower leases substantially all of its interest in the property to tenants or subtenants, to the extent that the rental income derived by the borrower would qualify as rents from real property had we earned the income directly.

The application of the REIT provisions of the Code to certain mezzanine loans, which are loans secured by equity interests in an entity that directly or indirectly owns real property rather than by a direct mortgage of the real property, is not entirely clear. A safe harbor in IRS Revenue Procedure 2003-65 provides that if a mezzanine loan meets certain requirements then it will be treated by the IRS as a qualifying real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests and interest income derived from it will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test. However, to the extent that mezzanine loans do not meet all of the requirements for reliance on the safe harbor set forth in IRS Revenue Procedure 2003-65, all or a portion of such mezzanine loans may not qualify as real estate assets and the interest income derived therefrom may not be

 

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qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, which could adversely affect our REIT qualification if we acquired such loans. As such, the REIT provisions of the Code may limit our ability to acquire mortgage, mezzanine or other loans that we might otherwise desire to acquire.

Investments in debt instruments may require recognition of taxable income prior to receipt of cash from such investments and may cause portions of gain to be treated as ordinary income. For example, we may purchase debt instruments at a discount from face value. To the extent we purchase any instruments at a discount in connection with their original issuances, the discount will be “original issue discount,” or OID, if it exceeds certain de minimis amounts, which must be accrued on a constant yield method even though we may not receive the corresponding cash payment until maturity. To the extent debt instruments are purchased by us at a discount after their original issuances, the discount may represent “market discount.” Unlike OID, market discount is not required to be included in income on a constant yield method. However, if we sell a debt instrument with market discount, we will be required to treat gain up to an amount equal to the market discount that has accrued while we held the debt instrument as ordinary income. Additionally, any principal payments we receive in respect of our debt instruments must be treated as ordinary income to the extent of any accrued market discount. If we ultimately collect less on a debt instrument than our purchase price and any OID or accrued market discount that we have included in income, there may be limitations on our ability to use any losses resulting from that debt instrument. We may acquire distressed debt instruments that are subsequently modified by agreement with the borrower. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, these modifications may be treated as a taxable event in which we exchange the old debt instrument for a new debt instrument, the value of which may be treated as equal to the face amount of the new debt instrument. Because distressed debt instruments are often acquired at a substantial discount from face value, the difference between our amount realized and our tax basis in the old note could be significant, resulting in significant income without any corresponding receipt of cash. Similarly, if we acquire a distressed debt instrument and subsequently foreclose, we could have taxable income to the extent that the fair market value of the property we receive exceeds our tax basis in the debt instrument. Such a scenario could also result in significant taxable income without any receipt of cash. In the event that any debt instruments acquired by us are delinquent as to mandatory principal and interest payments, or in the event payments with respect to a particular debt instrument are not made when due, we may nonetheless be required to continue to recognize the unpaid interest as taxable income.

We generally will be required to include certain amounts in income for U.S. federal income tax purposes no later than the time such amounts are reflected on certain financial statements. The application of this rule may require the accrual of income with respect to our debt instruments earlier than would be the case under the general tax rules described in the preceding paragraph.

Investments in TRSs

We own subsidiaries that have elected to be treated as TRSs for U.S. federal income tax purposes. A TRS of ours is a corporation in which we directly or indirectly own stock and that jointly elects with us to be treated as a TRS under Section 856(l) of the Code. In addition, if one of our TRSs owns, directly or indirectly, securities representing 35% or more of the vote or value of a subsidiary corporation, that subsidiary will also be treated as a TRS of ours. A domestic TRS (or a foreign TRS with income from a U.S. business) pays U.S. federal, state, and local income taxes at the full applicable corporate rates on its taxable income prior to payment of any dividends. A TRS owning property outside of the U.S. may pay foreign taxes. The taxes owed by a TRS could be substantial. To the extent that our TRSs are required to pay U.S. federal, state, local or foreign taxes, the cash available for distribution by us will be reduced accordingly.

A TRS is permitted to engage in certain kinds of activities that cannot be performed directly by us without jeopardizing our qualification as a REIT. However, several provisions regarding the arrangements between a REIT and its TRS ensure that a TRS will be subject to an appropriate level of U.S. federal income taxation. For example, a TRS is limited in its ability to deduct interest payments in excess of a certain amount made to us. In addition, we will be obligated to pay a 100% penalty tax on some payments that we receive or on certain

 

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expenses deducted by the TRS if the economic arrangements among us, our tenants, and/or the TRS are not comparable to similar arrangements among unrelated parties.

Taxation of U.S. Shareholders

The term “U.S. shareholder” means a beneficial owner of our common stock or preferred stock that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is (i) a citizen or resident of the United States, (ii) a corporation or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any of its states or the District of Columbia, (iii) an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source, or (iv) a trust (a) that is subject to the primary supervision of a United States court and the control of one or more U.S. persons or (b) that has a valid election in effect under the applicable Treasury Regulations to be treated as a U.S. person under the Code.

In addition, as used herein, the term U.S. shareholder does not include any individuals or entities that are subject to special treatment under the Code, such as (i) insurance companies; (ii) tax-exempt organizations (except to the limited extent discussed below); (iii) financial institutions or broker-dealers; (iv) U.S. expatriates; (v) persons who mark-to-market our common stock or preferred stock; (vi) subchapter S corporations; (vii) U.S. shareholders whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar; (viii) regulated investment companies; (ix) holders who receive our common stock or preferred stock through the exercise of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation; (x) persons holding shares of our common stock or preferred stock as part of a “straddle,” “hedge,” “conversion transaction,” “synthetic security” or other integrated investment; (xi) persons subject to the alternative minimum tax provisions of the Code; (xii) persons holding our common stock or preferred stock through a partnership or similar pass-through entity; and (xiii) persons holding a 10% or more (by vote or value) beneficial interest in our stock. If a partnership, including any entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, holds our stock, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will generally depend on the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. If you are a partner in a partnership holding our stock, you are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the consequences of the ownership and disposition of shares of our stock by the partnership. This summary assumes that shareholders hold our stock as capital assets for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which generally means property held for investment.

Certain accrual method taxpayers are required to include certain amounts in income for U.S. federal income tax purposes no later than the time such amounts are reflected on certain financial statements. This summary does not address the impact of those rules.

Distributions

Distributions by us, other than capital gain dividends, will constitute ordinary dividends to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Distributions on our preferred stock will be treated as made out of any available earnings and profits in priority to distributions on our common stock. In general, these dividends will be taxable as ordinary income and will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction for corporate shareholders. However, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026, individuals and other non-corporate taxpayers generally may deduct 20% of dividends received from us, other than capital gain dividends or dividends treated as qualified dividend income, subject to certain limitations. Our ordinary dividends generally will not qualify as “qualified dividend income” currently taxed as net capital gain for U.S. shareholders that are individuals, trusts or estates. However, provided we properly designate the distributions, distributions to U.S. shareholders that are individuals, trusts or estates generally will constitute qualified dividend income taxed as net capital gains to the extent the U.S. shareholder satisfies certain holding period requirements and to the extent the dividends are attributable to (i) qualified dividend income we receive from other corporations during the taxable year, including from our TRSs, and (ii) our undistributed earnings or built-in gains taxed at the corporate level during the immediately preceding taxable year. We do not anticipate distributing a significant amount of qualified dividend income.

 

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The discussion in this section applies equally to distributions payable in cash and taxable stock distributions. The Code provides that certain distributions payable in stock will be treated as taxable stock dividends. In addition, shares acquired through a distribution reinvestment plan are treated as taxable stock dividends. Certain features, typically with respect to preferred stock, such as certain redemption premiums and conversion ratio adjustments that have the effect of increasing the affected shareholders’ interest in our earnings or assets, also may be treated as taxable stock dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Taxable U.S. shareholders receiving taxable dividends of stock will be required to include as dividend income the fair market value of the stock received plus any cash or other property received in the distribution, to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result, a U.S. shareholder may be required to pay tax with respect to such dividends in excess of the cash received. If a U.S. shareholder sells the stock it receives as a dividend, the sales proceeds may be less than the amount included in income with respect to the dividend, depending on the market price of the stock at the time of the sale.

To the extent that we make a distribution in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits (a “return of capital distribution”), a U.S. shareholder will first apply the distribution to reduce the shareholder’s tax basis in our stock, and the return of capital distribution will be tax-free to that extent. To the extent that a return of capital distribution exceeds a U.S. shareholder’s tax basis in its stock, the distribution will be taxable as capital gain realized from the sale of such stock. Under proposed Treasury Regulations, a shareholder would apply a return of capital distribution pro rata, on a share-by-share basis, to each share of stock held by the shareholder with the class of stock upon which the return of capital distribution is made.

Dividends declared by us in October, November or December and payable to a shareholder of record on a specified date in any such month shall be treated both as paid by us and as received by the shareholder on December 31 of the year to the extent of our remaining current and accumulated earnings and profits for such year, provided that the dividend is actually paid by us during January of the following calendar year.

We will be treated as having sufficient earnings and profits to treat as a dividend any distribution up to the amount required to be distributed in order to avoid imposition of the 4% excise tax generally applicable to REITs if certain distribution requirements are not met. Moreover, any deficiency dividend will be treated as an ordinary or a capital gain dividend, as the case may be, regardless of our earnings and profits at the time the distribution is actually made. As a result, shareholders may be required to treat certain distributions as taxable dividends that would otherwise result in a tax-free return of capital.

Distributions that are properly designated as capital gain dividends will be taxed as long-term capital gains (to the extent they do not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year) without regard to the period for which the shareholder has held its stock. However, corporate shareholders may be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income. In addition, U.S. shareholders may be required to treat a portion of any capital gain dividend as “unrecaptured Section 1250 gain,” taxable at a maximum rate of 25%, if we incur such gain. Capital gain dividends are not eligible for the dividends-received deduction for corporations.

The REIT provisions of the Code do not require us to distribute our long-term capital gain, and we may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net long-term capital gains received during the taxable year. If we so elect for a taxable year, our shareholders would include in income as long-term capital gains their proportionate share of retained net long-term capital gains for the taxable year as we may designate. A U.S. shareholder would be deemed to have paid its share of the tax paid by us on such undistributed capital gains, which would be credited or refunded to the shareholder. The U.S. shareholder’s basis in its stock would be increased by the amount of undistributed long-term capital gains (less the capital gains tax paid by us) included in the U.S. shareholder’s long-term capital gains.

Passive Activity Loss and Investment Interest Limitations; No Pass-Through of Losses

Dividends paid by us and gain from the disposition of our common stock or preferred stock will not be treated as passive activity income and, therefore, U.S. shareholders will not be able to apply any “passive losses”

 

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against such income. With respect to non-corporate U.S. shareholders, our dividends (to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital) that are taxed at ordinary income rates will generally be treated as investment income for purposes of the investment interest limitation; however, net capital gain from the disposition of our common stock or preferred stock (or distributions treated as such), capital gain dividends, and dividends taxed at net capital gains rates generally will be excluded from investment income except to the extent the U.S. shareholder elects to treat such amounts as ordinary income for U.S. federal income tax purposes. U.S. shareholders may not include in their own U.S. federal income tax returns any of our net operating or net capital losses.

Sale or Disposition of Stock

In general, any gain or loss realized upon a taxable disposition of shares of our common stock or preferred stock by a shareholder that is not a dealer in securities will be a long-term capital gain or loss if the stock has been held for more than one year; otherwise it will be a short-term capital gain or loss. However, any loss upon a sale or exchange of the stock by a shareholder who has held such stock for six months or less (after applying certain holding period rules) will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of our distributions or undistributed capital gains required to be treated by such shareholder as long-term capital gain. All or a portion of any loss realized upon a taxable disposition of shares of our common stock or preferred stock may be disallowed if the taxpayer purchases other shares of our common stock within 30 days before or after the disposition.

A redemption by us of any redeemable preferred stock we may issue could be treated either as a taxable disposition of shares or as a dividend, depending on the applicable facts and circumstances. In the event we issue any redeemable preferred stock, the prospectus supplement will discuss the tax consequences of owning such securities in greater detail.

Taxation of U.S. Tax-Exempt Shareholders

In General

In general, a tax-exempt organization is exempt from U.S. federal income tax on its income, except to the extent of its “unrelated business taxable income” or UBTI, which is defined by the Code as the gross income derived from any trade or business which is regularly carried on by a tax-exempt entity and unrelated to its exempt purposes, less any directly connected deductions and subject to certain modifications. For this purpose, the Code generally excludes from UBTI any gain or loss from the sale or other disposition of property (other than stock in trade or property held primarily for sale in the ordinary course of a trade or business), dividends, interest, rents from real property, and certain other items. However, a portion of any such gains, dividends, interest, rents, and other items generally is UBTI to the extent derived from debt-financed property not related to the tax-exempt entity’s exempt purpose, based on the amount of “acquisition indebtedness” with respect to such debt-financed property. A U.S. tax-exempt shareholder that is subject to tax on its UBTI will be required to separately compute its taxable income and loss for each unrelated trade or business activity for purposes of determining its UBTI. Before making an investment in shares of our common stock or preferred stock, a tax-exempt shareholder should consult its tax advisors with regard to UBTI and the suitability of the investment in our stock.

Distributions we make to a tax-exempt employee pension trust or other domestic tax-exempt shareholder or gains from the disposition of our common stock or preferred stock held as capital assets generally will not constitute UBTI unless the exempt organization’s stock is debt-financed property (e.g., the shareholder has incurred “acquisition indebtedness” with respect to such stock). However, if we are a “pension-held REIT,” this general rule may not apply to distributions to certain pension trusts that are qualified trusts (as defined above) and that hold more than 10% (by value) of our stock. We will be treated as a “pension-held REIT” if (i) treating qualified trusts as individuals would cause us to fail the 5/50 Test (as defined above) and (ii) we are “predominantly held” by qualified trusts. We will be “predominantly held” by qualified trusts if either (i) a single

 

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qualified trust holds more than 25% by value of our stock or (ii) one or more qualified trusts, each owning more than 10% by value of our stock, hold in the aggregate more than 50% by value of our stock. In the event we are a pension-held REIT, the percentage of any dividend received from us treated as UBTI would be equal to the ratio of (a) the gross UBTI (less certain associated expenses) earned by us (treating us as if we were a qualified trust and, therefore, subject to tax on UBTI) to (b) our total gross income (less certain associated expenses). A de minimis exception applies where the ratio set forth in the preceding sentence is less than 5% for any year; in that case, no dividends are treated as UBTI. We cannot assure you that we will not be treated as a pension-held REIT.

Special Issues

Social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations and supplemental unemployment benefit trusts that are exempt from taxation under paragraphs (7), (9) and (17), respectively, of Section 501(c) of the Code are subject to different UBTI rules, which generally will require them to characterize distributions from us as UBTI.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Shareholders

The rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of beneficial owners of our stock who are not U.S. persons, such as nonresident alien individuals, foreign corporations, and foreign trusts and estates (“non-U.S. shareholders”), are complex. This section is only a partial discussion of such rules. This discussion does not attempt to address the considerations that may be relevant for non-U.S. shareholders that are partnerships or other pass-through entities, that hold their common stock or preferred stock through intermediate entities, that have special statuses (such as sovereigns), or that otherwise are subject to special rules under the Code. This discussion also generally is limited to investments in classes of our stock that are regularly traded on an established securities market.

Distributions

A non-U.S. shareholder that receives a distribution that is not attributable to gain from our sale or exchange of “United States real property interests” (as defined below) and that we do not designate as a capital gain dividend or retained capital gain generally will recognize ordinary dividend income to the extent that we pay the distribution out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. A U.S. federal withholding tax equal to 30% of the gross amount of the distribution ordinarily will apply unless an applicable tax treaty reduces or eliminates the tax. Under many treaties, lower withholding rates do not apply to dividends from REITs or are available in limited circumstances. However, if a distribution is treated as effectively connected with the non-U.S. shareholder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business, the non-U.S. shareholder generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the distribution at graduated rates (in the same manner as U.S. shareholders are taxed on distributions) and also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax in the case of a corporate non-U.S. shareholder. We generally plan to withhold U.S. income tax at the rate of 30% on the gross amount of any distribution paid to a non-U.S. shareholder (including any portion of any dividend that is payable in our stock) unless either (i) a lower treaty rate or special provision of the Code (e.g., Section 892) applies and the non-U.S. shareholder provides to us any required IRS Form W-8 (for example, an IRS Form W-8BEN) evidencing eligibility for that reduced rate or (ii) the non-U.S. shareholder files with us an IRS Form W-8ECI claiming that the distribution is effectively connected income, or (iii) we determined that a different withholding rate is appropriate (such as because we can determine at the time of distribution that the distribution is a capital gain dividend or is attributable to gain from the sale or exchange of “United States real property interests”).

A non-U.S. shareholder generally will not incur U.S. federal income tax (but will be subject to withholding as described below) on a return of capital distribution in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits that is not attributable to the gain from our disposition of a “United States real property interest” if the excess portion of the distribution does not exceed the adjusted basis of the non-U.S. shareholder’s stock. Instead, the excess portion of the distribution will reduce the adjusted basis of the stock. However, a non-U.S. shareholder will be subject to tax on such a distribution that exceeds both our current and accumulated earnings and profits

 

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and the non-U.S. shareholder’s adjusted basis in the stock if the non-U.S. shareholder otherwise would be subject to tax on gain from the sale or disposition of its stock, as described below. Because we generally cannot determine at the time we make a distribution whether or not the distribution will exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits, we normally will withhold tax on the entire amount of any distribution at the same rate as we would withhold on a dividend.

We may be required to withhold 15% of any distribution that exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits even if a lower treaty rate applies to dividends or the non-U.S. shareholder is not liable for tax on the receipt of that distribution. Consequently, to the extent that we do not withhold at a rate of 30% on the entire amount of any distribution, we generally expect to withhold at a rate of 15% (i.e., on any portion of the distribution that we do withhold at a rate of 30%) unless we conclude that an exemption or different rate applies.

A non-U.S. shareholder may seek a refund from the IRS if the non-U.S. shareholder’s withholdings and any other tax payments exceed its U.S. federal income tax liability for the year.

Subject to the exception discussed below for 10% or smaller holders of classes of stock of a corporation that are regularly traded on an established securities market located in the United States and the special rules for “qualified shareholders” or “qualified foreign pension funds” discussed below, a non-U.S. shareholder will incur tax on distributions that are attributable to gain from our sale or exchange of “United States real property interests” under special provisions of the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980, or FIRPTA, regardless of whether we designate such distributions as capital gain distributions. The term “United States real property interests” includes interests in U.S. real property and stock in U.S. corporations at least 50% of whose assets consist of interests in U.S. real property. Under those rules, a non-U.S. shareholder is taxed on distributions attributable to gain from sales of United States real property interests as if the gain were effectively connected with the non-U.S. shareholder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business. A non-U.S. shareholder thus would be taxed on such a distribution at the normal capital gain rates applicable to U.S. shareholders, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax. A corporate non-U.S. shareholder not entitled to treaty relief or exemption also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax on such a distribution. We will be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 21% of any distributions to non-U.S. shareholders attributable to gain from our sale or exchange of United States real property interests (“FIRPTA Withholding”). A non-U.S. shareholder may receive a credit against its tax liability for the amount we withhold.

A non-U.S. shareholder that owns, actually or constructively, no more than 10% of a class of our common stock or preferred stock at all times during the one-year period ending on the date of a distribution with respect to such class should not be subject to FIRPTA, branch profits tax or FIRPTA Withholding with respect to a distribution on that class of common stock or preferred stock that is attributable to gain from our sale or exchange of United States real property interests, provided that any class of our stock continues to be regularly traded on an established securities market located in the United States. In the case of any such distribution that was a capital gain dividend made to such non-U.S. shareholder, the distribution will be treated as an ordinary dividend subject to the general withholding rules discussed above, which generally impose a withholding tax equal to 30% of the gross amount of each dividend distribution (unless reduced by treaty).

Distributions that are designated by us as capital gain dividends, other than those attributable to the disposition of a United States real property interest (and thus not subject to FIRPTA Withholding), generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation unless:

 

  (i)

such distribution is effectively connected with the non-U.S. shareholder’s U.S. trade or business and, if certain treaties apply, is attributable to a U.S. permanent establishment maintained by the non-U.S. shareholder, in which case the non-U.S. shareholder will be subject to tax on a net basis in a manner similar to the taxation of U.S. shareholders with respect to such gain, except that a holder that is a foreign corporation may also be subject to the additional 30% branch profits tax; or

 

  (ii)

the non-U.S. shareholder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and meets certain other criteria, in which case such nonresident

 

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  alien individual generally will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s net U.S. source capital gain. Notwithstanding that such non-FIRPTA capital gain dividend may not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, as noted above we generally plan to withhold U.S. federal income tax at the rate of 30% on the gross amount of any dividend distribution paid to a non-U.S. shareholder and we may be required to withhold not less than 21% of any such capital gain dividends (or amounts we could have designated as such).Distributions can be designated as capital gain dividends to the extent of our net capital gain for the taxable year of the distribution. The amount withheld is creditable against the non-U.S. shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability.

Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts designated by us as undistributed capital gains generally should be treated with respect to non-U.S. shareholders in the same manner as actual distributions by us of capital gain dividends. Under that approach, non-U.S. shareholders would be able to offset as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability resulting therefrom an amount equal to their proportionate share of the tax paid by us on the undistributed capital gains and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent their proportionate share of this tax paid by us exceeds their actual U.S. federal income tax liability.

Dispositions

If gain on the sale of our common stock or preferred stock were taxed under FIRPTA, a non-U.S. shareholder would be taxed on that gain in the same manner as U.S. shareholders with respect to that gain, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax. A non-U.S. shareholder generally will not incur tax under FIRPTA on a sale or other disposition of our common stock or preferred stock if we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” which requires that, during the five-year period ending on the date of the distribution or disposition, non-U.S. shareholders hold, directly or indirectly, less than 50% in value of our stock and we are qualified as a REIT. For such testing periods that end on or after December 18, 2015, a person holding less than 5% of our regularly traded classes of stock for five years has been, and will be, treated as a U.S. person unless we have actual knowledge that such person is not a U.S. person. Because our common stock is publicly traded, we cannot assure you that we are or will be in the future a domestically controlled qualified investment entity. However, gain recognized by a non-U.S. shareholder from a sale of our common stock or preferred stock that is regularly traded on an established securities market will not be subject to tax under FIRPTA if (i) our stock is considered regularly traded under applicable Treasury Regulations on an established securities market, such as the NYSE, and (ii) the non-U.S. shareholder owned, actually and constructively, 10% or less of the value of such class of stock at all times during the specified testing period ending on the date of the disposition. The testing period referred to in the previous sentence is the shorter of (x) the period during which the non-U.S. shareholder held the stock and (y) the five-year period ending on the date of the disposition. We believe that our common stock is currently regularly traded on an established securities market. Non-U.S. shareholders should consult their tax advisors as to the availability of the exception for holders of less than 10% of our stock in the case of a class of our stock that is not regularly traded on an established securities market.

In addition, even if we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity, upon a disposition of our common stock or preferred stock, a non-U.S. shareholder may be treated as having gain from the sale or exchange of a United States real property interest if the non-U.S. shareholder (i) disposes of an interest in our common stock or preferred stock during the 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a United States real property interest, and (ii) directly or indirectly acquires, enters into a contract or option to acquire, or is deemed to acquire, other shares of our common stock or preferred stock within 30 days before or after such ex-dividend date. The foregoing rule does not apply if the exception described above for dispositions by 10% or smaller holders of regularly traded classes of stock is satisfied.

Furthermore, a non-U.S. shareholder generally will incur tax on gain not subject to FIRPTA if (i) the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. shareholder’s U.S. trade or business and, if certain treaties apply, is attributable to a U.S. permanent establishment maintained by the non-U.S. shareholder, in which case the

 

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non-U.S. shareholder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. shareholders with respect to such gain and may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax in the case of a non-U.S. corporation, or (ii) the non-U.S. shareholder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the United States, in which case the non-U.S. shareholder will generally incur a 30% tax on his or her net U.S. source capital gains.

Purchasers of our common stock or preferred stock from a non-U.S. shareholder generally will be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 15% of the purchase price unless at the time of purchase (i) any class of our stock is regularly traded on an established securities market (subject to certain limits if the shares of stock sold are not themselves part of such a regularly traded class) or (ii) we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity. The non-U.S. shareholder may receive a credit against his or her U.S. tax liability for the amount withheld.

Special FIRPTA Rules

To the extent our stock is held directly (or indirectly through one or more partnerships) by a “qualified shareholder,” it will not be treated as a United States real property interest for such qualified shareholder. Further, to the extent such treatment applies, any distribution to such shareholder will not be treated as gain recognized from the sale or exchange of a United States real property interest. For these purposes, a qualified shareholder is generally a non-U.S. shareholder that (i)(A) is eligible for treaty benefits under an income tax treaty with the United States that includes an exchange of information program and the principal class of interests of which is listed and regularly traded on one or more stock exchanges as defined by the treaty, or (B) is a foreign limited partnership organized in a jurisdiction with an exchange of information agreement with the United States and that has a class of regularly traded limited partnership units (having a value greater than 50% of the value of all partnership units) on the NYSE or Nasdaq, (ii) is a “qualified collective investment vehicle” (within the meaning of Section 897(k)(3)(B) of the Code) and (iii) maintains records of persons holding 5% or more of the class of interests described in clauses (i)(A) or (i)(B) above. However, in the case of a qualified shareholder having one or more “applicable investors,” the exception described in the first sentence of this paragraph will not apply to the applicable percentage of the qualified shareholder’s stock (with “applicable percentage” generally meaning the percentage of the value of the interests in the qualified shareholder held by applicable investors after applying certain constructive ownership rules). The applicable percentage of the amount realized by a qualified shareholder on the disposition of our stock or with respect to a distribution from us attributable to gain from the sale or exchange of a United States real property interest will be treated as amounts realized from the disposition of United States real property interest. Such treatment shall also apply to applicable investors in respect of distributions treated as a sale or exchange of stock with respect to a qualified shareholder. For these purposes, an “applicable investor” is a person (other than a qualified shareholder) who generally holds an interest in the qualified shareholder and holds more than 10% of our stock applying certain constructive ownership rules.

For FIRPTA purposes, neither a “qualified foreign pension fund” nor an entity all of the interests of which are held by a qualified foreign pension fund is treated as a non-U.S. shareholder. A “qualified foreign pension fund” is an organization or arrangement (i) created or organized in a foreign country, (ii) established to provide retirement or pension benefits to current or former employees (including self-employed individuals) or their designees by either (A) a foreign country as a result of services rendered by such employees to their employers, or (B) one or more employers in consideration for services rendered by such employees to such employers, (iii) which does not have a single participant or beneficiary that has a right to more than 5% of its assets or income, (iv) which is subject to government regulation and with respect to which annual information about its beneficiaries is provided, or is otherwise available, to relevant local tax authorities, and (v) with respect to which, under its local laws, (A) contributions that would otherwise be subject to tax are deductible or excluded from its gross income or taxed at a reduced rate, or (B) taxation of its investment income is deferred, or such income is excluded from its gross income or taxed at a reduced rate.

 

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U.S. Federal Income Tax Returns

If a non-U.S. shareholder is subject to taxation under FIRPTA on proceeds from the sale of our common stock or preferred stock or on distributions, the non-U.S. shareholder will be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return.

Taxation of Holders of Certain Fixed Rate Debt Securities

The following section describes for general information only the anticipated material U.S. federal income tax consequences of owning fixed rate debt securities that we may offer. This section applies only if the fixed rate debt securities purchased are not treated as having OID for U.S. federal income tax purposes and only to holders who acquire such fixed rate debt securities in the initial offering at the offering price or issue price. If such fixed rate debt securities are purchased at a price other than the issue price, the amortizable bond premium or market discount rules may apply which are not described in this prospectus. Prospective holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding these possibilities. This section also does not apply to any debt securities treated as “equity” rather than debt for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

The tax consequences of owning any floating rate debt securities, convertible or exchangeable debt securities, indexed debt securities or other debt securities not covered by this discussion that we offer will be discussed in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Certain accrual method taxpayers are required to include certain amounts in income for U.S. federal income tax purposes no later than the time such amounts are reflected on certain financial statements. This summary does not address the impact of those rules.

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Debt Holders

The term “U.S. debt holder” means any beneficial owner of a debt security, other than an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, that for U.S. federal income tax purposes is (i) a citizen or resident of the United States, (ii) a corporation, or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any of its states or the District of Columbia, (iii) an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source, or (iv) a trust (a) that is subject to the primary supervision of a United States court and the control of one or more U.S. persons or (b) that has a valid election in effect under the applicable Treasury Regulations to be treated as a U.S. person under the Code. In addition, as used herein the term “U.S. debt holder” does not include any individuals or entities that are subject to special treatment under the Code, such as those persons subject to special treatment that are listed above under “Taxation of U.S. Shareholders.”

If a partnership (including for this purpose any entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) is a beneficial owner of debt securities, the treatment of a partner in the partnership will generally depend upon the status of the partner and upon the activities of the partnership. A holder of debt securities that is a partnership, and partners in such partnership, should consult their tax advisors about the U.S. federal income tax consequences of purchasing, holding and disposing of debt securities.

Interest and OID

If the issue price of a debt security is less than its stated redemption price at maturity, then the debt security will be treated as being issued with OID for U.S. federal income tax purposes unless the difference between the debt security’s issue price and its stated redemption price at maturity is less than a statutory de minimis amount. Generally, the “issue price” of a debt security is the first price at which a substantial amount of the debt securities is sold to purchasers other than bond houses, brokers or similar persons or organizations acting in the capacity of underwriters, placement agents or wholesalers. The “stated redemption price at maturity” of a debt security is the

 

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total of all payments to be made under the debt security other than qualified stated interest (generally, stated interest that is unconditionally payable in cash or property at least annually at a single fixed rate that properly takes into account the length of the interval between stated interest payments) and, generally, is expected to equal the principal amount of the debt security. The amount of OID on the debt security will be de minimis if it is less than 0.0025 multiplied by the product of the stated redemption price at maturity and the number of complete years to maturity.

If the difference between the issue price and the stated redemption price at maturity of a debt security is more than the statutory de minimis amount, the debt security will be treated as having been issued with OID. The amount of OID on a debt security, which is equal to the difference, must be included in income as ordinary interest as it accrues under a constant yield method in advance of receipt of the cash payments attributable to such income regardless of such U.S. debt holder’s regular method of tax accounting. As noted above, however, this summary generally deals with fixed rate debt securities that are not treated as being issued with OID and is not intended to discuss issues related to debt securities issued with OID.

Stated interest on a debt security generally will be included in the income of a U.S. debt holder as ordinary income at the time such interest is received or accrued in accordance with the U.S. debt holder’s regular method of tax accounting.

Disposition of the Debt Securities

Upon the sale, exchange, redemption, repurchase, retirement or other disposition of a debt security, a U.S. debt holder generally will recognize capital gain or loss equal to the difference between (i) the amount of cash proceeds and the fair market value of any property received on the disposition (except to the extent such amount is attributable to accrued but unpaid stated interest, which is taxable as ordinary income if not previously included in such holder’s income) and (ii) such U.S. debt holder’s adjusted tax basis in the debt security. A U.S. debt holder’s adjusted tax basis in a debt security generally will equal the cost of the debt security to such holder decreased by the amount of any payments other than interest payments. Capital gain or loss recognized upon the disposition of a debt security will be a long-term capital gain or loss if the debt security was held for more than one year. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.

Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Debt Securities

In general, a tax-exempt organization is exempt from U.S. federal income tax on its income, except to the extent of its UBTI (as defined above under “Taxation of U.S. Tax-Exempt Shareholders”). Interest income accrued on our debt securities and gain recognized in connection with dispositions of our debt securities generally will not constitute UBTI unless the tax-exempt organization holds the debt security as debt-financed property (e.g., the tax-exempt organization has incurred “acquisition indebtedness” with respect to such debt security). A U.S. tax-exempt shareholder that is subject to tax on its UBTI will be required to separately compute its taxable income and loss for each unrelated trade or business activity for purposes of determining its UBTI.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Debt Securities

When we refer to a “non-U.S. debt holder” we mean a beneficial owner of the debt securities that is a foreign corporation (or entity treated as such for U.S. federal income tax purposes) or a nonresident alien individual for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The rules governing the U.S. federal income taxation of non-U.S. debt holders are complex and no attempt will be made herein to provide more than a summary of such rules.

Interest and OID. A non-U.S. debt holder holding the debt securities on his or her own behalf generally will be exempt from U.S. federal income and withholding taxes (subject to the discussion below regarding FATCA

 

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(as defined below) withholding) on payments of non-contingent interest (including OID) on a debt security unless (i) such payments are effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States by the non-U.S. debt holder (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, such payments are attributable to a U.S. permanent establishment), or (ii) such non-U.S. debt holder is (A) a direct or indirect beneficial owner of 10% or more of our stock, (B) a controlled foreign corporation related to us or (C) a bank extending credit pursuant to a loan agreement entered into in the ordinary course of its trade or business.

In order for a non-U.S. debt holder to qualify for the exemption from taxation on non-contingent interest (including OID), the “withholding agent” (generally, the last U.S. payor or a non-U.S. payor who is a qualified intermediary or withholding foreign partnership) must have received a statement on the appropriate IRS Form W-8 from the non-U.S. debt holder that (i) is signed under penalties of perjury by the beneficial owner of the debt security, (ii) certifies that such owner is not a U.S. person and (iii) provides the beneficial owner’s name and address. Certain securities clearing organizations and other entities that are not beneficial owners may provide a signed statement accompanied by a copy of the beneficial owner’s appropriate IRS Form W-8 to the withholding agent. An appropriate IRS Form W-8 is generally effective for the remainder of the year of signature plus three full calendar years unless a change in circumstances renders any information on the form incorrect and it is effective beyond such three calendar years only if, in addition to the absence of any change in circumstances makes any information on the form incorrect, the non-U.S. debt holder satisfies certain requirements specified in the applicable Treasury Regulations. The beneficial owner must inform the withholding agent within 30 days of such change and furnish a new, appropriate IRS Form W-8.

To the extent that interest income (including OID) with respect to a debt security is not exempt from U.S. withholding tax as described above, a non-U.S. debt holder may still be able to eliminate or reduce such taxes under an applicable income tax treaty.

Disposition of the Debt Securities. Any gain realized on the sale, redemption, exchange, retirement, repurchase or other taxable disposition of a debt security by a non-U.S. debt holder (except to the extent such amount is attributable to accrued but unpaid stated interest, which would be taxable as described above) will be exempt from U.S. federal income and withholding taxes (subject to the discussion below regarding FATCA withholding) unless (i) the gain is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States by the non-U.S. debt holder, or (ii) in the case of a foreign individual, the non-U.S. debt holder is present in the United States for 183 days or more in the taxable year and certain other conditions are met.

Except to the extent that an applicable income tax treaty otherwise provides, a non-U.S. debt holder whose interest income or gain with respect to a debt security is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States by such non-U.S. debt holder (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, is attributable to a U.S. permanent establishment) although exempt from the withholding tax previously discussed provided the holder furnishes an appropriate IRS Form W-8, will generally be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the interest income or gain at regular U.S. federal income tax rates as if the holder were a U.S. person. In addition, if the non-U.S. debt holder is a foreign corporation, it may be subject to a branch profits tax equal to 30% of its “dividend equivalent amount” within the meaning of the Code for the taxable year, subject to adjustment, unless it qualifies for a lower rate or an exemption under an applicable tax treaty.

Information Reporting Requirements and Backup Withholding Tax Applicable to Shareholders and Debt Holders

U.S. Shareholders and U.S. Debt Holders. In general, information reporting requirements will apply to (i) payments of distributions on our stock and payments of the proceeds of the sale of our stock to some shareholders, and (ii) payments on the debt securities (including payments of interest and of the proceeds of the sale, exchange, redemption, repurchase, retirement or other disposition of the debt securities) to a U.S. debt

 

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holder, unless an exception applies. Further, the payor will be required to backup withhold on any payments at the current rate of 24% if:

(1) the payee fails to furnish a taxpayer identification number, or TIN, to the payor or establish an exemption from backup withholding;

(2) the IRS notifies the payor that the TIN furnished by the payee is incorrect;

(3) the payee fails to certify under the penalty of perjury that the payee is not subject to backup withholding under the Code; or

(4) in the case of interest on a debt security, there has been a notified payee under-reporting with respect to interest, dividends or OID described in Code Section 3406(c).

Some U.S. shareholders and U.S. debt holders, including corporations and tax-exempt organizations, will be exempt from backup withholding. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules from a payment to a shareholder or debt holder will be allowed as a credit against the shareholder’s or debt holder’s U.S. federal income tax and may entitle the shareholder or debt holder to a refund, provided that the required information is furnished to the IRS on a timely basis.

Non-U.S. Shareholders and Non-U.S. Debt Holders. Information reporting requirements and backup withholding may apply to (i) payments of distributions on our stock to a non-U.S. shareholder, (ii) proceeds a non-U.S. shareholder receives upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other disposition of our stock, (iii) interest payments on the debt securities to a non-U.S. debt holder, and (iv) proceeds a non-U.S. debt holder receives upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other disposition of our debt securities. Information reporting and backup withholding will generally not apply if an appropriate IRS Form W-8 is duly provided by such non-U.S. shareholder or non-U.S. debt holder or the shareholder or debt holder otherwise establishes an exemption, provided that the withholding agent does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that the shareholder or debt holder is a U.S. person or that the claimed exemption is not in fact satisfied. Even without having executed an appropriate IRS Form W-8 or substantially similar form, however, in some cases information reporting and backup withholding will not apply to proceeds received through a broker’s foreign office that a non-U.S. shareholder receives upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other disposition of our stock or that a non-U.S. debt holder receives upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other disposition of our debt securities. However, this exemption does not apply to brokers that are U.S. persons and certain foreign brokers with substantial U.S. ownership or operations. Any amount withheld under the backup withholding rules is allowable as a credit against such shareholder’s or debt holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability (which might entitle such holder to a refund), provided that such holder furnishes the required information to the IRS. Payments not subject to information reporting requirements may nonetheless be subject to other reporting requirements.

Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act Withholding Rules

The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, provisions of the Code, subject to administrative guidance and certain intergovernmental agreements entered into thereunder, impose a 30% withholding tax on certain types of payments made to ‘‘foreign financial institutions’’ (as specifically defined in the Code) and certain other non-U.S. entities unless (i) the foreign financial institution (as the beneficial owner or as an intermediary for the beneficial owners) undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations or (ii) the foreign non-financial entity (as the beneficial owner or, in certain cases, as an intermediary for the beneficial owners) either certifies it does not have any substantial United States owners or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner. If the payee is a foreign financial institution that is not subject to special treatment under certain intergovernmental agreements, it must enter into an agreement with the United States Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertakes to identify accounts held by certain

 

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United States persons or United States-owned foreign entities, annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on payments to account holders whose actions prevent them from complying with these reporting and other requirements. The compliance requirements under FATCA are complex and special requirements may apply to certain categories of payees. Withholding under this legislation will apply after December 31, 2018 with respect to the gross proceeds of a disposition of property that can produce U.S. source interest or dividends and currently applies with respect to other withholdable payments. However, distributions and proceeds from a sale or other disposition of our stock and interest income and proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our debt securities if they are treated as giving rise to income effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business are not subject to FATCA withholding.

Medicare Tax

A U.S. shareholder or a U.S. debt holder that is an individual is subject to a 3.8% tax on the lesser of (1) his or her “net investment income” for the relevant taxable year and (2) the excess of his or her modified adjusted gross income for the taxable year over a certain threshold (currently between $125,000 and $250,000, depending on the individual’s U.S. federal income tax filing status). A similar regime applies to certain estates and trusts. Net investment income generally would include (i) dividends on our common stock and preferred stock (without regard to the 20% deduction allowed by Section 199A of the Code) and gain from the sale of our common stock and preferred stock, and (ii) gross interest income and net gains from the disposition of a debt security. If you are a U.S. person that is an individual, an estate or a trust, you are urged to consult your tax advisors regarding the applicability of this tax to your income and gains in respect of your investment in our common stock and preferred stock and our debt securities.

Recent Tax Legislation

The recently enacted legislation informally knows as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or TCJA, is generally applicable for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 and made significant changes to the Code, including a number of provisions of the Code that affect the taxation of businesses and their owners, including REITs, their shareholders and holders of their debt securities. Among other changes not reflected in the discussion above, the TCJA (i) reduces the U.S. federal income tax rates on ordinary income of individuals, trusts and estates for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2026 and on corporations indefinitely, (ii) limits the deductibility of interest expense, and (iii) limits the use of net operating losses. The effect of the TCJA on us and our shareholders is uncertain, and administrative guidance will be required in order to fully evaluate the effect of many provisions. Any technical corrections with respect to the TCJA could have an adverse effect on us or our shareholders.

Additional Legislative or Other Actions Affecting REITs

The rules dealing with U.S. federal income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the U.S. Treasury Department and it is possible that there could be future changes that could adversely impact our shareholders. No assurance can be given as to whether, when, or in what form the U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to us and our shareholders may be enacted. Changes to the U.S. federal tax laws and interpretations of federal tax laws could adversely affect an investment in our common stock or preferred stock.

State, Local and Foreign Tax

We may be subject to state, local and foreign tax in states, localities and foreign countries in which we do business or own property. The tax treatment applicable to us and our shareholders in such jurisdictions may differ from the U.S. federal income tax treatment described above. The TCJA also disallows itemized deductions for individuals for state and local income, property and sales taxes in excess of a combined limit of $10,000 per year.

 

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SELLING SECURITY HOLDERS

Information about selling security holders, where applicable, will be set forth in a prospectus supplement, in a post-effective amendment or in filings we make with the SEC, which are incorporated into this prospectus by reference.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

Sales By Us

We may sell the securities in any one or more of the following ways:

 

   

directly to investors;

 

   

to investors through agents;

 

   

to dealers;

 

   

through a special offering, an exchange distribution or a secondary distribution in accordance with applicable NYSE or other stock exchange rules;

 

   

through underwriting syndicates led by one or more managing underwriters; and

 

   

through one or more underwriters acting alone.

If we sell securities to a dealer acting as principal, the dealer may resell such securities at varying prices to be determined by such dealer in its discretion at the time of resale without consulting with us and such resale prices may not be disclosed in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Any underwritten offering may be on a best efforts or a firm commitment basis. We may also make direct sales through subscription rights distributed to our shareholders on a pro rata basis, which may or may not be transferable. In any distribution of subscription rights to shareholders, if all of the underlying securities are not subscribed for, we may then sell the unsubscribed securities directly to third parties or engage the services of one or more underwriters, dealers or agents, including standby underwriters, to sell the unsubscribed securities to third parties.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

Any of the prices may represent a discount from the prevailing market prices.

In the sale of the securities, underwriters or agents may receive compensation from us or from purchasers of the securities, for whom they may act as agents, in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions. Underwriters may sell the securities to or through dealers, and such dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agents. Underwriters, dealers and agents that participate in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters under the Securities Act, and any discounts or commissions they receive from us and any profit on the resale of securities they realize may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act. The applicable prospectus supplement will, where applicable:

 

   

identify any such underwriter or agent;

 

   

describe any compensation in the form of discounts, concessions, commissions or otherwise received from us by each such underwriter or agent and in the aggregate to all underwriters and agents;

 

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identify the amounts underwritten; and

 

   

identify the nature of the underwriter’s obligation to take the securities.

Unless otherwise specified in the related prospectus supplement, each series of securities will be a new issue with no established trading market, other than the Class A common stock, which is listed on the NYSE. Class A common stock sold pursuant to a prospectus supplement will be listed on the NYSE, subject to the NYSE’s approval of the listing of the additional shares of Class A common stock sold. We may elect to list any series of securities other than Class A common stock on an exchange, but we are not obligated to do so. It is possible that one or more underwriters may make a market in a series of securities, but such underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. Therefore, no assurance can be given as to the liquidity of, or the trading market for, any series of securities.

Until the distribution of the securities is completed, rules of the SEC may limit the ability of any underwriters and selling group members to bid for and purchase the securities. As an exception to these rules, underwriters are permitted to engage in some transactions that stabilize the price of the securities. Such transactions consist of bids or purchases for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of the securities.

If any underwriters create a short position in the securities in an offering in which they sell more securities than are set forth on the cover page of the applicable prospectus supplement, the underwriters may reduce that short position by purchasing the securities in the open market.

The lead underwriters may also impose a penalty bid on other underwriters and selling group members participating in an offering. This means that if the lead underwriters purchase securities in the open market to reduce the underwriters’ short position or stabilize the price of the securities, they may reclaim the amount of any selling concession from the underwriters and selling group members who sold those securities as part of the offering.

In general, purchases of a security for the purpose of stabilization or to reduce a short position could cause the price of the security to be higher than it might be in the absence of such purchases. The imposition of a penalty bid might also have an effect on the price of a security to the extent that it discourages resales of the security before the distribution is completed.

We do not make any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above might have on the price of the securities. In addition, we do not make any representation that underwriters will engage in such transactions or that such transactions, once commenced, will not be discontinued without notice.

Under agreements into which we may enter, underwriters, dealers and agents who participate in the distribution of the securities may be entitled to indemnification by us against some liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

Underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, perform services for us or be our customers in the ordinary course of business.

If indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by particular institutions to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in such prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date or dates stated in such prospectus supplement. Each delayed delivery contract will be for an amount no less than, and the aggregate principal amounts of securities sold under delayed delivery contracts shall be not less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Institutions

 

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with which such contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and others, but will in all cases be subject to our approval. The obligations of any purchaser under any such contract will be subject to the conditions that (a) the purchase of the securities shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of any jurisdiction in the United States to which the purchaser is subject, and (b) if the securities are being sold to underwriters, we shall have sold to the underwriters the total principal amount of the securities less the principal amount thereof covered by the contracts. The underwriters and such other agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of such contracts.

To comply with applicable state securities laws, the securities offered by this prospectus will be sold, if necessary, in such jurisdictions only through registered or licensed brokers or dealers. In addition, securities may not be sold in some states unless they have been registered or qualified for sale in the applicable state or an exemption from the registration or qualification requirement is available and is complied with.

Sales by Selling Security Holders

The selling security holders may resell or redistribute securities from time to time on any stock exchange or automated interdealer quotation system on which the shares are listed, in the over-the-counter market, in privately negotiated transactions, or in any other legal manner, at fixed prices that may be changed, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. Persons who are pledgees, donees, transferees, or other successors in interest of any of the named selling security holders (including but not limited to persons who receive shares from a named selling security holder as a gift, partnership distribution or other non-sale-related transfer after the date of this prospectus) may also use this prospectus and are included when we refer to “selling security holders” in this prospectus. The selling security holders may sell the shares by one or more of the following methods, without limitation:

 

   

block trades (which may include cross trades) in which the broker or dealer so engaged will attempt to sell the shares as agent but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction;

 

   

purchases by a broker or dealer as principal and resale by the broker or dealer for its own account;

 

   

an exchange distribution or secondary distribution in accordance with the rules of any stock exchange on which the shares are listed;

 

   

ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which the broker solicits purchases;

 

   

an offering at other than a fixed price on or through the facilities of any stock exchange on which the shares are listed or to or through a market maker other than on that stock exchange;

 

   

privately negotiated transactions, directly or through agents;

 

   

short sales;

 

   

writing of options on the shares, whether or not the options are listed on an options exchange;

 

   

distribution of the shares by any selling security holder to its partners, members or shareholders;

 

   

one or more underwritten offerings;

 

   

agreements between a broker or dealer and any selling security holder to sell a specified number of the shares at a stipulated price per share; and

 

   

any combination of any of these methods of sale or distribution, or any other method permitted by applicable law.

The selling security holders may also transfer the shares by gift.

 

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The selling security holders may engage brokers and dealers, and any brokers or dealers may arrange for other brokers or dealers to participate in effecting sales of the shares. These brokers, dealers or underwriters may act as principals or as an agent of a selling security holder. Broker-dealers may agree with a selling security holder to sell a specified number of the shares at a stipulated price per share. If the broker-dealer is unable to sell shares acting as agent for a selling security holder, it may purchase as principal any unsold shares at the stipulated price. Broker-dealers who acquire shares as principals may thereafter resell the shares from time to time in transactions in any stock exchange or automated interdealer quotation system on which the shares are then listed, at prices and on terms then prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to the then-current market price or in negotiated transactions. Broker-dealers may use block transactions and sales to and through broker-dealers, including transactions of the nature described above. The selling security holders may also sell all or a portion of their shares of our Class A common stock in transactions exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act in reliance upon Rule 144 under the Securities Act rather than pursuant to this prospectus, regardless of whether the shares are covered by this prospectus.

From time to time, one or more of the selling security holders may pledge, hypothecate or grant a security interest in some or all of the shares owned by them. The pledgees, secured parties or persons to whom the shares have been hypothecated will, upon foreclosure in the event of default, be deemed to be selling security holders. The number of a selling security holder’s shares offered under this prospectus will decrease as and when it takes such actions. The plan of distribution for that selling security holder’s shares will otherwise remain unchanged. In addition, a selling security holder may, from time to time, sell the shares short, and, in those instances, this prospectus may be delivered in connection with the short sales and the shares offered under this prospectus may be used to cover short sales.

The selling security holders and any underwriters, brokers, dealers or agents that participate in the distribution of the shares may be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act and any discounts, concessions, commissions or fees received by them and any profit on the resale of the shares sold by them may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions.

A selling security holder may enter into hedging transactions with broker-dealers and the broker-dealers may engage in short sales of the shares in the course of hedging the positions they assume with that selling security holder including, without limitation, in connection with distributions of the shares by those broker-dealers. A selling security holder may enter into option or other transactions with broker-dealers that involve the delivery of the shares offered hereby to the broker-dealers who may then resell or otherwise transfer those shares. A selling security holder may also loan or pledge the shares offered hereby to a broker-dealer and the broker-dealer may sell the shares offered hereby so loaned or upon a default, may sell or otherwise transfer the pledged shares offered hereby.

The selling security holders and other persons participating in the sale or distribution of the shares will be subject to applicable provisions of the Exchange Act and the related rules and regulations adopted by the SEC, including Regulation M. This regulation may limit the timing of purchases and sales of any of the shares by the selling security holders and any other person. The anti-manipulation rules under the Exchange Act may apply to sales of shares in the market and to the activities of the selling security holders and their affiliates. Furthermore, Regulation M may restrict the ability of any person engaged in the distribution of the shares to engage in market-making activities with respect to the particular shares being distributed for a period of up to five business days before the distribution. These restrictions may affect the marketability of the shares and the ability of any person or entity to engage in market-making activities with respect to the shares.

We may agree to indemnify the selling security holders and their respective officers, directors, employees and agents, and any underwriter or other person who participates in an offering against specified liabilities, including liabilities under the federal securities laws or to contribute to payments the underwriters may be required to make in respect of those liabilities. The selling security holders may agree to indemnify us, the other selling security holders and any underwriter or other person who participates in an offering against specified

 

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liabilities, including liabilities under the federal securities laws or to contribute to payments the underwriters may be required to make in respect of those liabilities. The selling security holders may agree to indemnify any brokers, dealers or agents who participate in transactions involving sales of the shares against specified liabilities arising under the federal securities laws in connection with the offering and sale of the shares.

If a selling security holder notifies us that a material arrangement has been entered into with a broker-dealer for the sale of shares through a block trade, special offering, exchange, distribution or secondary distribution or a purchase by a broker or dealer, the prospectus supplement will include any other facts that are material to the transaction. If applicable, this may include a statement to the effect that the participating broker-dealers did not conduct any investigation to verify the information set out or incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

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INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

We incorporate by reference into this prospectus information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents set forth below, which we have previously filed with the SEC. These documents contain important information about us and our financial condition:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 filed on February 14, 2018;

 

   

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2018, June 30, 2018 and September 30, 2018, filed on May  2, 2018, August 1, 2018 and October  31, 2018, respectively;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on February 12, 2018, March 9, 2018, April  27, 2018, May 30, 2018 and July 24, 2018; and

 

   

the description of our shares of common stock included in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A (File No. 001-35481) filed with the SEC on March 28, 2012, including any amendment or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

All documents filed by us under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act on or after the date of this prospectus and prior to the date of the completion of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus shall also be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and to be a part of this prospectus from the date of filing of those documents. Any statement contained in this prospectus or in a previously filed document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or in any other subsequently filed document that also is or was deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus modifies or supersedes that statement. Any statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

The information relating to us contained in this prospectus should be read together with the information in the documents incorporated by reference.

You can obtain any of the documents incorporated by reference in this document from us or the SEC through the SEC’s website at the address described herein. Documents incorporated by reference are available from us without charge, excluding any exhibits to those documents, unless the exhibit is specifically incorporated by reference as an exhibit in this document. You can obtain documents incorporated by reference in this document at no cost by requesting them in writing or by telephone from us at the following address or telephone number:

Retail Properties of America, Inc.

Investor Relations

2021 Spring Road, Suite 200

Oak Brook, Illinois 60523

Telephone (630) 634-4200

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy any document that we file at the public reference facilities of the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at (800) SEC-0330 for further information about the public reference facilities. These documents may also be accessed through the SEC’s electronic data gathering, analysis and retrieval system, or EDGAR, via electronic means, including the SEC’s home page on the Internet (www.sec.gov).

You may request a copy of these filings at no cost by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

Retail Properties of America, Inc.

Investor Relations

2021 Spring Road, Suite 200

Oak Brook, Illinois 60523

Telephone (630) 634-4200

We also maintain an internet site at www.rpai.com where there is additional information about our business, but the contents of that site are not incorporated by reference in or otherwise a part of this prospectus.

 

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EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements and the related financial statement schedules incorporated in this prospectus by reference from Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, and the effectiveness of Retail Properties of America, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their reports (which reports express an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedules and include explanatory paragraphs relating to the Company’s adoption of Accounting Standards Update 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230) Restricted Cash and Accounting Standards Update 2017-01, Business Combinations), which are incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedules have been so incorporated in reliance upon the reports of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters in connection with this offering will be passed upon for us by Goodwin Procter LLP, Boston, Massachusetts.

 

 

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$400,000,000

 

 

LOGO

RETAIL PROPERTIES OF AMERICA, INC.

4.750% Senior Notes due 2030

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

Joint Book-Running Managers

Citigroup

Wells Fargo Securities

Jefferies

KeyBanc Capital Markets

US Bancorp

 

 

Joint Lead Managers

BofA Securities

Truist Securities

 

 

Co-Managers

Capital One Securities

Morgan Stanley

Regions Securities LLC

TD Securities

Ramirez & Co., Inc.

Scotiabank

 

 

August 18, 2020