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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

   REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

   ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended February 29, 2020.

OR

   TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from___to____.

OR

   SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report

Commission file number: 001-34900

TAL Education Group

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

N/A

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

Cayman Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

15/F, Danling SOHO

6 Danling Street, Haidian District

Beijing 100080

People’s Republic of China

(Address of principal executive offices)

Rong Luo, Chief Financial Officer

Telephone: +86-10-5292-6658

Email: ir@100tal.com

15/F, Danling SOHO

6 Danling Street, Haidian District

Beijing 100080

People’s Republic of China

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

Title of each class

    

Trading Symbol(s)

    

Name of each exchange on which registered

American Depositary Shares, each three representing one Class A common share*

 

NYSE: TAL

 

The New York Stock Exchange

Class A common shares, par value $0.001 per share**

NYSE: TAL**

The New York Stock Exchange

*     Effective on August 16, 2017, the ratio of ADSs to Class A common shares was changed from one ADS representing two Class A common shares to three ADSs representing one Class A common share.

**   Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing on The New York Stock Exchange of American depositary shares.

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.

None

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.

Table of Contents

None

(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

As of February 29, 2020, 132,895,675 Class A common shares, par value $0.001 per share

and 66,941,204 Class B common shares, par value $0.001 per share were outstanding.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes                   No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Yes                   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes                   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes                   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

  Large accelerated filer          Accelerated filer          Non-accelerated filer          Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 U.S. GAAP

   International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board

  Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

Item 17                            Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

Yes                   No

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.

Yes                   No

The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

INTRODUCTION

1

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

2

PART I

3

Item 1.

Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

3

Item 2.

Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

3

Item 3.

Key Information

3

Item 4.

Information on the Company

47

Item 4A

Unresolved Staff Comments

84

Item 5.

Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

84

Item 6.

Directors, Senior Management and Employees

106

Item 7.

Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

115

Item 8.

Financial Information

116

Item 9.

The Offer and Listing

117

Item 10.

Additional Information

118

Item 11.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

127

Item 12.

Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities

128

PART II

130

Item 13.

Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

130

Item 14.

Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds

130

Item 15.

Controls and Procedures

130

Item 16.

[Reserved]

133

Item 16A.

Audit Committee Financial Expert

133

Item 16B.

Code of Ethics

133

Item 16C.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

133

Item 16D.

Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

134

Item 16E.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

134

Item 16F.

Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant

134

Item 16G.

Corporate Governance

134

Item 16H.

Mine Safety Disclosure

135

PART III

135

Item 17.

Financial Statements

135

Item 18.

Financial Statements

135

Item 19.

Exhibits

135

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

In this annual report, except where the context otherwise requires, unless otherwise indicated and for purposes of this annual report only:

“China” or “PRC” refers to the People’s Republic of China, and for the purpose of this annual report, excluding Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau;

“we,” “us,” “our company” and “our” refer to TAL Education Group, a Cayman Islands company, and its subsidiaries, and, in the context of describing our operations and consolidated financial data, also include the Consolidated Affiliated Entities (as defined below);

“shares” or “common shares” refers to our Class A and Class B common shares, par value $0.001 per share;

“ADSs” refers to our American depositary shares, each three of which represent one Class A common share;

“VIEs” refers to Beijing Xueersi Network Technology Co., Ltd., or Xueersi Network, and Beijing Xueersi Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Xueersi Education, Xinxin Xiangrong Education Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd. (the original name of which is Beijing Dididaojia Education Technology Co., Ltd.), or Xinxin Xiangrong, and Beijing Lebai Education Consulting Co., Ltd., or Lebai Education, all of which are domestic PRC companies in which we do not have equity interests but whose financial results have been consolidated into our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP; and “Consolidated Affiliated Entities” refers to our VIEs and the VIEs’ direct and indirect subsidiaries and schools;

“U.S. GAAP” refers to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States;

“student enrollments of normal priced long-term course” for a certain period refers to the total number of normal priced long-term courses enrolled in and paid for by our students during that period, including multiple courses enrolled in and paid for by the same student, excluding courses offered at significant discounts for promotional purposes or short-term courses offered on an ad hoc basis (as opposed to long-term courses that tend to track the school semesters and vacations);

“K-12” refers to the year before the first grade through the last year of high school;

“RMB” or “Renminbi” refers to the legal currency of China; and

“$” or “U.S. dollars” refers to the legal currency of the United States.

Our financial statements are expressed in U.S. dollars, which is our reporting currency. Certain of our financial data in this annual report on Form 20-F are translated into U.S. dollars solely for the reader’s convenience. Unless otherwise noted, all convenient translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars in this annual report on Form 20-F were made at a rate of RMB6.99 to $1.00, the exchange rate set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board on February 29, 2020. We make no representation that any RMB or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate, at the rate stated above, or at all.

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This annual report contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current expectations and views of future events. These forward looking statements are made under the “safe-harbor” provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.

You can identify some of these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “is/are likely to” or other similar expressions. These forward-looking statements include statements relating to:

our anticipated growth strategies;
competition in the markets where we offer educational programs, services and products;
our future business development, results of operations and financial condition;
expected changes in our revenues and certain cost and expense items;
our ability to increase student enrollments and course fees and expand course offerings;
risks associated with the expansion of our geographic reach and our offering of new educational programs, services and products;
the expected increase in spending on private education in China; and
PRC laws, regulations and policies relating to private education and providers of after-school tutoring services.

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. Although we believe that our expectations expressed in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, our expectations may later be found to be incorrect. You should read this annual report and the documents that we refer to in this annual report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and/or worse than what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements with these cautionary statements. Other sections of this annual report include additional factors which could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

The forward-looking statements made in this annual report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this annual report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

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PART I

Item 1.  Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

Not applicable.

Item 2.  Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

Not applicable.

Item 3.  Key Information

A.        Selected Financial Data

Our Selected Consolidated Financial Data

The following selected consolidated statement of operations data for our company for the fiscal years ended February 28/29, 2018, 2019 and 2020 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of February 28/29, 2019 and 2020 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report. The selected consolidated statement of operations data for our company for the fiscal years ended February 28/29, 2016 and 2017 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of February 28/29, 2016, 2017 and 2018 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this annual report.

The selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, our consolidated financial statements and related notes and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” included elsewhere in this annual report. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

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Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected in any future period.

    

For the Years Ended February 28/29,

    

2016

    

2017

    

2018

    

2019

    

2020

(in thousands of $, except for share, per share and per ADS data)

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net revenues

$

619,949

$

1,043,100

$

1,715,016

$

2,562,984

$

3,273,308

Cost of revenues(1)

 

(303,635)

 

(522,327)

 

(882,316)

 

(1,164,454)

 

(1,468,569)

Gross profit

 

316,314

 

520,773

 

832,700

 

1,398,530

 

1,804,739

Operating expenses

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Selling and marketing (1)

 

(73,568)

 

(126,005)

 

(242,102)

 

(484,000)

 

(852,808)

General and administrative (1)

 

(161,022)

 

(263,287)

 

(386,287)

 

(579,672)

 

(794,957)

Impairment loss on intangible assets and goodwill

 

 

 

(358)

 

 

(28,998)

Total operating expenses

 

(234,590)

 

(389,292)

 

(628,747)

 

(1,063,672)

 

(1,676,763)

Government subsidies

 

3,327

 

3,113

 

4,651

 

6,724

 

9,467

Income from operations

 

85,051

 

134,594

 

208,604

 

341,582

 

137,443

Interest income

 

17,733

 

18,133

 

39,837

 

59,614

 

72,991

Interest expense

 

(7,499)

 

(13,145)

 

(16,640)

 

(17,628)

 

(11,820)

Other (expense)/income

 

(1,256)

 

23,074

 

17,406

 

131,727

 

(95,297)

Impairment loss on long-term investments

 

(7,504)

 

(8,075)

 

(2,213)

 

(58,091)

 

(153,970)

Gain from disposal of components

 

50,377

 

 

 

 

Income before provision for income tax and loss from equity method investments

 

136,902

 

154,581

 

246,994

 

457,204

 

(50,653)

Provision for income tax

 

(33,483)

 

(34,066)

 

(44,653)

 

(76,504)

 

(69,328)

Loss from equity method investments

 

(663)

 

(8,025)

 

(7,678)

 

(16,186)

 

(7,670)

Net income/(loss)

 

102,756

 

112,490

 

194,663

 

364,514

 

(127,651)

Add: Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest

 

122

 

4,390

 

3,777

 

2,722

 

17,456

Net income/(loss) attributable to shareholders of TAL Education Group

 

102,878

 

116,880

 

198,440

 

367,236

 

(110,195)

Net income /(loss) per common share attributable to shareholders of TAL Education Group

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Basic

$

0.64

$

0.72

$

1.13

$

1.93

$

(0.56)

Diluted

$

0.60

$

0.66

$

1.03

$

1.83

$

(0.56)

Net income /(loss) per ADS attributable to shareholders of TAL Education Group (2)

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Basic

$

0.22

$

0.24

$

0.38

$

0.64

$

(0.19)

Diluted

$

0.20

$

0.22

$

0.34

$

0.61

$

(0.19)

Cash dividends per common share(3)

 

 

$

0.25

 

Weighted average shares used in calculating net income/(loss) per common share attributable to shareholders of TAL Education Group

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Basic

 

160,109,169

 

162,548,494

 

174,979,574

 

189,951,643

 

198,184,370

Diluted

 

183,056,255

 

188,508,419

 

194,331,305

 

200,224,934

 

198,184,370

(1)Includes share-based compensation expenses as follows:

    

For the Years Ended February 28/29

    

2016

    

2017

    

2018

    

2019

    

2020

(in thousands of $)

Cost of revenues

$

43

$

111

$

366

$

706

$

1,074

Selling and marketing expenses

 

2,480

 

3,368

 

5,037

 

10,454

 

19,356

General and administrative expenses

 

23,325

 

32,636

 

41,747

 

66,117

 

97,513

Total

 

25,848

 

36,115

 

47,150

 

77,277

 

117,943

(2)Each three ADSs represent one Class A common share. Effective on August 16, 2017, we adjusted the ratio of our ADSs to Class A common shares from one ADS representing two Class A common shares to three ADSs representing one Class A common share. All earnings per ADS figures in this report give effect to the foregoing ADS to share ratio change.

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As of February 28/29

    

2016

    

2017

    

2018

    

2019

    

2020

(in thousands of $)

Summary Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Cash and cash equivalents

$

434,042

$

470,217

$

711,519

$

1,247,140

$

1,873,866

Total assets

 

1,061,379

 

1,828,906

 

3,054,560

 

3,735,091

 

5,571,246

Deferred revenue

 

289,281

 

518,874

 

842,256

 

436,107

 

781,000

Total liabilities

 

620,642

 

1,148,042

 

1,414,096

 

1,204,614

 

3,027,049

Total equity

 

440,737

 

680,864

 

1,640,464

 

2,530,477

 

2,544,197

(3)Total cash dividends paid for the fiscal year ended February 28, 2018 was $41.2 million.

B.        Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C.        Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D.        Risk Factors

Risks Related to Our Business

If we are not able to continue to attract students to enroll in our courses without significantly decreasing course fees, our business and prospects will be materially and adversely affected.

The success of our business depends primarily on the number of students enrolled in our courses and the amount of course fees that our students are willing to pay. Therefore, our ability to continue to attract students to enroll in our courses without a significant decrease in course fees is critical to the continued success and growth of our business. This in turn will depend on several factors, including our ability to continue to develop new programs and enhance or adapt existing programs to respond to changes in market trends, student demands and government policies, expand our geographic reach, manage our growth while maintaining consistent and high teaching quality, effectively market our programs to a broader base of prospective students, develop additional high-quality educational content and respond effectively to competitive pressures. If we are unable to continue to attract students without significantly decreasing course fees to enroll in our courses, our revenues may decline, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We may not be able to continue to recruit, train and retain qualified and dedicated teachers, who are critical to the success of our business and the effective delivery of our tutoring services to students.

Our teachers are critical to the quality of our services and our reputation. We seek to hire qualified and dedicated teachers who deliver effective and inspirational instruction. There is a limited pool of teachers with these attributes, and we must provide competitive compensation packages to attract and retain such teachers. We must also provide continued training to our teachers to ensure that they stay abreast of changes in student demands, academic standards and other key trends necessary to teach effectively. We may not be able to recruit, train and retain a sufficient number of qualified teachers in the future to keep pace with our growth while maintaining consistent teaching quality in the different markets we serve. In addition, PRC laws and regulations require the teachers to have requisite licenses if they teach, among others, academic subject such as Chinese, mathematics, English, physics, chemistry and other academic subjects in the compulsory education stage and academic subjects related to the entrance to a higher school, but we cannot assure you that our teachers can all apply for and obtain the teaching licenses in a timely manner or at all. If our teachers are not able to apply for and obtain the teaching licenses on a timely basis, or at all, we may need to rectify such noncompliance and may be subject to penalties and risk exposure to regulatory order to suspend operations or cancelation or revocation of the private school operating permit issued by relevant PRC authority in accordance with the PRC Private Education Law, or a Permit for Operating a Private School or other regulatory and disciplinary sanctions. Moreover, if the teachers for our online courses do not fully comply with the teacher qualification requirements, or these teachers are teaching full-time at elementary and middle school at the same time, they may not be able to deliver such online courses, which would eventually adversely affect the delivery of our tutoring services to students. A shortage of qualified teachers or a decrease in the quality of our teachers’ services, whether actual or perceived, or a significant increase in compensation for us to retain qualified teachers, would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may not be able to improve the content of our existing courses or to develop new courses or services in a timely or cost-effective manner.

We constantly update and improve the content of our existing courses and develop new courses or services to meet changing market demands or requirements from related government authorities. Revisions to our existing courses and our newly developed courses or services may not be well received by existing or prospective students or their parents. If we cannot respond effectively to changes in market demands or requirements from related government authorities, our business may be adversely affected. Even if we are able to develop new courses or services that are well received, we may not be able to introduce them in a timely or cost-effective manner. If we do not respond adequately to changes in market demands, our ability to attract and retain students may be impaired and our financial results could suffer.

Offering new courses or services or modifying existing courses may require us to invest in content development, increase marketing efforts and re-allocate resources away from other uses. We may have limited experience with the content of new courses or services and may need to adjust our systems and strategies to incorporate new courses or services into our existing offerings. If we are unable to continuously improve the content of our existing courses, or offer new courses or services in a timely or cost-effective manner, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

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If we are not able to maintain and enhance the value of our brand, our business and operating results may be harmed.

We believe that market awareness of our “Xueersi” brand has contributed significantly to the success of our business, and that maintaining and enhancing the value of this brand is critical to maintaining and enhancing our competitive advantage. If we are unable to successfully promote and market our brand and services, our ability to attract new students could be adversely impacted and, consequently, our financial performance could suffer. We mainly rely on word-of-mouth referrals to attract prospective students. We also use integrated marketing tools and tactics such as the internet, WeChat, social media, public lectures, outdoor advertising campaigns, co-brand promotions, and distribution of marketing materials to promote our brand and service offerings. In order to maintain and increase our brand recognition and promote our new service offerings, we have increased our marketing personnel and expenses over the last several years. We have also sought to strengthen recognition for our other brands, such as our “Haoweilai” brand, which is the umbrella brand for all our brands, our “Xueersi” brand, through which we offer small classes covering major subjects in supplement to school learnings, our “Izhikang” brand, through which we offer personalized premium services, our “Mobby” brand, through which we offer small classes focused on thinking development for young learners, and our “Firstleap” brand, through which we offer all-subject tutoring services in English to students aged two to fifteen. A number of factors could prevent us from successfully promoting our brand, including student dissatisfaction with our services, the failure of our marketing tools and strategies to attract prospective students. In addition, our brand may be adversely affected by misconduct and non-compliance, including those related to license or qualification requirements, of our business partners who purchase our courses and system support. If we are unable to maintain and enhance our existing brand, successfully develop additional brands, or utilize marketing tools in a cost-effective manner, our revenues and profitability may suffer. See “— Our brand image, business and results of operations may be adversely impacted by illegal, fraudulent or collusive activities or other wrongdoings by our employees and third parties acting on our behalf.”

Moreover, we offer a variety of courses to primary, middle and high school students in some of the large cities in China. As we continue to grow in size, expand our course offerings and extend our geographic reach, it may be more difficult to maintain quality and consistent standards of our services and to protect and promote our brand name.

Furthermore, we cannot assure you that our sales and marketing efforts will be successful in further promoting our brand in a cost-effective manner. If we are unable to further enhance our brand recognition and increase awareness of our services, or if we incur excessive sales and marketing expenses, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Our historical financial and operating results, growth rates and profitability may not be indicative of future performance.

Our net revenues increased from $1, 715.0 million in the fiscal year ended February 28, 2018, to $2,563.0 million in the fiscal year ended February 28, 2019 , and further to $3,273.3 million in the fiscal year ended February 29, 2020. Any evaluation of our business and our prospects must be considered in light of the risks and uncertainties encountered by companies at our stage of development. The after-school tutoring service market in China continually develops and evolves, which makes it difficult to evaluate our business and future prospects. In addition, our past results may not be indicative of future performance because of new businesses developed or acquired by us. Furthermore, our results of operations may vary from period to period in response to a variety of other factors beyond our control, including general economic conditions and regulations or government actions pertaining to the private education service sector in China, changes in spending on private education and non-recurring charges incurred under unexpected circumstances or in connection with acquisitions, equity investments or other extraordinary transactions. Due to these and other factors, our historical financial and operating results, growth rates and profitability as well as quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our operating results may not be indicative of our future performance and you should not rely on them to predict our future performance.

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If our students’ level of performance deteriorates or satisfaction with our services declines, they may decide to withdraw from our courses and request refunds and our business, financial condition, results of operations and reputation would be adversely affected.

The success of our business depends on our ability to deliver a satisfactory learning experience and improved academic results. Our tutoring services may fail to improve a student’s academic performance and a student may perform below expectations even after completing our courses. We also face challenges to improve students’ overall ability on top of improving their academic performance. Additionally, student and parent satisfaction with our services may decline. A student’s learning experience may also suffer if his or her relationship with our teachers does not meet expectations. We generally offer refunds for the remaining classes in a course to students who withdraw from the course. If a significant number of students fail to improve their academic performance after attending our courses or if they are not satisfied with our service or their learning experiences, they may decide to withdraw from our courses and request refunds, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and reputation would be adversely affected.

We face significant competition, and if we fail to compete effectively, we may lose our market share or fail to gain additional market share, and our profitability may be adversely affected.

The private education market in China is rapidly evolving, highly fragmented and competitive, and we expect competition to persist and intensify. We face competition in each type of services we offer and in each geographic market where we operate. Our competitors at the national level include New Oriental Education & Technology Group Inc, and certain online tutoring service providers that integrate their services with advanced technology.

Our student enrollments may decrease due to intense competition. Some of our competitors may be able to devote greater resources than we can to the development, promotion and sale of their programs, services and products and respond more quickly than we can to changes in student needs, testing materials, admission standards, market trends or new technologies. In addition, some smaller local companies may be able to respond more quickly to changes in student preferences in some of our targeted markets. Moreover, the increasing use of the internet and advances in internet, mobile internet, computer-related technologies, such as online live broadcasting technologies, are eliminating geographic and physical facility-related entry barriers to providing private education services. As a result, smaller local companies or internet-content providers may be able to use the internet or mobile internet to offer their programs, services and products quickly and cost-effectively to a large number of students with less capital expenditure than previously required. Consequently, we may be pressured to reduce course fees or increase spending in response to competition in order to retain or attract students or pursue new market opportunities, which could result in a decrease in our revenues and profitability. We will also face increased competition as we expand our operations. We cannot assure you that we will be able to compete successfully against current or future competitors. If we are unable to maintain our competitive position or otherwise effectively respond to competition, we may lose our market share or fail to gain additional market share, and our profitability may be adversely affected.

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Failure to effectively and efficiently manage the expansion of our service network may materially and adversely affect our ability to capitalize on new business opportunities.

Our business has experienced growth in recent years. The number of our learning centers increased from 594 as of February 28, 2018 to 871 as of February 29, 2020. We plan to continue to expand our operations in different geographic markets in China. The establishment of new learning centers poses challenges and requires us to make investments in management, capital expenditures, marketing expenses and other resources. The expansion has resulted, and will continue to result, in substantial demands on our management and staff as well as our financial, operational, technological and other resources. In addition, we typically incur pre-opening costs associated with our new learning centers, and may incur losses during their initial ramp-up stage because we incur rent, salary and other operating expenses for new learning centers regardless of any revenues we may generate. If the ramp-up of our new learning centers is slower than expected, whether due to our inability to attract sufficient student enrollments or charge hourly rates for our courses that are high enough for us to recover our costs, our overall financial performance may be materially and adversely affected. Our planned expansion will also place significant pressure on us to maintain teaching quality and consistent standards, controls, policies and our culture to ensure that our brand does not suffer as a result of any decrease, whether actual or perceived, in the quality of our programs. To manage and support our expansion, we must improve our existing operational, administrative and technological systems and our financial and management controls, and recruit, train and retain additional qualified teachers and management personnel as well as other administrative and marketing personnel. We cannot assure you that we will be able to effectively and efficiently manage the growth of our operations, maintain or accelerate our current growth rate, maintain or increase our gross and operating profit margins, recruit and retain qualified teachers and management personnel, successfully integrate new learning centers into our operations and otherwise effectively manage our growth. If we are not successful in effectively and efficiently managing our expansion, we may not be able to capitalize on new business opportunities, which may have a material and adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.

If we fail to successfully execute our growth strategies, our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

Our growth strategies include further penetrating our existing markets, extending our geographic reach into new regions, further developing our online course offerings and online education platform and making acquisitions and investments to complement our existing business and offerings. We may not succeed in executing our growth strategies due to a number of factors, including, without limitation, the following:

we may fail to identify, and effectively market our services in, new markets with sufficient growth potential into which to expand our network or promote new courses in existing markets;
it may be difficult to increase the number of learning centers in more developed cities;
although we have replicated our growth model in Beijing to certain other cities, we may not be able to continue to do so to additional geographic markets, especially to lower-tier cities, and we might experience decline in our Beijing business that would offset the growth we are experiencing in other geographic markets;
our analysis for selecting suitable new locations may not be accurate and the demand for our services at the newly selected locations may not materialize or increase as rapidly as we expect;
we may fail to obtain the requisite licenses and permits necessary to open learning centers at our desired locations from local authorities or face risks in opening without the requisite licenses and permits;
we may not be able to manage our personalized premium services business efficiently and cost-effectively;
we may not be able to continue to enhance our online offerings or expand them to new markets, generate profits from online offerings, or adapt online offerings to changing student needs and technological advances such that we will continue to face significant student acquisition costs in the markets we enter;
we may not be profitable in our new tutoring business and may encounter obstacles in expanding our new tutoring business to other markets; and

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we may not be able to successfully integrate acquired businesses and may not be able to achieve the benefits we expect from recent and future acquisitions or investments.

If we fail to successfully execute our growth strategies, we may not be able to maintain our growth rate and our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected as a result.

We derive a significant portion of our revenues from a limited number of cities. Any event negatively affecting the private education market in these cities, or any increase in the level of competition for the types of services we offer in these cities, could have a material adverse effect on our overall business and results of operations.

Although we have expanded our offerings into a broad range of cities in China, we derive a significant portion of our revenues from a limited number of cities. For the fiscal year ended February 29, 2020, we derived approximately 35.0% of our total net revenues from our Xueersi small-class offering in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Nanjing and we expect these five cities to continue to constitute important sources of our revenues. If any of these cities experiences an event negatively affecting its private education market, such as a serious economic downturn, natural disaster or outbreak of contagious disease, adopts regulations relating to private education that place additional restrictions or burdens on us, or experiences an increase in the level of competition for the types of services we offer, our overall business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

We may not achieve expected results from our new initiatives.

We engage in new initiatives from time to time to expand our offerings or market reach. For example, we may start offering low-pricing and/or free courses to a large number of users. We have limited experience providing class offerings at a massive level. We may devote significant resources to our new initiatives, but fail to achieve expected results from such new initiatives. If such new initiatives are not well accepted, the reputation of our other class offerings and our overall brand and reputation may be harmed. As a result, our overall business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Our brand image, business and results of operations may be adversely impacted by illegal, fraudulent or collusive activities or other wrongdoings by our employees and third parties acting on our behalf.

Illegal, fraudulent or collusive activities or other wrongdoings by our employees or third parties acting on our behalf could subject us to liability or negative publicity and harm our business. Negative publicity generated as a result of actual or alleged wrongdoings by our employees or the third parties could damage our reputation and diminish the value of our brand, and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are exposed to the risk of various types of by illegal, fraudulent or collusive activities or other wrongdoings, including but not limited to taking kickbacks, forging documentation, etc. It is not always possible to deter or discover wrongdoings, and the precautionary or remedial measures we take may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses. As previously announced in April 2020, ruing our routine internal auditing process for fiscal year 2020, we discovered irregularities and violations of our business conduct and internal control policies by employees in our newly introduced "Light Class" business. Upon such discovery, we immediately reported to the local police, and the employees had been taken into custody by the local police. The employees' wrongdoings inflated "Light Class" transactions. As a result, we issued corrections to certain line items of our previously announced unaudited quarterly condensed consolidated financial statements as of and for the three months ended May 31, 2019, August 31, 2019, and November 30, 2019. The corrections mainly include a reversal of net revenues, cost of revenues, general and administrative, prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts payable and accrued expenses and other current liabilities. The accumulated negative impact for the first three quarters of fiscal year 2020 on net revenues and net income attributable to TAL Education Group was US$86.1 million and US$26.6 million, respectively. The decrease of basic net income per ADS for the nine months ended November 30, 2019 was US$0.04.

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Our reputation and the trading price of our ADSs may be negatively affected by adverse publicity or detrimental conduct against us.

Adverse publicity concerning our failure or perceived failure to comply with legal and regulatory requirements, alleged accounting or financial reporting irregularities, regulatory scrutiny and further regulatory action or litigation could harm our reputation and cause the trading price of our ADSs to decline and fluctuate significantly. For example, after Muddy Waters Capital LLC, an entity unrelated to us, issued a series of reports containing various allegations about us in June and July 2018, the trading price of our ADSs declined sharply and we received numerous investor inquiries. The negative publicity and the resulting decline of the trading price of our ADSs also led to the filing of two shareholder class action lawsuits against us and some of our senior executive officers.

We may continue to be the target of adverse publicity and detrimental conduct against us, including complaints, anonymous or otherwise, to regulatory agencies regarding our operations, accounting, revenues and regulatory compliance. Additionally, allegations against us may be posted on the internet by any person or entity which identifies itself or on an anonymous basis. We may be subject to government or regulatory investigation or inquiries, or shareholder lawsuits, as a result of such third-party conduct and may be required to incur significant time and substantial costs to defend ourselves, and there is no assurance that we will be able to conclusively refute each of the allegations within a reasonable period of time or at all. Our reputation may also be negatively affected as a result of the public dissemination of allegations or malicious statements about us, which in turn may materially and adversely affect the trading price of our ADSs.

We have been named as a defendant in a putative shareholder class action lawsuit and are subject to the SEC Investigation which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operation, cash flows and reputation.

We are defending against a putative shareholder class action lawsuit described in “Item 8. Financial Information-A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information-Legal and Administrative Proceedings-Litigation,” including any appeals of such lawsuit. We are currently unable to estimate the possible loss or possible range of loss, if any, associated with the resolution of this lawsuit. In the event that our initial defense of this lawsuit is unsuccessful, there can be no assurance that we will prevail in any appeal. Any adverse outcome of this case, including any plaintiff’s appeal of the judgment in this case, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operation, cash flows and reputation. In addition, there can be no assurance that our insurance carriers will cover all or part of the defense costs, or any liabilities that may arise from these matters. The litigation process may utilize a significant portion of our cash resources and divert management’s attention from the day-to-day operations of our company, all of which could harm our business. We also may be subject to claims for indemnification related to these matters, and we cannot predict the impact that indemnification claims may have on our business or financial results.

In addition, as described in “Item 8. Financial Information-A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information-Legal and Administrative Proceedings-Internal Review and SEC Proceeding,” of this annual report, the SEC’s Division of Enforcement has sought the production of certain documents and records related to the transactions identified in the Muddy Water report, the internal reviews and related follow-up work, and other related information, as well as information regarding issues related to the "Light Class" business that we announced in April 2020 which resulted in reversal of our net revenues and net income attributable to our company for the first nine months of fiscal year 2020 in the aggregate amount of US$86.1 million and US$26.6 million, respectively; and the audit committee of our board of directors is overseeing an internal review, conducted by external professional advisers reporting to the audit committee. We are cooperating with the SEC. We cannot predict or provide any assurance as to the timing, outcome or consequences of the SEC investigation or the internal review. We have incurred, and may continue to incur, significant expenses related to legal, accounting, and other professional services in connection with matters relating to or arising from the internal review and SEC investigation. Moreover, if the SEC were to determine that legal violations occurred, we could be required to pay significant civil penalties and/or other amounts and we could become subject to other remedies or conditions imposed as part of any resolution.

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Failure to adequately and promptly respond to changes in PRC laws and regulations on school curriculum, examination systems and admission standards in China could render our courses and services less attractive to students.

Under the PRC education system, school admissions rely heavily on examination results. College and high school entrance examinations in most cases are mandatory for high school and middle school graduates to gain admission to colleges and high schools, respectively. Therefore, a student’s performance in these examinations is critical to his or her education and future employment prospects. It is therefore common for students to take after-school tutoring classes to improve performance, and the success of our business to a large extent depends on the continued use of assessment process by high schools and colleges in their admissions. However, this heavy emphasis on examination scores may decline or fall out of favor with educational institutions or education authorities in China. We face challenge to help students to improve their overall ability and quality other than improving their school grades.

Admission and assessment processes in China constantly undergo changes and developments in terms of subject and skill focus, question type, examination format and the manner in which the processes are administered. We are therefore required to continually update and enhance our curriculum, course materials and teaching methods. Any inability to track and respond to these changes in a timely and cost-effective manner would make our services and products less attractive to students, which may materially and adversely affect our reputation and ability to continue to attract students, and in turn have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Regulations and policies which focus on the efforts to de-emphasize scholastic competition achievements in college and high school admissions or the efforts to forbid academic competitions have had, and may continue to have, an impact on our enrollments. In particular, on February 13, 2018, the Ministry of Education, or MoE, together with three other government authorities, jointly promulgated the Circular on Special Enforcement Campaign concerning After-school Tutoring Institutions to Alleviate Extracurricular Burden on Students of Elementary Schools and Middle Schools, or Circular 3, pursuant to which private training organizations are strictly prohibited from organizing any academic competitions (such as Olympiad competitions) or level tests for students of elementary or middle schools and the elementary and middle schools are prohibited from taking the training results from private training organizations into account in the enrollment process. These policies and measures may adversely affect the demands for our after-school tutoring business and personalized premium services. We have adapted our operations which may be construed as competitions or ranking activities to these regulations. We cannot assure you whether relevant governmental authorities will find our operations in violation of such regulations.

Accidents or injuries suffered by our students or other people caused by us, or perceived to be caused by us may adversely affect our reputation, subject us to liability and cause us to incur substantial costs.

We have a large number of students and their parents on our premises to attend classes and/or use our facilities, and they may suffer accidents or injuries or other harm on our premises, including those caused by or otherwise arise from the actions of our employees or contractors. Although we have since enhanced preventive measures to avoid similar incidents, we cannot assure you that there will be no similar incidents in the future. We also organize overseas trips for students as a part of certain of our services. Due to our limited experience organizing such trips and unfamiliarity with foreign countries, our students may be involved in accidents or suffer injuries or other harm on these trips.

In the event of accidents or injuries or other harm caused or perceived to be caused by us, our facilities and/or services may be perceived to be unsafe, which may discourage prospective students from attending our classes and participate in our activities. Although we carry certain liability insurance policies for our students and their parents, they may not be sufficient to cover the compensation or even applicable to the accidents or injuries occurred. We could also face claims alleging that we should be liable for the accidents or injuries, or we were negligent, provided inadequate supervision to our employees or contractors and therefore should be held jointly liable for harm caused by them. A material liability claim against us or any of our teachers or independent contractors could adversely affect our reputation, enrollment and revenues. Even if unsuccessful, such a claim could create unfavorable publicity, cause us to incur substantial expenses and divert the time and attention of our management.

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Our new courses and services may compete with our existing offerings.

We are constantly developing new courses and services to meet changes in student demands, school curriculum, testing materials, admission standards, market trends and technologies. While some of the courses and services that we develop will expand our current offerings and increase student enrollment, others may compete with or render obsolete our existing offerings without increasing our total student enrollment. For example, our online courses might attract students away from our classroom-based courses. If we are unable to increase our total student enrollment and profitability as we expand our course and service offerings, our business and growth may be adversely affected.

If we are not able to continually enhance our online courses and services and adapt to rapid changes in technological demands and student needs, we may lose market share and our business could be adversely affected.

Widespread use of the internet for educational purposes is a relatively recent occurrence, and the market for internet-based courses and services is characterized by rapid technological changes and innovations, such as artificial intelligence, augmented reality, virtual reality, as well as unpredictable product life cycles and user preferences. We have limited experience with online courses and services. We must be able to adapt quickly to changing student needs and preferences, technological advances and evolving internet practices in order to compete successfully in online education. Ongoing enhancement of our online offerings and technologies may entail significant expenses and technological risks, and we may not be able to use new technologies effectively and may fail to adapt to changes in the online education market on a timely and cost-effective basis. We began offering online courses through our www.xueersi.com in 2010 and revenues generated from our online course offerings through www.xueersi.com accounted for 7.0%, 13.3% and 18.9% of our total net revenues in the fiscal years ended February 28/29, 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively. We expect that revenues from our online course offerings will increase. However, if improvements to our online offerings and technologies are delayed, result in systems interruptions or are not aligned with market expectations or preferences, we may lose market share and our growth prospects could be adversely affected.

Our success depends on the continuing efforts of our senior management team and other key personnel and our business may be harmed if we lose their services.

Our future success depends heavily upon the continuing services of the members of our senior management team. If any member of our senior management team leaves us and we fail to effectively manage a transition to new personnel in the future or if we fail to attract and retain qualified and experienced professionals on acceptable terms, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. Competition for experienced management personnel in the education industry is intense, the pool of qualified candidates is very limited, and we may not be able to retain the services of our senior executives or key personnel, or to attract and retain high-quality senior executives or key personnel in the future.

Our success also depends on our having highly trained financial, technical, human resource, sales and marketing staff, management personnel and qualified and dedicated teachers for local markets. We will need to continue to hire additional personnel as our business grows. A shortage in the supply of personnel with requisite skills or our failure to recruit them could impede our ability to increase revenues from our existing courses and services, to launch new course and service offerings and to expand our operations, and would have an adverse effect on our business and financial results.

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Failure to control rental costs, obtain leases at desired locations at reasonable prices or protect our leasehold interests could materially and adversely affect our business.

Our office space and service and learning centers are presently mainly located on leased premises. We own 7,582 square meters of building space in Beijing and approximately 2,000 square meters in other cities. The lease term of our leased premises generally ranges from one to 15 years and the lease agreements are renewable upon mutual consent at the end of the applicable lease period. We may not be able to obtain new leases at desirable locations or renew our existing leases on acceptable terms or at all, which could adversely affect our business. We may have to relocate our operations for various other reasons, including increasing rentals, failure in passing the fire inspection in certain locations and the early termination of lease agreements. In addition, if the leased premises where our learning centers located do not pass the fire inspection or do not comply with the relevant fire safety regulations, we may have to close such learning centers. We also have not registered most of our lease agreements with the relevant PRC governmental authorities as required by relevant PRC law. We may be required by the relevant governmental authorities to complete such registration, or otherwise subject to fines ranging from RMB1,000 to RMB10,000 for each lease agreement that has not been registered. However, failure to complete such registration would not affect the enforceability of the relevant lease agreements in practice.

In addition, a few of our lessors have not been able to provide us with document proving completion of the fire inspection of the leased premises, copies of title certificates or other evidentiary documents to prove that they have authorization to lease the properties to us. Our business and legal teams followed an internal guideline to identify and assess risks in connection with leasing the properties, and a final business decision was made after our analysis of the likely impact of the defects on the leasehold interests and the value of the properties to our expansion plan. However, there is no assurance that our decision would always lead to the favorable outcome we expected to achieve. If any of our leases are terminated as a result of challenges by third parties or government authorities for lack of title certificates or proof of authorization to lease, we do not expect to be subject to any fines or penalties but we may be forced to relocate the affected learning centers and incur additional expenses relating to such relocation. If our use of the leased premise is challenged by relevant government authorities for lack of fire inspection, we may be further subject to fines and also be forced to relocate the affected learning centers and incur additional expenses. If we fail to find suitable replacement sites in a timely manner or on terms acceptable to us, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Capacity constraints of our teaching facilities could cause us to lose students to our competitors.

The teaching facilities of our physical network are limited in size and number of classrooms. We may not be able to admit all students who would like to enroll in our courses due to the capacity constraints of our teaching facilities. This would deprive us of the opportunity to serve them and to potentially develop a long-term relationship with them for continued services. If we fail to expand our physical capacity as quickly as the demand for our classroom-based services grows, we could lose potential students to our competitors, and our results of operations and business prospects could suffer.

If we fail to protect our intellectual property rights, our brand and business may suffer.

We consider our copyrights, trademarks, trade names, internet domain names, patents and other intellectual property rights invaluable to our ability to continue to develop and enhance our brand recognition. Unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights may damage our reputation and brands. Our “Xueersi” brand and logo is a registered trademark in China. Our proprietary curricula and course materials are protected by copyrights. However, preventing infringement on or misuse of intellectual property rights could be difficult, costly and time-consuming, particularly in China. The measures we take to protect our intellectual property rights may not be adequate to prevent unauthorized uses. Furthermore, application of laws governing intellectual property rights in China is uncertain and evolving, and could involve substantial risks to us. There have been several incidents in the past where third parties used our brand “Xueersi” without our authorization, and on occasion we have needed to resort to litigation to protect our intellectual property rights. In addition, we are still in the process of applying for the registration in China of the trademarks for our “Haoweilai” brand in certain categories. We cannot assure you that the relevant governmental authorities will grant us the approval to register such trademarks. As a result, we may be unable to prevent third parties from utilizing this brand name, which may have an adverse impact on our brand image. If we are unable to adequately protect our intellectual property rights in the future, we may lose these rights, our brand name may be harmed, and our reputation and business may suffer materially. Furthermore, our management’s attention may be diverted by violations of our intellectual property rights, and we may be required to enter into costly litigation to protect our proprietary rights against any infringement or violation.

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We may encounter disputes from time to time relating to our use of the intellectual property of third parties.

We cannot assure you that our courses and marketing materials, online courses, products, and platform or other intellectual property developed or used by us do not or will not infringe upon valid copyrights or other intellectual property rights held by third parties. We may encounter disputes from time to time over rights and obligations concerning intellectual property, and we may not prevail in those disputes. We have adopted policies and procedures to prohibit our employees and contractors from infringing upon third-party copyright or intellectual property rights. However, we cannot assure that our teachers or other personnel will not, against our policies, use third-party copyrighted materials or intellectual property without proper authorization in our classes, on our websites, at any of our locations or via any medium through which we provide our programs. Our users may also post unauthorized third-party content on our websites. We may incur liability for unauthorized duplication or distribution of materials posted on our websites or used in our classes. We have been involved in claims against us alleging our infringement of third-party intellectual property rights and we may be subject to such claims in the future. Any such intellectual property infringement claim could result in costly litigation, harm our reputation and divert our management attention and resources and pay substantial damage.

We may fail to successfully make necessary or desirable acquisition or investment, and we may not be able to achieve the benefits we expect from recent and future acquisitions or investments.

We have made and intend to continue to make acquisitions or equity investments in additional businesses that complement our existing business. We may not be able to successfully integrate acquired businesses. If the businesses we acquire do not subsequently generate the anticipated financial performance or if any goodwill impairment test triggering event occurs, we may need to revalue or write down the value of goodwill and other intangible assets in connection with such acquisitions or investments, which would harm our results of operations.

We may not have any control over the businesses or operations of our minority equity investments, the value of which may decline over time. For the investments accounted for by equity method, we book a gain or loss of share of net income or loss of the investments. If the investee’s operation or financial performance deteriorated, we may need to revalue or record impairment to the carrying amount of the long-term investment, which would harm our results of operations.

In addition, we may be unable to identify appropriate acquisition or strategic investment targets when it is necessary or desirable to make such acquisition or investment to remain competitive or to expand our business. Even if we identify an appropriate acquisition or investment target, we may not be able to negotiate the terms of the acquisition or investment successfully, finance the proposed transaction or integrate the relevant businesses into our existing business and operations. Furthermore, as we often do not have control over the companies in which we only have minority stake, we cannot ensure that these companies always will comply with applicable laws and regulations in their business operations. Material non-compliance by our investees may cause substantial harms to our reputations and the value of our investment.

We face risks associated with the Firstleap franchisees.

A small portion of the Firstleap business is operated through franchisees, or the Firstleap franchisees, instead of Lebai Education and its subsidiaries and schools. These franchisees are typically located in lower-tier cities and operate their own learning centers not within our network. The Firstleap franchisees have very limited impact on our overall business and financial performance, and schools operated by them are not included in the counts of our schools, learning centers and service centers, and student enrollments from these schools are not included as our student enrollments. However, we are still subject to risks inherent to the franchising model and we have not had experience in operating the franchising model and dealing with such risks.

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Our control over the Firstleap franchisees is based on contractual agreements, which may not be as effective as direct ownership and potentially makes it difficult for us to manage the franchisees. We do not have direct control over their service quality, and do not directly recruit, manage and train their employees. As a result, we may not be able to successfully monitor, maintain and improve the performance of the Firstleap franchisees and their employees. However, they carry out the Firstleap tutoring services and directly interact with students and their parents. In the event of any delinquent performance by the Firstleap franchisees and their employees, we may suffer from business reduction as well as reputational damage. In the event of any unlawful or unethical conduct by the Firstleap franchisees and/or their employees, we may suffer financial losses, incur liabilities and suffer reputation damage. Meanwhile, a franchisee may suspend or terminate its cooperation with us voluntarily or involuntarily due to various reasons, including disagreement or dispute with us, or failure to maintain requisite approvals, licenses or permits or to comply with other governmental regulations. We may not be able to find alternative ways to continue to provide the tutoring services formerly covered by such franchisee, and our student/parent satisfaction, reputation and financial performance may be adversely affected.

Seasonal and other fluctuations in our results of operations could adversely affect the trading price of our ADSs.

Our business is subject to fluctuations caused by seasonality or other factors beyond our control, which may cause our operating results to fluctuate from quarter to quarter. This may result in volatility and adversely affect the price of our ADSs. We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, seasonal fluctuations in our revenues and results of operations, primarily due to seasonal changes in student enrollments. However, our expenses vary, and certain of our expenses do not necessarily correspond with changes in our student enrollments and revenues. For example, we make investments in marketing and promotion, teacher recruitment and training, and product development throughout the year and we pay rent for our facilities based on the terms of the lease agreements. In addition, other factors beyond our control, such as special events that take place during a quarter when our student enrollment would normally be high, may have a negative impact on our student enrollments. We expect quarterly fluctuations in our revenues and results of operations to continue. These fluctuations could result in volatility and adversely affect the price of our ADSs. As our revenues grow, these seasonal fluctuations may become more pronounced.

If we cannot obtain sufficient cash when we need it, we may not be able to meet our payment obligations under our indebtedness.

On February 1, 2019, we signed a 3-year $600 million term and revolving facilities agreement with a group of arrangers led by Deutsche Bank AG, Singapore Branch. The facilities, a $270 million 3-year bullet maturity term loan and a $330 million 3-year revolving facility, are priced at 175 basis points over LIBOR. As of February 29, 2020, we had drawn down $270 million three-year bullet maturity term loan under the facility commitment.

On December 19, 2019, we entered into a loan facilities agreement with a group of lenders pursuant to which we can draw down up to RMB1,800 million, provided that the proceeds be used for our construction project in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu.

We cannot assure you that we will have sufficient funds to fulfill our payment obligations under our indebtedness. Our ability to meet our payment obligations under our indebtedness depends on our ability to generate sufficient cash flow, which is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative and regulatory factors as well as other factors that are beyond our control. Moreover, we are a holding company with no material operations of our own. As a result, we rely upon dividends and other cash distributions paid to us by our subsidiaries to meet our payment obligations under indebtedness incurred at the holding company level. Our subsidiaries are distinct legal entities and do not have any obligation, legal or otherwise, to provide us with dividends or other distributions. We may face tax or other adverse consequences, or legal limitations, on our ability to obtain funds from these entities.

In addition, our ability to obtain external financing in the future is subject to a variety of uncertainties, including:

our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows;
general market conditions for financing activities; and
economic, political and other conditions in China and elsewhere.

If we are unable to obtain funding in a timely manner or on commercially acceptable terms, we may not be able to meet our payment obligations under our indebtedness.

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We have experienced recent fluctuations in our margins and incurred net loss in fiscal year 2020.

In recent years, we have experienced fluctuations in our margins. In fiscal year 2020, we had a net loss for the first time as a public company. Many factors may cause our margins to decline or lead to net losses. For example, costs incurred in the expansion of our business and our physical network of learning centers and service centers may increase faster than our revenues. New investments and acquisitions may cause our margins to decline before we successfully integrate the acquired businesses into our operations and realize the full benefits of these investments and acquisitions. A significant increase in operating expenses or impairment loss on long-term investments may lead to a net loss. Our ability to return to or maintain profitability and maintain or improve margins is affected by various factors that are beyond our control, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. There can be no assurance that our margins will not decline or fluctuate, or that we will not incur net loss again, in the future.

We have limited experience generating net income from some of our newer offerings.

Historically, our core businesses have been Xueersi small-class offerings and personalized premium services. We have expanded our offerings through internal development and external investments. Some of these new offerings have not generated significant or any profit to date. We have limited experience responding quickly to changes and competing successfully for certain of these new areas. In addition, newer offerings may require more financial and managerial resources than available. Furthermore, there is limited operating history on which you can base your evaluation of the business and prospects of these relatively more recent offerings.

We have limited liability insurance coverage and do not carry business disruption insurance.

We have limited liability insurance coverage for our students and their parents in most of our learning centers. A successful liability claim against us due to injuries suffered by our students or other people on our premises could materially and adversely affect our financial conditions, results of operations and reputation. Even if unsuccessful, such a claim could cause adverse publicity to us, require substantial cost to defend and divert the time and attention of our management. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—Accidents or injuries suffered by our students or other people on our premises may adversely affect our reputation, subject us to liability and cause us to incur substantial costs.” In addition, we do not have any business disruption insurance. Any business disruption event could result in substantial cost to us and diversion of our resources.

System disruptions to our websites or information technology systems, any significant cybersecurity incident or a leak of student data could damage our reputation, limit our ability to retain students and increase student enrollment or give rise to financial or legal consequences.

The performance and reliability of our online and technology infrastructure is critical to our reputation and ability to retain students and increase student enrollment. Any system error or failure, or a sudden and significant increase in online traffic, could disrupt or slow access to our websites. We cannot assure you that we will be able to expand our online infrastructure in a timely and cost-effective manner to meet the increasing demands of our students and their parents. In addition, our information technology systems store and process important information including, without limitation, class schedules, registration information and student data and could be vulnerable to interruptions or malfunctions due to events beyond our control, such as natural disasters and technology failures. For instance, we have in the past experienced interruptions to our operations due to temporary information technology system failures.

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Although we have a daily backup system that runs on different servers for our operating data, we may still lose important student data or suffer disruption to our operations if there is a failure of the database system or the backup system. In addition, computer hackers may attempt to penetrate our network security and our website. We have in the past experienced several computer attacks, although they did not materially affect our operations. We may be required to invest significant resources in protecting against the foregoing technological disruptions and/or security breaches, or to remediate problems and damages caused by such incidents, which could increase the cost of our business and in turn adversely affect our financial conditions and results of operations. Unauthorized access to our proprietary business information or customer data may be obtained through break-ins, sabotage, breach of our secure network by an unauthorized party, computer viruses, computer denial-of-service attacks, employee theft or misuse, breach of the security of the networks of our third party providers, or other misconduct. Because the techniques used by computer programmers who may attempt to penetrate and sabotage our network security or our website change frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques. It is also possible that unauthorized access to customer data may be obtained through inadequate use of security controls by customers. We would suffer economic and reputational damages if a technical failure of our systems or a security breach compromises student data, including identification or contact information, although there has not been any material compromise in the past. Any disruption to our computer systems could therefore have a material adverse effect on our on-site operations and ability to retain students and increase student enrollments.

Our business has been and is likely to continue to be materially adversely affected by the outbreak of COVID-19.

Since the beginning of 2020, outbreaks of COVID-19 have resulted in the temporary closure of many business facilities across China. Normal economic life throughout China was sharply curtailed. While many of the restrictions on movement within China have been relaxed as of the date of this annual report, there is great uncertainty as to the future progress of the disease. Currently, there is no vaccine or specific anti-viral treatment for COVID-19. Relaxation of restrictions on economic and social life may lead to new cases which may lead to the reimposition of restrictions.

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected many aspects of our business, including:

Offline businesses. Our learning centers across the nation underwent temporary yet prolonged closure as part of precautionary measures we have taken with respect to our offline business and pursuant to government orders with respect to educational institutions as well as business activities in general to combat the outbreak. Following the closure, we immediately took measures to effectively move our offline course offerings online and provide our customers that already purchased offline courses with comprehensive remedies such as refunds, exchanges, or compensation for price differences. Despite our initiatives, there could still be cases of customer dissatisfaction and complaints as a result of the drastic changes. We believe that the decrease in revenues from offline learnings centers will be partially offset by the increase in online revenues.

Expansion. Pending further development of the outbreak, we temporarily slowed down or suspended our offline capacity growth plans, and instead focus on improving the utilization rate and operational efficiency. Moreover, we have two major facilities under construction, the progress of which have been delayed due to restrictions on travel, suspension of business activities, and disease control protocols, that were or still are in place. The construction delay may cause, among others, the projects to miss completion deadline, go over budget, or both, and the raw material cost may fluctuate as a result of the outbreak.

Financial condition and results of operations. Due to the impact of the outbreak of COVID-19, our results of operations for the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2020 were weaker than expected. In addition, the COVID-19 outbreak brings great uncertainty to our financial condition and operating results for fiscal year 2021, including but not limited to negative impact to our total revenues and downward adjustments or impairment to our long-lived assets and long-term investments. Because of the significant uncertainties surrounding the COVID-19 outbreak, the extent of the business disruption and the related financial impact cannot be reasonably estimated at this time.

Corporate responsibilities. To support China’s efforts to fight the pandemic we contributed cash donations and education-related investment to provide free technology, teaching and training and other necessary support for students and sector-wide partners.

We cannot assure you that the COVID-19 pandemic can be eliminated or contained in the near future, or at all, or a similar outbreak will not occur again. If the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting disruption to our business were to extend over a prolonged period, it could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

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We face risks related to natural and other disasters, including outbreaks of health epidemics, and other extraordinary events, which could significantly disrupt our operations.

In addition to the impact of COVID-19, our business could be materially and adversely affected by natural and other disasters, including earthquakes, fire, floods, environmental accidents, power loss, communication failures and similar events. Additionally, our business could be materially and adversely affected by the outbreak of H7N9 bird flu, H1N1 swine influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Ebola or another health epidemic. While we have not suffered any material loss or experienced any significant increase in costs as a result of any natural and other disaster or other extraordinary event, our student attendance and our business could be materially and adversely affected by any such occurrence in any of the cities in which we have major operations.

Failure to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting could cause us to inaccurately report our financial result or fail to prevent fraud and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and the trading price of our ADSs.

We are subject to the reporting obligations under U.S. securities laws. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and related rules require public companies to include a report of management on their internal control over financial reporting in their annual reports. This report must contain an assessment by management of the effectiveness of a public company’s internal control over financial reporting. In addition, an independent registered public accounting firm for a public company must attest to and report on management’s assessment of the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting. Our efforts to implement standardized internal control procedures and develop the internal tests necessary to verify the proper application of the internal control procedures and their effectiveness are a key area of focus for our board of directors, our audit committee and senior management.

Our management and our independent registered public accounting firm, which has issued an attestation report, identified one material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting as of February 29, 2020 in accordance with the standards established by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board of the United States and concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective due to this material weakness as of February 29, 2020. The material weakness identified relates to our failure to timely update our design on controls with a sufficient level of precision to prevent and detect misstatements related to our newly developed business. Specifically, the material weakness is a combination of control deficiencies surrounding Light Class business where transactions are conducted through agents, including: (1) lack of continuous and sufficient risk assessment and monitoring on the newly developed business along with the expansion of such business; (2) inadequate review over vendor selection and approval; (3) insufficient review over approval of supplemental agreements; (4) insufficient review over the business substance when approving expenditure payments by the operation department; and (5) insufficient monitoring over hospitality expenses incurred related to newly developed business in light of the higher risks of the potential FCPA violation. The material weakness has resulted in restatement of our unaudited quarterly financial statements for the periods ended May 31, August 31 and November 30, 2019, respectively, to reflect correction of errors which led to reversal of our net revenues and net income attributable to our company for the first nine months of fiscal year 2020 in the aggregate amount of US$86.1 million and US$26.6 million, respectively. We are implementing and will continue to implement a number of remediation measures to address the material weakness and the deficiencies that have been identified. For details, see “Item 15. Controls and Procedures.” However, we cannot assure you that we will be able to implement these measures to effectively remediate our material weakness, or that we will not identify any additional material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in the future.

If we fail to cure the material weakness effectively, or fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, our management and our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to conclude that we have effective internal control over financial reporting at a reasonable assurance level. Moreover, effective internal controls over financial reporting are necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and are important to help prevent fraud. In addition, we need to continue to evaluate the consolidation of our VIEs and VIEs’ subsidiaries and schools given the change in the ownership or voting power of the Company by the nominee shareholders of the VIEs. As a result, although we have incurred and anticipate that we will continue to incur considerable costs, management time and other resources in an effort to continue to comply with Section 404 and other requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, any failure to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting could in turn result in the loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements and negatively impact the trading price of our ADSs.

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We are subject to anti-corruption laws. Our failure to comply with these laws could result in penalties, which may harm our reputation and have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations.

We are subject to anti-corruption laws, including China’s anti-corruption laws and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or the FCPA, which generally prohibits companies and anyone acting on their behalf from offering or making improper payments or providing benefits to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business and that requires an "issuer" like us to maintain accurate books and records. Our company policies require that our employees comply with applicable laws. However, there is no assurance that such policies will work effectively or protect us from liability under the FCPA or other anti-corruption laws for actions taken by our employees and intermediaries with respect to our business or any business that we may acquire. If we are found to be not in compliance with the FCPA and other applicable anti-corruption laws, we may be subject to penalties and other remedial measures, which may have an adverse impact on our reputation, business and results of operations. Any investigation of any potential violations of the FCPA or other anti-corruption laws by government authorities may cause us to incur significant expenses, divert management attention, and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We may be the subject of anti-competitive, harassing, or other detrimental conduct by third parties including anonymous allegations, negative blog postings, and the public dissemination of malicious assessments of our business that could cause us to incur significant time and costs to address these allegations, harm our reputation and adversely affect the price of our ADSs.

We may be the target of anti-competitive, harassing, or other detrimental conduct by third parties. Such conduct includes allegations, anonymous or otherwise, sent to our auditors and/or other third parties regarding our operations, accounting, revenues, business relationships, business prospects and business ethics. Additionally, allegations, directly or indirectly against us, may be posted in internet chat-rooms or on blogs or any websites by anyone, whether or not related to us, on an anonymous basis. We may be subject to government or regulatory investigation as a result of such third-party conduct and may be required to expend significant time and incur substantial costs to address such third-party conduct, and there is no assurance that we will be able to conclusively refute each of the allegations within a reasonable period of time, or at all. Our reputation may also be negatively affected as a result of the public dissemination of anonymous allegations or malicious statements about our business, which in turn may adversely affect the price of our ADSs.

We have granted and will continue to grant restricted shares, share options and other share-based awards in the future, which may materially reduce our net income.

In June 2010, we adopted a 2010 share incentive plan, as amended and restated in August 2013, that permits granting of options to purchase our Class A common shares, restricted shares, restricted share units, share appreciation rights, dividend equivalent rights and other instruments as deemed appropriate by the administrator under the plan. The amended and restated 2010 share incentive plan, or the 2010 Plan, has a term of 10 years, and will terminate as of June 30, 2020. As of May 31, 2020, 9,785,852 non-vested restricted Class A common shares and 975,421 share options to purchase 975,421 Class A common shares under the 2010 Plan previously granted to our employees and directors are outstanding. In June 2020, we adopted a 2020 Share Incentive Plan, or the 2020 Plan, pursuant to which the maximum aggregate number of shares that may be issued pursuant to all awards (including incentive share options) (the “Award Pool”) is initially five percent (5%) of our total issued and outstanding shares as of the effective date of the 2020 Plan, provided that (A) the Award Pool shall be increased automatically if and whenever the number of shares that may be issued pursuant to ungranted awards pursuant to the 2020 Plan (the “Ungranted Portion”) accounts for less than one percent (1%) of the then total issued and outstanding shares of our company, so that for each automatic increase, the Ungranted Portion immediately after such increase shall equal five percent (5%) of the then total issued and outstanding shares of our company, and (B) the size of the Award Pool shall be equitably adjusted in the event of any share dividend, subdivision, reclassification, recapitalization, split, reverse split, combination, consolidation or similar transactions. As a result of the outstanding grants under the 2010 Plan and potential future grants under the 2020 Plan, we have incurred and will continue to incur share-based compensation expenses. We had share-based compensation expenses of $47.1 million, $77.3 million and $117.9 million for the fiscal years ended February 28/29, 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively. As of February 29, 2020, the unrecognized compensation expenses amounted to $406.8 million related to the non-vested restricted shares, which will be recognized over a weighted-average period of 4.8 years, and $15.6 million related to share options, which will be recognized over a weighted-average period of 3.8 years. Expenses associated with share-based compensation awards granted under our share incentive plan may materially reduce our future net income. However, if we limit the size of grants under our share incentive plan to minimize share-based compensation expenses, we may not be able to attract or retain key personnel.

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Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

If the PRC government determines that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our business in China are not in compliance with applicable PRC laws and regulations, we could be subject to severe penalties.

PRC laws and regulations currently require any foreign entity that invests in the education business in China to be an educational institution with relevant experience in providing education services outside China. None of our offshore holding companies is an educational institution or provides education services. To comply with PRC laws and regulations, we have entered into (i) a series of contractual arrangements among Beijing Century TAL Education Technology Co., Ltd., or TAL Beijing, on the one hand, and Xueersi Education, Xueersi Network, Xinxin Xiangrong and their respective shareholders, subsidiaries and schools, on the other hand, and (ii) a series of contractual arrangements among Beijing Lebai Information Consulting Co., Ltd., or Lebai Information, on the one hand, and Lebai Education and its sole shareholder, subsidiaries and schools, on the other hand. Accordingly, Xueersi Education, Xueersi Network, Xinxin Xiangrong and Lebai Education are our VIEs, and we rely on the contractual arrangements with our VIEs and their respective shareholders, subsidiaries and schools, or the VIE Contractual Arrangements, to conduct most of our services in China. Our VIEs, together with their respective subsidiaries and schools, are our Consolidated Affiliated Entities.

We have been and are expected to continue to be dependent on our Consolidated Affiliated Entities in China to operate our education business until we qualify for direct ownership of educational businesses in China. Pursuant to the VIE Contractual Arrangements, we, through our wholly owned subsidiaries in China, exclusively provide comprehensive intellectual property licensing, technical and business support services to our Consolidated Affiliated Entities in exchange for payments from them. In addition, the VIE Contractual Arrangements provide us with the ability to effectively control our VIEs and their respective existing and future subsidiaries and schools, as applicable.

It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws, rules or regulations relating to variable interest entity structures will be adopted or if adopted, what they would provide. In August 2018, the Ministry of Justice published a draft Implementation Rules for Private Education Law, or the draft Implementation Rules, for review. The draft Implementation Rules, among other things, provide that entities implementing group-based education shall not control non-profit schools by merger, acquisition, franchise or contractual arrangements. The draft Implementation Rules also provide that transactions among private schools and their affiliates shall be fair and open to public. For those agreements entered into by non-profit schools and their affiliates which is long-term or involving important interests or repeated performance, the educational authorities shall audit the necessity, legitimacy and legal compliance of such agreements. Such requirements, if remained in the final version and signed into law, may challenge the validity and enforceability of our VIE Contractual Arrangements.

If the corporate structure and contractual arrangements through which we conduct our business in China are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or such arrangements are determined as illegal and invalid by PRC courts, arbitration tribunals or regulatory authorities, or if we fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, we would be subject to potential actions by the relevant PRC regulatory authorities with broad discretion, which actions could include:

revoke our business and operating licenses;
require us to discontinue or restrict our operations;
limit our business expansion in China by way of entering into contractual arrangements;
restrict our right to collect revenues or impose fines;
block our websites;
require us to restructure our operations in such a way as to compel us to establish a new enterprise, re-apply for the necessary licenses or relocate our businesses, staff and assets;
impose additional conditions or requirements with which we may not be able to comply; or
take other regulatory or enforcement actions against us that could be harmful to our business.

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Any of these actions could cause significant disruption to our business operations and severely damage our reputation, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If any of these actions results in our inability to direct the activities of our Consolidated Affiliated Entities that most significantly impact their economic performance, and/or our failure to receive the economic benefits from our Consolidated Affiliated Entities, we may not be able to consolidate these entities in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. However, we do not believe that such actions would result in the liquidation or dissolution of our company, our wholly owned subsidiaries in China or our Consolidated Affiliated Entities.

We rely on the VIE Contractual Arrangements for our PRC operations, which may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct ownership.

We have relied and expect to continue to rely on the VIE Contractual Arrangements to operate our education business in China. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Organizational Structure—VIE Contractual Arrangements.” The VIE Contractual Arrangements may not be as effective in providing us with control over our Consolidated Affiliated Entities as direct ownership. If we had direct ownership of the Consolidated Affiliated Entities, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to effect changes in the board of directors of these entities, which in turn could effect changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management level. However, under the VIE Contractual Arrangements, we rely on the performance by our Consolidated Affiliated Entities and their respective shareholders of their obligations under the contracts to exercise control over and receive economic benefits from our Consolidated Affiliated Entities.

We have entered into equity pledge agreements with our VIEs and their respective shareholders to guarantee the performance of the obligations of our Consolidated Affiliated Entities under the exclusive business cooperation agreements they have entered into with us. Pursuant to the equity pledge agreements entered into by and among Xueersi Education, Xueersi Network, Xinxin Xiangrong, the shareholders of the above three companies and TAL Beijing, our wholly owned subsidiary, 100% equity interests of Xueersi Education, Xueersi Network and Xinxin Xiangrong have been pledged to TAL Beijing. Pursuant to the equity pledge agreement entered into by and among Lebai Information, Lebai Education and the sole shareholder of Lebai Education, 100% equity interests of Lebai Education has been pledged to Lebai Information. The pledge of the 100% registered capital of Xueersi Education, Xueersi Network as well as Xinxin Xiangrong to TAL Beijing, and the pledge of the 100% registered capital of Lebai Education to Lebai Information have been registered with the local branch of SAIC. The equity pledge agreements with the shareholders of the VIEs provide that the pledged equity interest shall constitute continuing security for any and all of the indebtedness, obligations and liabilities under all of the principal service agreements and the scope of pledge shall not be limited by the amount of the registered capital of the VIEs. However, it is possible that a PRC court may take the position that the amount listed on the equity pledge registration forms represents the full amount of the collateral that has been registered and perfected. If this is the case, the obligations that are supposed to be secured in the equity pledge agreements in excess of the amount listed on the equity pledge registration forms could be determined by the PRC court as unsecured debt, which takes last priority among creditors.

In addition, we have not entered into agreements with our VIEs that pledge the assets of our Consolidated Affiliated Entities for the benefit of us or our wholly owned subsidiaries. Consequently, the assets of our Consolidated Affiliated Entities are not secured on behalf of our wholly owned subsidiary, and the amounts owed by our Consolidated Affiliated Entities are not collateralized. As a result, if our Consolidated Affiliated Entities fail to pay any amount due to us under, or otherwise breach, the exclusive business service agreements, we will not be able to directly seize the assets of our Consolidated Affiliated Entities. If the nominee shareholders of the VIEs do not act in the best interests of us when conflicts of interest arise, or if they act in bad faith towards us, they may attempt to cause our Consolidated Affiliated Entities to transfer or encumber the assets of the Consolidated Affiliated Entities without our authorization. In such a scenario, we may choose to exercise our option under the call option agreements to demand the shareholders of the VIEs to transfer their respective equity interests in the VIEs to a PRC person designated by us, and we may need to resort to litigation in the PRC courts to effect such an equity interests transfer and prevent the transfer or encumbrance of the VIEs’ assets without our authorization. However, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability to enforce the VIE Contractual Arrangements. In the event we are unable to enforce the VIE Contractual Arrangements, we may not be able to have the power to direct the activities that most significantly affect the economic performance of our VIEs and their schools and subsidiaries, and our ability to conduct our business may be negatively affected, and we may not be able to consolidate the financial results of our VIEs and their schools and subsidiaries into our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

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Any failure by our VIEs or their respective shareholders to perform their obligations under the VIE Contractual Arrangements would have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

If our VIEs or any of their respective subsidiaries or schools or any of their respective shareholders fails to perform its obligations under the VIE Contractual Arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs and resources to enforce our rights under the contracts, and rely on legal remedies under the PRC law, including seeking specific performance or injunctive relief and claiming damages, which may not be effective. For example, if the shareholders of our VIEs were to refuse to transfer their equity interest in these entities to us or our designee when we exercise the call option pursuant to the VIE Contractual Arrangements, or if they were otherwise to act in bad faith toward us, we may have to take legal actions to compel them to perform their contractual obligations.

All the material agreements under the VIE Contractual Arrangements, which are summarized under “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Organizational Structure—VIE Contractual Arrangements,” are governed by PRC law and provide for the resolution of disputes under the agreements through arbitration in Beijing. Accordingly, these contracts would be interpreted in accordance with PRC law and any disputes would be resolved in accordance with PRC legal procedures. The legal system in China is not as developed as some other jurisdictions, such as the United States. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability to enforce the VIE Contractual Arrangements. Under PRC law, rulings by arbitrators are final, parties cannot appeal the arbitration results in courts, and the prevailing parties may only enforce the arbitration awards in PRC courts through arbitration award recognition proceedings, which would incur additional expenses and delay. In the event we are unable to enforce the VIE Contractual Arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over our Consolidated Affiliated Entities, and our ability to conduct our business may be negatively affected.

The legal owners of our VIEs may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.

The four legal owners of Xueersi Education and Xueersi Network are Mr. Bangxin Zhang, Mr. Yachao Liu, Mr. Yunfeng Bai and Mr. Yundong Cao, and the three legal owners of Xinxin Xiangrong are Mr. Zhang, Mr. Liu and Mr. Bai, and the sole legal owner of Lebai Education is Xueersi Education. Mr. Zhang, Mr. Liu and Mr. Bai are shareholders and directors or officers of TAL Education Group. The interests of Mr. Zhang, Mr. Liu, Mr. Bai and Mr. Cao as beneficial owners of the VIEs may differ from the interests of our company as a whole, since these parties’ respective equity interests in the VIEs may conflict with their respective equity interests in our company.

We cannot assure you that when conflicts of interest arise, any or all of these individuals will act in the best interests of our company or such conflicts will be resolved in our favor. In addition, these individuals may breach, or cause our Consolidated Affiliated Entities to breach, or refuse to renew, the existing VIE Contractual Arrangements. In June 2013, we entered into a deed of undertaking with Mr. Zhang, which prevents Mr. Zhang from using his majority voting power to remove, replace or appoint any of our directors, and from casting any votes he has as our director or shareholder on any resolutions or matters concerning the deed itself. The deed is irrevocable, and applies to any and all periods during which Mr. Zhang beneficially owns share representing more than 50% of the aggregate voting power of our then total issued and outstanding shares. However, there can be no assurance that such arrangement is sufficient to address potential conflicts of interests Mr. Zhang may encounter. Other than this deed of undertaking we have entered into with Mr. Zhang, we currently do not have any arrangements to address potential conflicts of interest Mr. Zhang, Mr. Liu and Mr. Bai may encounter in their capacity as direct or indirect nominee shareholders of the VIEs (and, as applicable, as directors of the VIEs), on the one hand, and as beneficial owners of our company (and, as applicable, director and/or officers of our company), on the other hand. To a large extent, we rely on the legal owners of the VIEs to abide by the laws of the Cayman Islands and China, which provide that directors and officers owe a fiduciary duty to our company that requires them to act in good faith and in the best interests of our company and not to use their positions for personal gains. If we cannot resolve any conflict of interest or dispute between us and these individuals, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.

If the custodians or authorized users of our controlling non-tangible assets, including chops and seals, fail to fulfill their responsibilities, or misappropriate or misuse these assets, our business and operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Under PRC law, legal documents for corporate transactions, including agreements and contracts such as the leases and sales contracts that our business relies on, are executed using the chop or seal of the signing entity or with the signature of a legal representative whose designation is registered and filed with the relevant local branch of the SAIC. We generally execute legal documents by affixing chops or seals, rather than having the designated legal representatives sign the documents.

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We have three major types of chops-corporate chops, contract chops and finance chops. We use corporate chops generally for documents to be submitted to government agencies, such as applications for changing business scope, directors or company name, and for legal letters. We use corporate chops or contract chops for executing leases and commercial contracts. We use finance chops generally for making and collecting payments, including, but not limited to issuing invoices. Use of chops must be approved by the responsible departments and follow our internal procedure. Although we usually utilize chops to execute contracts, the registered legal representatives of our PRC subsidiaries, VIEs and their schools and subsidiaries have the apparent authority to enter into contracts on behalf of such entities without chops.

In order to maintain the physical security of our chops, we generally have them stored in secured locations accessible only to authorized employees. Our designated legal representatives generally do not have access to the chops. Although we monitor such employees and the designated legal representatives, the procedures may not be sufficient to prevent all instances of abuse or negligence. There is a risk that our employees or designated legal representatives could abuse their authority, for example, by binding the relevant subsidiary or Consolidated Affiliated Entity with contracts against our interests, as we would be obligated to honor these contracts if the other contracting party acts in good faith in reliance on the apparent authority of our chops or signatures of our legal representatives. If any designated legal representative obtains control of the chop in an effort to obtain control over the relevant entity, we would need to have a shareholder or board resolution to designate a new legal representative and to take legal action to seek the return of the chop, apply for a new chop with the relevant authorities, or otherwise seek legal remedies for the legal representative’s violation of the duties to us.

If any of the authorized employees or designated legal representatives obtain and misuse or misappropriate our chops and seals or other controlling intangible assets for whatever reason, we could experience disruption to our normal business operations. We may have to take corporate or legal action, which could involve significant time and resources to resolve while distracting management from our operations.

Our Consolidated Affiliated Entities may be subject to significant limitations on their ability to operate private schools or make payments to related parties, or otherwise be materially and adversely affected by changes in PRC laws governing private education providers.

The principal regulations governing private education in China are The Private Education Law, or Private Education Law, and The Implementation Rules for Private Education Law, or Implementation Rules. Before September 1, 2017, under the Private Education Law and Implementation Rules, a private school may elect to be a school that does not require reasonable returns or a school that requires reasonable returns. At the end of each fiscal year, every private school is required to allocate a certain amount to its development fund for the construction or maintenance of the school or procurement or upgrade of educational equipment. In the case of a private school that requires reasonable returns, this amount shall be no less than 25% of the annual net income of the school, while in the case of a private school that does not require reasonable returns, this amount shall be equivalent to no less than 25% of the annual increase in the net assets of the school, if any. A private school that requires reasonable returns must publicly disclose such election and additional information required under the regulations. A private school shall consider factors such as the school’s tuition, ratio of the funds used for education-related activities to the course fees collected, admission standards and educational quality when determining the percentage of the school’s net income that would be distributed to the investors as reasonable returns. However, none of the current PRC laws and regulations provides a formula or guidelines for determining “reasonable returns.” In addition, none of the current PRC laws and regulations sets forth clear requirements or restrictions on a private school’s ability to operate its education business based on such school’s status as one that does or does not require reasonable returns.

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On November 7, 2016, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress amended the Private Education Law, or the Amended Private Education Law, which took effect on September 1, 2017. Under the Amended Private Education Law, the term “reasonable return” is no longer used, and sponsors of private school may choose to establish non-profit or for-profit private schools at their own discretion. Sponsors of for-profit private schools are entitled to retain the profits from their schools and the operating surplus may be allocated to the sponsors pursuant to the PRC Company Law and other relevant laws and regulations. Sponsors of non-profit private schools are not entitled to any distribution of profits from their schools and all revenue must be used for the operation of the schools. If a pre-existing private school chooses to register as a non-profit school, it shall amend its articles of association, continue its operation and complete the new registration process. If a pre-existing private school chooses to register as a for-profit school, it shall conduct financial liquidation process, have the property rights of its assets such as lands, school buildings and net balance being authenticated by relevant government authorities, pay up relevant taxes, apply for a new Permit for Operating a Private School, re-register as for-profit schools and continue its operation. Specific provisions regarding the above registration process shall be introduced by governments at the provincial level. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—The Private Education Law and the Implementation Rules for Private Education Law.”

We intend to register our pre-existing private schools as for-profit schools. However, as of the date of this annual report, only certain local governments, for example, Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Zhejiang Province, Hainan Province, Ningxia Province, have promulgated specific measures for registration of pre-existing private schools. And even for those places where specific measures for registration of pre-existing private schools have been promulgated, some local government authorities in practice have not started to accept application for registration of pre-existing private schools as for-profit schools. Therefore, we cannot assure you that our pre-existing private schools can all apply for and complete registration as for-profit schools in a timely manner or at all. And as measures for registration of pre-existing private schools in most provinces are yet to be introduced, we also cannot assure you whether there will be other risks associated with such registration.

Moreover, as of the date of this annual report, the implementation rules for the Amended Private Education Law or the relevant regulations adopted by competent government authorities in certain provinces have not been promulgated. It remains uncertain how the Amended Private Education Law will be interpreted and implemented and impact our business operations. There is no assurance that we will be able to operate our business in full compliance with the Amended Private Education Law or any relevant regulations in a timely manner or at all. Should we fail to fully comply with the Amended Private Education Law or any relevant regulations as interpreted by the relevant government authorities, we may be subject to administrative fines or penalties, an order to suspend the operation and refund the tuition fee or other negative consequences which could materially and adversely affect our brand name and reputation, and our business, financial condition and results of operations. As a holding company, we rely on dividends and other distributions from our PRC subsidiaries, including TAL Beijing and Lebai Information. TAL Beijing, Lebai Information and their designated affiliates are entitled to receive service fees from the schools according to the relevant exclusive business cooperation agreements. We do not believe that TAL Beijing, Lebai Information and their designated affiliates’ right to receive the service fees from the schools will be affected by such elections, but if our judgment turns out to be incorrect, TAL Beijing, Lebai Information and our other PRC subsidiaries’ ability to make distributions or pay dividends to us may be materially and adversely impacted. If our schools choose to be non-profit private education entities, our contractual arrangements with such schools may be subject to more stringent scrutiny. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—If the PRC government determines that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our business in China are not in compliance with applicable PRC laws and regulations, we could be subject to severe penalties.”

The VIE Contractual Arrangements may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and a finding that we or our Consolidated Affiliated Entities owe additional taxes could substantially reduce our consolidated net income and the value of your investment.

Under PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities within ten years after the taxable year when the transactions are conducted. We could face material and adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that the VIE Contractual Arrangements do not represent an arm’s-length price and consequently adjust our Consolidated Affiliated Entities’ income in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment. A transfer pricing adjustment could, among other things, result in a reduction, for PRC tax purposes, of expense deductions recorded by our Consolidated Affiliated Entities, which could in turn increase their tax liabilities. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may impose late payment fees and other penalties to our Consolidated Affiliated Entities for unpaid taxes. Our consolidated net income may be materially and adversely affected if our Consolidated Affiliated Entities’ tax liabilities increase or if they are subject to late payment fees or other penalties.

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If any of our PRC subsidiaries or Consolidated Affiliated Entities becomes the subject of a bankruptcy or liquidation proceeding, we may lose the ability to use and enjoy certain important assets, which could reduce the size of our operations and materially and adversely affect our business, ability to generate revenue and the market price of our ADSs.

We currently conduct our operations in China mainly through the VIE Contractual Arrangements. As part of these arrangements, our Consolidated Affiliated Entities hold operating permits and licenses and some of the assets that are important to the operation of our business. If any of these entities goes bankrupt and all or part of their assets become subject to liens or rights of third-party creditors, we may be unable to continue some or all of our business activities, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We do not have priority pledges and liens against the assets of our Consolidated Affiliated Entities. As a contractual and property right matter, this lack of priority pledges and liens has remote risks. If any of our Consolidated Affiliated Entities undergoes an involuntary liquidation proceeding, third-party creditors may claim rights to some or all of its assets and we may not have priority against such third-party creditors on the assets. If any of our Consolidated Affiliated Entities liquidates, we may take part in the liquidation procedures as a general creditor under the PRC Enterprise Bankruptcy Law and recover any outstanding liabilities owed by the entity to our PRC subsidiaries under the applicable service agreements.

In the event that the shareholders of any of our VIEs initiates a voluntary liquidation proceeding without our authorization or attempts to distribute the retained earnings or assets of the relevant VIE without our prior consent, we may need to resort to legal proceedings to enforce the terms of the VIE Contractual Arrangements. Any such litigation may be costly and may divert our management’s time and attention away from the operation of our business, and the outcome of such litigation would be uncertain.

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could have a material adverse effect on us.

The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike the common law system, prior court decisions in a civil law system may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. Since 1979, PRC legislation and regulations have significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investments in China. However, since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always consistent, and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involve uncertainties, which may limit the available legal protections. In addition, the PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing or enforcing statutory rules and contractual terms, and it may be more difficult to predict the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we may enjoy in China than under some more developed legal systems. These uncertainties may affect our judgment on the relevance of legal requirements and our decisions on the measures and actions to be taken to fully comply therewith and may affect our ability to enforce our contractual or tort rights. In addition, the regulatory uncertainties may be exploited through unmerited legal actions or threats in an attempt to extract payments or benefits from us. Such uncertainties may therefore increase our operating expenses and costs, and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

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Uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the newly enacted Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

On March 15, 2019, the National People’s Congress promulgated the Foreign Investment Law, which came into effect on January 1, 2020 and replaced the trio of existing laws regulating foreign investment in China, namely, the Sino-foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law, the Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law and the Wholly Foreign-invested Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. On December 26, 2019, the State Council published the Implementation Rules of Foreign Investment Law, which came into effect on January 1, 2020. The Foreign Investment Law and its Implementation Rules embody an expected PRC regulatory trend to rationalize its foreign investment regulatory regime in line with prevailing international practice and the legislative efforts to unify the corporate legal requirements for both foreign and domestic investments. The enacted Foreign Investment Law or its Implementation Rules do not mention concepts such as “actual control” and “controlling PRC companies by contracts or trusts” that were included in the previous drafts, nor did it specify regulation on controlling through contractual arrangements, and thus this regulatory topic remains unclear under the Foreign Investment Law. However, since it is relatively new, uncertainties still exist in relation to its interpretation and implementation. For instance, though the Foreign Investment Law or its Implementation Rules do not explicitly classify contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment, it contains a catch-all provision under the definition of “foreign investment,” which includes investments made by foreign investors in China through means stipulated in laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council. Therefore, it still leaves leeway for future laws, administrative regulations or provisions promulgated by the State Council to provide for contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment. Furthermore, if future laws, administrative regulations or provisions prescribed by the State Council mandate further actions to be taken by companies with respect to existing contractual arrangements, such as unwinding our existing contractual arrangements and/or disposal of our related business operations, we may face substantial uncertainties as to whether we can complete such actions in a timely manner, or at all. Failure to take timely and appropriate measures to cope with any of these or similar regulatory compliance challenges could materially and adversely affect our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.

Uncertainties with respect to PRC regulatory restrictions on after-school services could have a material adverse effect on us.

Under the regime of the Law on the Promotion of Private Education of China, the PRC government authorities have promulgated a number of regulations and implementation rules in 2018 governing the education industry and the after-school tutoring service market, including the Circular 3, the State Council Opinions 80, as well as Circular 10. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulations—Circular on Special Enforcement Campaign concerning After-school Tutoring Institutions to Alleviate Extracurricular Burden on Students of Primary and Secondary Schools” and “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulations—Opinions on Regulating Development of After-school Tutoring Institutions” for more details.

These new regulations and implementation rules provide a series of requirements in the operation of after-school tutoring business, which include that, among others: (1) key course information, including subjects, course schedules and course syllabi, for school academic subjects courses, shall be filed with the local education administration authorities and be made publicly available; (2) the progress of the courses shall not surpass the same-period progress of local primary schools and secondary schools, and advanced trainings that do not follow the formal school curricula for the students in primary school and secondary school are prohibited; (3) training classes shall not be scheduled in conflict with the regular schooling time in local primary schools and secondary schools; (4) tutoring activities shall end before 8:30 p.m.; (5) homework shall not be assigned; (6) scored examination, competition or ranking in connection with the courses of primary schools or secondary schools shall not be arranged; (7) tuition fees for a period spanning more than three months should not be collected at one time; (8) no fees other than those that have been made public and no compulsory fund-raising in any name may be made against the students; (9) student safety insurance shall be purchased by the after-school tutoring institutions; (10) teaching staff who teach Chinese, mathematics, foreign language, physics, chemistry and other subjects in the compulsory education stage as well as the academic subjects related to the entering of a higher school and their extension training shall have the requisite teacher qualifications; (11) online education institutions shall also make their teachers’ name, photograph, teaching classes and teaching qualification number public at prominent location on their home page.

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We have been making efforts to ensure compliance with these regulations and implementation rules but there is no assurance that our operations comply with all applicable regulations in a timely manner due to various factors beyond our control. In particular, certain regulations and implementation provides new requirements and PRC government authorities have significant amount of discretion in interpreting, implementing and enforcing rules and regulations. If we fail to comply with the applicable legal requirements concerning the operation of after-school tutoring business in a timely manner, the relevant learning centers may be subject to the order of rectification, fines, confiscation of the gains derived from noncompliant operations or the suspension of noncompliant operations, which may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

In addition, uncertainties still exist as the competent authorities may set more specific and stringent operation requirements for after-school tutoring institutions. We may be unable to meet such requirements in a prompt manner or incur additional costs in complying with such requirements, which may adversely affect our business, financial conditions and results of operations.

Regulation and censorship of information disseminated over the internet in China may adversely affect our business and reputation and subject us to liability for information displayed on our websites.

The PRC government has adopted regulations governing internet access and the distribution of news and other information over the internet. Under these regulations, internet content providers and internet publishers are prohibited from posting or displaying over the internet content that, among other things, violates PRC laws and regulations, impairs the national dignity of China, or is reactionary, obscene, superstitious, fraudulent or defamatory. Failure to comply with these requirements may result in, and has previously resulted in, the revocation of licenses to provide internet content and other licenses, and the closure of the concerned websites. The website operator may also be held liable for such censored information displayed on or linked to the websites. If any of our websites, including those used for our online education business, are found to be in violation of any such requirements, we may be penalized by relevant authorities, and our operations or reputation could be adversely affected.

Failure to comply with governmental regulation and other legal obligations concerning personal information may adversely affect our business, as we routinely collect, store and use personal information.

We routinely collect, store and use personal information during the ordinary course of our business. We are subject to PRC laws and regulations governing the receiving, storing, sharing, using, processing, disclosure and protection of personal information on the internet and mobile platforms. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—Laws of Protection of Personal Information of Citizen.” The scope of these laws and regulations is evolving and further detailed implementation rules and interpretations may be promulgated. It is possible that these obligations may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices. In addition, the Office of the Central Cyberspace Affairs Commission, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Public Security, and the State Administration for Market Regulation jointly issued an announcement on January 23, 2019 regarding carrying out special campaigns against mobile internet application programs collecting and using personal information in violation of applicable laws and regulations, which prohibits business operators from collecting personal information irrelevant to their services, or forcing users to give authorization in disguised manner. As this announcement is relatively new, we cannot assure you we can adapt our operations to it in a timely manner. If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we may be penalized by relevant authorities and be subject to litigation or negative publicity against us by consumer advocacy groups or others, and our operations or reputation could be adversely affected.

We are required to obtain various operating licenses and permits and to make registrations and filings for our tutoring services in China; failure to comply with these requirements may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We are required to obtain and maintain various licenses and permits and fulfill registration and filing requirements in order to operate our tutoring service business. For instance, a duly approved private school will be granted a Permit for Operating a Private School, and shall be registered with the Ministry of Civil Affairs or its local branches as a non-profit school or registered with the relevant local branch of the SAIC as a for-profit school. In addition, pursuant to the State Council Opinions 80 and relevant RPC laws and regulations, opening branches or learning centers by any after-school tutoring institution shall also be subject to registration or filing requirements. As of February 29, 2020, certain of our learning centers had not completed filing requirements for permits or registrations, which in the aggregate accounted for an immaterial portion of our total net revenues for the fiscal year ended February 29, 2020.

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We are in the process of preparing filings and applying for permits for these learning centers in accordance with the State Council Opinions 80 and relevant PRC laws and regulations but do not expect to complete all such filings and obtain all such permits in the near term. We are also considering other potential locations for certain learning centers we may have difficulty to obtain permits. We have been taking steps to meet these requirements, but there is no assurance that our efforts will result in full compliance given the significant amount of discretion PRC government authorities have in interpreting, implementing and enforcing rules and regulations and due to other factors beyond our control. However, if we fail to obtain or maintain requisite licenses and permits or fulfill requisite registration and filing requirements to operate our after-school tutoring business, including any failure to cure non-compliance in a timely manner, we may be subject to fines, confiscation of the gains derived from non-compliant operations or the suspension of non-compliant operations, which may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We face risks and uncertainties with respect to our online education business.

We deliver certain tutoring services through our online course offerings.

The MOE, jointly with certain other PRC government authorities, promulgated the Implementation Opinions on Regulating Online After-School Tutoring, or the Online After-School Tutoring Opinions, effective on July 12, 2019. The Online After-School Tutoring Opinions are intended to regulate academic after-school training involving internet technology provided to students in primary and secondary schools. Among other things, the Online After-School Tutoring Opinions require that online after-school training institutions shall file with the competent provincial education regulatory authorities before October 31, 2019 and that such education regulatory authorities shall, jointly with other provincial government authorities, review such filings and the qualifications of the online after-school training institutions submitting such filings. The Online After-School Tutoring Opinions also impose a series of new regulatory requirements, including (i) each class shall not last longer than 40 minutes and shall be taken at intervals of not less than 10 minutes; (ii) live streaming courses provided to students receiving compulsory education shall not end later than 9:00 p.m.; (iii) where fees are charged based on the number of classes, fees are not allowed to be collected in a lump sum for more than 60 classes, and where fees are charged based on the length of the course, the fees shall not be collected for a course length of more than three months; and (iv) instructors are required to obtain the necessary teacher qualification licenses. According to the Online After-School Tutoring Opinions, provincial education regulatory authorities shall promulgate local implementing rules regarding the above-mentioned filing requirements. For details, see “Item 4. Information on the Company-B. Business Overview-PRC Regulation- Regulations on Online and Distance Education.” Moreover, the MOE, jointly with certain other PRC government authorities, issued the Opinions on Guiding and Regulating the Orderly and Healthy Development of Educational Mobile Apps on August 10, 2019, or the Opinions on Educational Apps, which requires, among others, mobile apps that offer services for school teaching and management, student learning and student life, or home-school interactions, with school faculty, students or parents as the main users, and with education or learning as the main application scenarios, be filed with the competent provincial regulatory authorities for education before the end of 2019. See “Item 4. Information on the Company-B. Business Overview-PRC Regulation- Regulations on Educational Applications (Apps).”

We are making efforts to comply with the Online After-School Tutoring Opinions and the Opinions on Educational Apps. As the Online After-School Tutoring Opinions and the Opinions on Educational Apps were newly promulgated, we cannot assure you that we will complete such filing and comply with other regulatory requirements under the Online After-School Tutoring Opinions, the Opinions on Educational Apps and their related local rules in a timely manner, or at all. If we fail to promptly complete such filing and comply with other applicable regulatory requirements, we may be subject to fines, regulatory orders to suspend our operations or other regulatory and disciplinary sanctions, which may materially and adversely affect our online education business and results of operations.

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Besides, in relation to our online education business, we may be deemed to provide certain services or conduct certain activities and thus be subject to a wide range of licenses, approvals, permits, registrations and filings due to the lack of official interpretations of certain terms under internet related PRC regulations and laws, and we cannot assure you that we have obtained all of them or will continue to maintain or renew all of them. For example, due to the ambiguity of the definition of “online publishing service,” the online distribution of content, including our course materials, through our mobile apps, may be regarded as an “online publishing service” and therefore we may be required to obtain an Online Publishing License. Also, we deliver certain courses in live-streaming format which the relevant authorities may regard as a live-streaming platform and may thus require us to make necessary filings as a live-streaming platform. Moreover, any of our Consolidated Affiliated Entities that provide online course services are required to obtain an ICP license from the appropriate telecommunications authorities or otherwise register each and all of their websites, on which we provide online courses, in the existing and effective ICP licenses held by the relevant Consolidated Affiliated Entities. If any of such entities fail to obtain the ICP license or complete the required registration in a prompt manner, we may become subject to rectification order, significant penalties, fines, legal sanctions or an order of closing our relevant websites.

In addition, uncertainties still exist as new laws and regulations, including without limitation the amended Implementation Rules, may set more specific and stringent requirements for online educational institutions, such as requiring online educational institutions to obtain Permit for Operating a Private School. We may be unable to comply with such new laws and regulations in a prompt manner or incur additional costs in complying with relevant requirements, which may adversely affect our business, financial conditions and results of operations. Meanwhile, there can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain our existing licenses, approvals, registrations or permits necessary to provide our current online services in China, renew any of them when their current term expires, or update existing licenses or obtain additional licenses, approvals, permits, registrations or filings necessary for our business expansion from time to time. If we fail to do so, our business, financial condition and operational results may be materially and adversely affected.

We face risks and uncertainties in printing and providing teaching handouts and other materials to our students.

Our certain wholly owned subsidiaries and Consolidated Affiliated Entities engage in printing and providing teaching handouts and other materials to our students. According to the Administrative Regulations on Publication, any entity engaging in the activities of publishing, printing, copying, importation or distribution of publications, shall obtain relevant permits of publishing, printing, copying, importation or distribution of publications. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulations—Regulations on Publishing and Distribution of Publications.” Under the new regulation, it is uncertain whether printing and providing teaching handouts and other materials to our students would be deemed publishing activities. If the General Administration of Press and Publication or its local branches or other competent authorities deem such activities as publishing, we may become subject to significant penalties, fines, legal sanctions or an order suspending our printing and provision of teaching handouts and other materials to our students.

If the relevant PRC regulatory authorities subsequently determine that personalized premium services must be operated through schools or for-profit training institutions that meet certain legal requirements, our personalized premium services business would be exposed to increased risks, which may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Some of the personalized premium services we offer in Beijing are offered through Beijing Huanqiu Zhikang Shidai Education Consulting Co., Ltd., or Huanqiu Zhikang, and Zhixuesi Education Consulting (Beijing) Co., Ltd., or Zhixuesi Beijing, both of which are our wholly owned foreign-invested companies under PRC laws. Huanqiu Zhikang and Zhixuesi Beijing together with their branches have obtained business licenses from the Beijing branch of the SAIC but neither of them have obtained Permit for Operating a Private School. In addition, in cities other than Beijing, some of the subsidiaries of our VIEs in the form of limited liability companies engaging in the personalized premium services have not obtained Permit for Operating a Private School, as required by the Private Education Law. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—The Law for Private Education Law and the Implementation Rules for Private Education Law.”

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We have been making efforts to apply for the Permit for Operating a Private School for our wholly owned subsidiaries and the subsidiaries of VIEs that engage in personalized premium services but have not obtained such permit. We may not be able to obtain the Permit for Operating a Private School in a timely manner given that the relevant local authorities may have not promulgated the implementing rules and guidelines for applications of such permit and that the local authorities may further set more specific and stringent operation requirements for applying such permit. If we fail to obtain Permits for Operating a Private School for the entities engaging in personalized premium services, the relevant entities may be subject to fines, confiscation of the gains derived from noncompliant operations or the suspension of noncompliant operations, which may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Adverse changes in economic and political policies of the PRC government could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China, which could adversely affect our business.

Substantially all of our business operations are conducted in China. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects are affected significantly by economic, political and legal developments in China. The economy in China differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the degree of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and currency conversion, access to financing and allocation of resources.

The PRC government has implemented various measures to encourage economic development and guide the allocation of resources. While some of these measures benefit the overall PRC economy, they may also have a negative effect on us. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments, conversion of foreign exchange into Renminbi or changes in tax regulations and practices that are applicable to us. In addition, future actions or policies of the PRC government to control the pace of economic growth may cause a decrease in the level of economic activity in China, which in turn could materially affect our liquidity and access to capital and our ability to operate our business.

In addition, the changes in the policies regarding the control of foreign exchange could adversely affect our business. In 2016, PRC government has implemented various measures and policies regarding strengthening the management and supervision control of foreign control in both capital item and current item, which resulted in extension of time in the filing, registration and approval procedures of local branches and authorized banks in foreign control activities, and could result in delayed payment of salary to foreign employees by our subsidiaries and subsidiaries of our VIEs. The continued policies regarding strengthening the management and supervision control of foreign control could adversely affect our business development.

A severe or prolonged downturn in the global or PRC economy could materially and adversely affect our business and our financial condition.

The global macroeconomic environment is facing challenges, including the end of quantitative easing by the U.S. Federal Reserve, the economic slowdown in the Eurozone since 2014 and the uncertain impact of “Brexit.” The PRC economy has shown slower growth compared to the previous decade since 2012 and such slowdown may continue. There is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States and China. There have been concerns over unrest and terrorist threats in the Middle East, Europe and Africa, which have resulted in volatility in oil and other markets. There have also been concerns on the relationship between China and other countries, including the surrounding Asian countries, which may potentially result in economic effects such as foreign investors exiting the China market and other economic effects. Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions, as well as changes in domestic economic and political policies and the expected or perceived overall economic growth rate in China. The ongoing trade war between China and the United States and its potential escalation may have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets, and they may significantly reduce global trade and, in particular, trade between China and the United States. Any severe or prolonged slowdown in the global or PRC economy may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, continued turbulence in the international markets may adversely affect our ability to access capital markets to meet liquidity needs.

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Increases in labor costs in China may adversely affect our business and our profitability.

The economy of China has been experiencing increases in labor costs in recent years. The overall economy and the average wage in China are expected to continue to grow. The average wage level for our employees has increased in recent years. In addition, we are required by PRC laws and regulations to pay various statutory employee benefits, including pensions, housing fund, medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and childbearing insurance to designated government agencies for the benefit of our employees. It is up to the relevant government agencies to determine whether an employer has made adequate payments of the requisite statutory employee benefits, and those employers who fail to make adequate payments may be subject to late payment fees, fines and/or other penalties. We expect that our labor costs, including wages and employee benefits, will continue to increase. Unless we are able to pass on these increased labor costs to our students by increasing prices for our services or improving the utilization of our teachers and our staff, our profitability and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

We may rely on dividends paid by our subsidiaries for our cash needs, and any limitation on the ability of our subsidiaries to make payments to us could limit our ability to pay dividends to holders of our ADSs and common shares.

We are a holding company and conduct substantially all of our business through our operating subsidiaries and Consolidated Affiliated Entities. We may rely on dividends paid by our subsidiaries for our cash needs, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders, to service any debt we may incur and to pay our operating expenses. The payment of dividends by entities organized in China is subject to limitations. In particular, regulations in China currently permit payment of dividends only out of accumulated profits as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. PRC companies are also required to set aside at least 10% of their after-tax profit based on PRC accounting standards each year to their statutory surplus reserves until the accumulative amount of such reserves reaches 50% of their registered capital. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. Furthermore, if our subsidiaries and Consolidated Affiliated Entities in China incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other payments to us. The PRC tax authorities may require us to adjust our taxable income under the contractual arrangements we currently have in place in a manner that would materially and adversely affect our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends and other distributions to us. In addition, PRC companies may allocate a portion of their after-tax profit to their staff welfare and bonus fund at the discretion of their boards of directors. Our PRC subsidiaries and Consolidated Affiliated Entities historically have not allocated any of their after-tax profits to staff welfare and bonus funds, since there is no legal requirement to do so, but they may nevertheless decide to set aside such funds in the future. There is no maximum amount of after-tax profit that a company may contribute to such funds. Moreover, each of our affiliated schools is required to allocate certain amount of profits to its development fund for the construction or maintenance of school facilities or procurement or upgrade of educational equipment at the end of each fiscal year. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—Regulations on Private Education—The Private Education Law and the Implementation Rules for Private Education Law” for a discussion on the requirements for private schools to make allocations to school development funds. Any direct or indirect limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to distribute dividends and other distributions to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to make investments or acquisitions at the holding company level, pay dividends or otherwise fund and conduct our business.

PRC laws and regulations may limit the use of the proceeds we received from our financing activities for our investment or operations in China.

In utilizing the proceeds we received from our financing activities as an offshore holding company with PRC subsidiaries, we may (i) make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, (ii) establish new PRC subsidiaries and make capital contributions to these new PRC subsidiaries, (iii) make loans to our PRC subsidiaries or our VIEs, or (iv) acquire offshore entities with business operations in China in an offshore transaction. However, most of these uses are subject to PRC regulations and approvals. For example:

capital contributions to our subsidiaries in China, whether existing ones or newly established ones, provided that the PRC subsidiaries completes the relevant filing and reporting procedures and register with the local bank authorized by State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE;
loans by us to our subsidiaries in China, each of which is a foreign-invested enterprise, to finance their activities cannot exceed statutory limits and must be registered with local branches of SAFE; and

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loans by us to our Consolidated Affiliated Entities, which are domestic PRC entities, must be registered with the National Development and Reform Commission and must also be registered with SAFE or its local branches.

In addition, SAFE promulgated a notice regulating the conversion by a foreign-invested company of its capital contribution in foreign currency into Renminbi, or SAFE Circular 142, which requires that Renminbi converted from foreign currency-denominated capital of a foreign-invested enterprise may only be used for purposes within the business scope approved by the relevant government authority in charge of foreign investment or by other competent authorities and as registered with the local branch of the SAIC and, unless set forth in the business scope or in other regulations and may not be used to make equity investments in China, unless specifically provided otherwise. Moreover, the approved use of such RMB funds may not be changed without approval from SAFE. RMB funds converted from foreign exchange may not be used to repay loans in RMB if the proceeds of such loans have not yet been used. Any violation of SAFE Circular 142 may result in severe penalties, including substantial fines. We expect that if we convert the net proceeds from offshore offerings into Renminbi pursuant to SAFE Circular 142, our use of RMB funds will be for purposes within the approved business scope of our PRC subsidiaries. However, we may not be able to use such RMB funds to make equity investments in China through our PRC subsidiaries. SAFE promulgated the Notice on Reforming the Management Method relating to Conversion of the Capital Contribution of Foreign Invested Company from Foreign Exchange to Renminbi, or SAFE Circular 19, effective June 2015, which abolished SAFE Circular 142, but the foregoing rules have been retained in SAFE Circular 19. SAFE promulgated the Notice on Further Simplifying and Improving the Policies of Foreign Exchange Administration Applicable to Direct Investment, or SAFE Circular 13, effective June 2015. Pursuant to SAFE Circular 13, annual foreign exchange inspection of direct investment is not required anymore and the registration of existing equity is required. SAFE Circular 13 also grants the authority to banks to examine and process foreign exchange registration with respect to both domestic and offshore direct investment. SAFE issued the Circular on Reforming and Regulating Policies on the Control over Foreign Exchange Settlement of Capital Accounts, or SAFE Circular 16, effective June 9, 2016. Pursuant to SAFE Circular 16, enterprises registered in China may also convert their foreign debts from foreign currency to Renminbi on a self-discretionary basis. SAFE Circular 16 provides an integrated standard for conversion of foreign exchange under capital account items (including but not limited to foreign currency capital and foreign debts) on a self-discretionary basis which applies to all enterprises registered in China. SAFE Circular 16 reiterates the principle that Renminbi converted from foreign currency-denominated capital of a company may not be directly or indirectly used for purposes beyond its business scope or prohibited by PRC laws or regulations, while such converted Renminbi shall not be provided as loans to its non-affiliated entities.

We expect that PRC laws and regulations may continue to limit our use of proceeds from offshore offerings. There are no costs associated with registering loans or capital contributions with relevant PRC government authorities, other than nominal processing charges. Under PRC laws and regulations, the PRC government authorities are required to process such approvals or registrations or deny our application within a prescribed period which is usually less than 90 days. The actual time taken, however, may be longer due to administrative delay. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain these government registrations or approvals on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to our future plans to use the U.S. dollar proceeds we receive from offshore offerings for our investment and operations in China. If we fail to receive such registrations or approvals, our ability to use the proceeds of offshore offerings and to capitalize our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and ability to fund and expand our business.

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PRC regulations relating to the establishment of offshore special purpose companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC resident beneficial owners to personal liability and limit our ability to acquire PRC companies or to inject capital into our PRC subsidiary, limit our PRC subsidiary’s ability to distribute profits to us, or otherwise materially and adversely affect us.

The Notice on Issues Relating to the Administration of Foreign Exchange in Fund-Raising and Round-Trip Investment Activities of Domestic Residents Conducted via Offshore Special Purpose Companies, or SAFE Circular 75, requires PRC residents to register with the relevant local branch of SAFE before establishing or controlling any company outside China, referred to as an offshore special purpose company, for the purpose of raising funds from overseas to acquire or exchange the assets of, or acquiring equity interests in, PRC entities held by such PRC residents and to update such registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to that offshore company. SAFE promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents’ Offshore Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37, in July 2014, which replaced SAFE Circular 75. SAFE Circular 37 requires PRC residents to register with local branches of SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents’ legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, referred to in SAFE Circular 37 as a “special purpose vehicle.” The term “control” under SAFE Circular 37 is broadly defined as the operation rights, beneficiary rights or decision-making rights acquired by the PRC residents in the offshore special purpose vehicles by such means as acquisition, trust, proxy, voting rights, repurchase, convertible bonds or other arrangements. SAFE Circular 37 further requires amendment to the registration in the event of any changes with respect to the basic information of the special purpose vehicle, such as changes in a PRC resident individual shareholder, name or operation period; or any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC individuals, share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material event. If the shareholders of the offshore holding company who are PRC residents do not complete their registration with the local SAFE branches, the PRC subsidiaries may be prohibited from distributing their profits and proceeds from any reduction in capital, share transfer or liquidation to the offshore company, and the offshore company may be restricted in its ability to contribute additional capital to its PRC subsidiaries. Moreover, failure to comply with SAFE registration and amendment requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of applicable foreign exchange restrictions. Further, the National Development and Reform Commission, or NDRC, issued the Administrative Measures for Outbound Investment by Enterprises, or Circular 11, on December 26, 2017, which took effect on March 1, 2018, pursuant to which the outbound investment via the overseas enterprises controlled by PRC residents are subject to verification and approval, record-filing and reporting to the NDRC. Failure to comply with such verification and approval, record-filing and reporting requirements may subject such PRC Residents to personal liability. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—Administrative Measures for Outbound Investment by Enterprises” for more detail of Circular 11.

In June 2015, SAFE promulgated SAFE Circular 13, according to which, local banks authorized by the SAFE are the new registration authorities under the SAFE foreign exchange control policies, instead of the local SAFE branches, in order to simply the procedures of foreign exchange control related to direct investment. The SAFE will strengthen the training and supervision on banks to perform the foreign exchange control policy of direct investment. And therefore, pursuant to the SAFE Circular 13, the registration of PRC residents under SAFE Circular 37 should be conducted with local banks authorized by SAFE.

Our beneficial owners who are PRC residents immediately before our initial public offering had registered with the local branch of SAFE prior to our initial public offering in 2010. However, we may not at all times be fully aware or informed of the identities of all of our beneficial owners who are PRC citizens or residents, and we may not always be able to compel our beneficial owners to comply with rules and requirements of SAFE and NDRC; nor can we ensure you that their registrations, if they choose to apply, will be successful. The failure or inability of our PRC resident beneficial owners to make any required registrations or comply with these requirements may subject such beneficial owners to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into or provide loans to our PRC operations, limit our PRC subsidiary’s ability to pay dividends or otherwise distribute profits to us, or otherwise materially and adversely affect us.

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The M&A rules establish complex procedures for some acquisitions of PRC companies by foreign investors, and the NDRC Circular 11 establish certain procedures for our offshore investing activities, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in and outside China.

The MOFCOM, the State Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, the State Administration of Taxation, or the SAT, the SAIC, the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or CSRC, and SAFE jointly adopted regulations commonly referred to as the M&A Rules. The M&A Rules establish procedures and requirements that could make some acquisitions of PRC companies by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex, including requirements in some instances that the MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise. Further, pursuant to the Circular 11 issued by NDRC, outbound investment via the overseas enterprises controlled by PRC residents are subject to verification and approval, record-filing and reporting requirements to the NDRC. According to Circular 11, sensitive projects, such as outbound investment in real estate, hotels, news media, cinemas or sports club, carried out by overseas enterprises controlled by PRC residents shall obtain verification and approval from the NDRC prior to the implementation of the project. The non-sensitive projects carried out by the overseas enterprise directly controlled by PRC residents, including by means of making asset or equity investment, or providing financing or guarantee, shall complete record-filing with the competent authority prior to the implementation of the Project. The non-sensitive projects carried out by the overseas enterprise indirectly controlled by PRC residents with the investment amount over RMB0.3 billion shall be reported to the NDRC of relevant information by submitting an information reporting form for large-amount non-sensitive projects. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—Administrative Measures for Outbound Investment by Enterprises” for more detail of Circular 11. Through our dual-class share structure, Mr. Bangxin Zhang, a PRC citizen, possesses and controls 70.8% of the voting power of our company as of June 8, 2020, thus our investment outside China are subject to the abovementioned verification and approval, record-filing and reporting requirements to the NDRC under Circular 11.

We may expand our business in part by acquiring complementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of the M&A Rules and Circular 11 to complete such transactions could be time-consuming, and any required verification, approval, record-filing and reporting processes, including obtaining approval from the MOFCOM or NDRC, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

The discontinuation of any of the preferential tax treatments currently available to us in China could adversely affect our overall results of operations.

Pursuant to the EIT Law, as further clarified by subsequent tax regulations implementing the EIT Law, foreign-invested enterprises and domestic enterprises are subject to EIT at a uniform rate of 25%. Certain enterprises may benefit from a preferential tax rate of 15% for consecutive 3 years under the EIT Law if they qualify as “High and New Technology Enterprises” (“HNTE”). And certain enterprises qualified as “Newly Established Software Enterprise” are entitled to an income tax exemption for two calendar years, followed by reduced income tax at a rate of 12.5% for three calendar years. Both of these tax benefits are subject to certain requirements described in the EIT Law and the related regulations.

A number of our PRC subsidiaries and Consolidated Affiliated Entities, such as TAL Beijing, Yidu Huida Education Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd., or Yidu Huida, Beijing Xintang Sichuang Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Beijing Xintang Sichuang, Beijing Yizhen Xuesi Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Yizhen Xuesi, Beijing Yinghe Youshi Technology Co., Ltd., or Yinghe Youshi, Beijing Lebai Information Consulting Co., Ltd., or Lebai Information are, or are expected to be, entitled to applicable preferential tax treatment based on their status of qualified “HNTE” or “Newly Established Software Enterprise” and accordingly are entitled to applicable preferential tax treatment. Furthermore, Yidu Huida was entitled to preferential tax rate of 10% in 2016 , 2017 and 2018 due to its “Key Software Enterprise” status designated by the relevant government authorities. TAL Beijing and Beijing Xintang Sichuang was entitled to preferential tax rate of 10% in 2018 due to their "Key Software Enterprise" status designated by the relevant government authorities. For calendar year 2019, Yidu Huida, TAL Beijing and Beijing Xintang Sichuang applied for the qualification of Key Software Enterprise to enjoy the preferential tax rate of 10%. As of the date of this annual report, the filings are still being reviewed by the tax authorities. However, there can be no assurance that any of these entities will continue to enjoy the preferential tax rate as a “Key Software Enterprise.” See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—A. Operating Results—Taxation—PRC Enterprise Income Tax.”

The discontinuation of any of the above-mentioned preferential income tax treatments currently available to us in the PRC could have a material and adverse effect on our result of operations and financial condition. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain our current effective tax rate in the future.

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Under the EIT Law, we may be classified as a PRC “resident enterprise.” Such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders.

Under the EIT Law, an enterprise established outside China with “de facto management body” within China is considered a “resident enterprise,” meaning that it can be treated in a manner similar to a PRC enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes, although the dividends paid to one resident enterprise from another may be qualified as “tax-exempt income.” The implementation rules of the EIT Law define de facto management as “substantial and overall management and control over the production and operations, personnel, accounting, and properties” of the enterprise. SAT has issued a circular providing that a foreign enterprise controlled by a PRC company or a PRC company group will be classified as a “resident enterprise” with its “de facto management body” located within China if all of the following requirements are satisfied: (i) the senior management and core management departments in charge of its daily operations function are mainly in China; (ii) its financial and human resources decisions are subject to determination or approval by persons or bodies in China; (iii) its major assets, accounting books, company seals, and minutes and files of its board and shareholders’ meetings are located or kept in China; and (iv) at least half of the enterprise’s directors with voting right or senior management reside in China.

In addition, the SAT issued bulletins to provide more guidance on the implementation of the above circular. These bulletins clarified certain matters relating to resident status determination, post-determination administration and competent tax authorities. It also specifies that when provided with a copy of a PRC tax resident determination certificate from a resident PRC-controlled offshore incorporated enterprise, the payer shall not be required to withhold 10% income tax when paying the PRC-sourced dividends, interest and royalties to the PRC-controlled offshore incorporated enterprise.

In addition, the SAT issued the Bulletin on Issues Concerning the Determination of Resident Enterprises on the Basis of their Actual Management Bodies in January 2014 to provide more guidance on the implementation of the above circular. This bulletin further provided that, among other things, an entity that is classified as a “resident enterprise” in accordance with the circular shall file the application for classifying its status of residential enterprise with the local tax authorities where its main domestic investors registered. From the year in which the entity is determined as a “resident enterprise ," any dividend, profit and other equity investment gain shall be taxed in accordance with the Article 26 of the EIT law and the Article 17 and Article 83 of its implementation rules. Although both the circular and these bulletins only apply to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises and not those by PRC individuals, the determination criteria set forth in the circular and administration clarification made in the bulletin may reflect the SAT’s general position on how the “de facto management body” test should be applied in determining the tax residency status of offshore enterprises and the administration measures should be implemented, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC individuals.

As substantially all of our management members are based in China, it remains unclear how the tax residency rule will apply to our case. We believe that none of our offshore holding companies should be treated as a “resident enterprise” for PRC tax purposes. However, as the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities, there are uncertainties and risks associated with this issue. If the PRC tax authorities determine that any of our offshore holding companies are “resident enterprises” for PRC enterprise income tax purposes, a number of unfavorable PRC tax consequences could follow. First, we may be subject to enterprise income tax at a rate of 25% on our worldwide taxable income, as well as PRC enterprise income tax reporting obligations. Second, although under the EIT Law and its implementation rules, dividend income between qualified resident enterprises is a “tax-exempt income,” we cannot guarantee that dividends paid to TAL Education Group from our PRC subsidiaries through TAL Holding Limited, or TAL Hong Kong, or dividends paid from our PRC subsidiaries to Firstleap Education, which is incorporated in the Cayman Islands, through Firstleap Education (HK) Limited, which is incorporated in Hong Kong, would qualify as “tax-exempt income” and will not be subject to withholding tax, as the relevant government authorities that enforce the withholding tax, have not yet issued guidance with respect to the processing of outbound remittances to entities that are treated as “resident enterprises” for PRC enterprise income tax purposes. Finally, the “resident enterprise” classification could result in a situation in which a 10% withholding tax is imposed on dividends we pay to our non-PRC enterprise shareholders and with respect to gains derived by our non-PRC and enterprise shareholders from transferring our notes, shares or ADSs, if such income is considered PRC-sourced income by the relevant PRC authorities. This could have the effect of increasing our and our shareholders’ effective income tax rates and may require us to deduct withholding tax from any dividends we pay to our non-PRC shareholders. In addition to the uncertainties regarding how the “resident enterprise” classification may apply, it is also possible that the rules may change in the future, possibly with retroactive effect.

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Dividends we receive from our operating subsidiaries located in China may be subject to PRC withholding tax.

Pursuant to the Arrangement between the PRC and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region on the Avoidance of Double Taxation and Prevention of Fiscal Evasion, dividends declared after January 1, 2008 and distributed to our Hong Kong subsidiaries by our PRC subsidiaries are subject to withholding tax at a rate of 5%, provided that our Hong Kong subsidiaries are deemed by the relevant PRC tax authorities to be “non-PRC resident enterprises” under the EIT Law and hold at least 25% of the equity interest of our PRC subsidiaries. The SAT promulgated the Announcement on Issues concerning “Beneficial Owners” in Tax Treaties, or SAT Circular 9, which provides guidance for determining whether a resident of a jurisdiction with tax treaties with China is the “beneficial owner” of an item of income under PRC tax treaties and tax arrangements. According to SAT Circular 9, a beneficial owner generally must engage in substantive business activities. An agent or conduit company will not be regarded as a beneficial owner and, therefore, will not qualify for treaty benefits. A conduit company normally refers to a company that is set up for the purpose of avoiding or reducing taxes or transferring or accumulating profits. Although we may use our Hong Kong subsidiaries, namely TAL Holding Limited and Firstleap Education (HK) Limited, as a platform to expand our business in the future, our Hong Kong subsidiaries currently do not engage in any substantive business activities and thus it is possible that our Hong Kong subsidiaries may not be regarded as “beneficial owners” for the purposes of SAT Circular 9 and the dividends they receive from our PRC subsidiaries would be subject to withholding tax at a rate of 10%.

We face uncertainties with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises by their non-PRC holding companies.

Pursuant to the Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Several Issues Concerning the Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Property Transfer by Non-Resident Enterprises issued by the SAT in February 2015, or SAT Bulletin 7, where a non-resident enterprise indirectly transfers properties such as equity in PRC resident enterprises without any justifiable business purposes and aiming to avoid the payment of enterprise income tax, such indirect transfer must be reclassified as a direct transfer of equity in PRC resident enterprise, and gains derived from such transfer will be subject to PRC withholding tax at a rate of up to 10%. To assess whether an indirect transfer of PRC taxable properties has reasonable commercial purposes, all arrangements related to the indirect transfer must be considered comprehensively and factors set forth in SAT Bulletin 7 must be comprehensively analyzed in light of the actual circumstances. SAT Bulletin 7 also provides that, where a non-PRC resident enterprise transfers its equity interests in a resident enterprise to its related parties at a price lower than the fair market value, the competent tax authority has the power to make a reasonable adjustment to the taxable income of the transaction.

On October 17, 2017, the SAT issued the Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Issues Concerning the Withholding of Non-resident Enterprise Income Tax at Source, or SAT Bulletin 37, which came into effect and superseded Circular 698 on December 1, 2017. The SAT Bulletin 37 further clarifies the practice and procedure of the withholding of nonresident enterprise income tax.

There is uncertainty as to the implementation details of SAT Bulletin 7 and Bulletin 37. It is possible that we or our non-PRC resident investors may become at risk of being taxed under SAT Bulletin 7 and may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with SAT Bulletin 7 and Bulletin 37 or to establish that we or our non-PRC resident investors should not be taxed under SAT Bulletin 7, which may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations or such non-PRC resident investors’ investment in us.

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We face risks and uncertainties with respect to the licensing requirement for internet audio-video programs.

The State Administration of Radio, Film and Television, or SARFT (which was merged with the General Administration of Press and Publication in 2013 to form the State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television, or SAPPRFT), and the Ministry of Information Industry, or MII (which was superseded in 2008 by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or MIIT), issued the Administrative Measures Regarding Internet Audio-Video Program Services, or the Internet Audio-Video Program Measures, revised August 2015. Among other things, the Internet Audio-Video Program Measures stipulate that no entities or individuals may provide internet audio-video program services without a License for Disseminating Audio-Video Programs through Information Network issued by the SARFT or SAPPRFT (as applicable) or the relevant local branches or completing the relevant registration with the SARFT or SAPPRFT (as applicable) or the relevant local branches, and only entities wholly owned or controlled by the PRC government may engage in the production, editing, integration or consolidation, and transmission to the public through the internet, of audio-video programs, or the provision of audio-video program uploading and transmission services. The SARFT and the MII have published a press release confirming that providers of audio-video program services established prior to the promulgation date of the Internet Audio-Video Program Measures that do not have any regulatory non-compliance records can re-register with the relevant government authorities to continue their current business operations. There are still significant uncertainties relating to the interpretation and implementation of the Internet Audio-Video Program Measures, in particular, the scope of Internet Audio-Video Programs.

Furthermore, the SARFT promulgated the Tentative Categories of Internet Audio-Visual Program Services (Trail), or the Audio-Visual Program Categories, which clarified the scope of internet audio-video programs services. According to the Audio-Visual Program Categories, there are four categories of internet audio-visual program services which are further divided into seventeen sub-categories. The third sub-category to the second category covers the making and editing of certain specialized audio-video programs concerning, among other things, educational content, and broadcasting such content to the general public online.

On April 25, 2016, the SAPPRFT promulgated the Regulations of Management of Broadcasting Audio-Video Programs Service through Private Network and Directional Communication, or the Broadcasting Audio-Video Programs Regulations, which will come into effect on June 1, 2016. The Broadcasting Audio-Video Programs Regulations provides, among other things, that a Permit for Broadcasting Audio-Video Programs via Information Network is required for engaging in broadcasting services through Private Network and Directional Communication. According to such Regulations, the broadcasting services through Private Network and Directional Communication shall mean the services and activities provided to the public through the private transmission channels that include internet, LAN and VPN based on internet and through the receiving terminals of televisions, and other handheld electronic equipment, and such services and activities include the activities of content supply, integrated broadcast control, transmission and distribution with IPTVs, private-network mobile televisions, internet televisions. According to such Regulations, only the entities wholly or substantially owned by the State could apply for such Permit.

We offer certain online courses on our platform. In the fiscal years ended February 28 /29, 2018, 2019 and 2020, revenues derived from audio-video program services offered through www.xueersi.com that may be subject to the Audio-Video Program Measures were 7.0 %, 13.3% and 18.9 %, respectively, of our total net revenues. Our teachers and students communicate and interact live with each other via our platforms. The audio and video data are transmitted through the platforms between specific recipients instantly without any further redaction. We believe the nature of the raw data we transmit distinguishes us from general providers of internet audio-visual program services, such as the operator of online video websites, and the provision of the Internet Audio-Video Program Measures and the Broadcasting Audio-Video Programs Regulations are not applicable with regard to our offering of the courses in live streaming format. However, we cannot assure you that the competent PRC government authorities will not ultimately take a view contrary to our opinion. In addition, we also offer video recordings of live streaming courses and certain other educational audio-video contents on our online platforms to our students. If the government authorities determine that our provision of online tutoring services falls within the Internet Audio-Video Program Measures or the Broadcasting Audio-Video Programs Regulations, we may not be able to obtain the required permit or license. If this occurs, we may become subject to significant penalties, fines, legal sanctions or an order to suspend our use of audio-video content.

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Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

Our revenues and costs are mostly denominated in RMB. The value of the RMB against the U.S. dollar and other currencies may fluctuate and is affected by, among other things, changes in China’s political and economic conditions and foreign exchange policies. After the PRC government changed its policy of pegging the value of RMB to the U.S. dollar in 2005, the RMB has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably. With the development of the foreign exchange market and progress towards interest rate liberalization and Renminbi internationalization, the PRC government may in the future announce further changes to the exchange rate system and there is no guarantee that the RMB will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the future. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between the RMB and the U.S. dollar in the future.

To the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars into Renminbi for capital expenditures and working capital and other business purposes, appreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the RMB amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, if we decide to convert Renminbi into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our common shares or ADSs, strategic acquisitions or investments or other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Renminbi would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount available to us.

To date, we have not entered into any hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. While we may decide to enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedges may be limited and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert Renminbi into foreign currency. As a result, fluctuations in exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on your investment.

Governmental control of currency conversion may affect the value of your investment.

The PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility between the Renminbi and foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. We received substantially all of our revenues in RMB. Under our current corporate structure, our income at the holding company level may be primarily derived from dividend payments from our PRC subsidiaries. Shortages in the availability of foreign currency may restrict the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to remit sufficient foreign currency to pay dividends or other payments to us, or otherwise satisfy their foreign currency-denominated obligations. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, including profit distributions, interest payments and expenditures from trade-related transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements. However, for any PRC company, dividends can be declared and paid only out of the retained earnings of that company under PRC law. Furthermore, approval from SAFE or its local branch or prior registrant with banks, is required where Renminbi is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses, such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. Specifically, under the existing exchange restrictions, without a prior approval of SAFE or prior registrant with banks, cash generated from the operations of our subsidiaries in China may be used to pay dividends by our PRC subsidiaries to TAL Education Group through our Hong Kong subsidiaries and pay employees of our PRC subsidiaries who are located outside China in a currency other than the Renminbi. With a prior approval from SAFE, cash generated from the operations of our PRC subsidiaries and Consolidated Affiliated Entities may be used to pay off debt in a currency other than the Renminbi owed by our subsidiaries and Consolidated Affiliated Entities to entities outside China, and make other capital expenditures outside China in a currency other than the Renminbi. The PRC government may also at its discretion restrict access in the future to foreign currencies for current account transactions. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currency to satisfy our currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs.

Employee participants in our share incentive plan who are PRC citizens may be required to register with SAFE. We also face regulatory uncertainties in China that could restrict our ability to grant share incentive awards to our employees who are PRC citizens.

To implement the Administrative Rule on Foreign Exchange Matters of Individuals promulgated by PBOC and its related implementation rule provided by SAFE, SAFE issued the Operating Procedures for Administration of Domestic Individuals Participating in the Employee Stock Incentive Plan and Stock Option Plan of An Overseas Listed Company, or SAFE Circular 78.

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Pursuant to the Notices on Issues concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in a Stock Incentive Plan of an Overseas Publicly-Listed Company issued by SAFE, or SAFE Circular 7, which terminated both SAFE Circular 78, and the Notice on Relinquishing Power of Approving the First-time Application of Foreign Exchange Purchase Quotas, Opening of Special Bank Accounts issued by SAFE, a qualified PRC agent (which could be the PRC subsidiary of the overseas-listed company) is required to file, on behalf of “domestic individuals” (both PRC residents and non-PRC residents who reside in China for a continuous period of not less than one year, excluding the foreign diplomatic personnel and representatives of international organizations) who are granted shares or share options by the overseas-listed company according to its stock incentive plan, an application with SAFE to conduct the SAFE registration with respect to such stock incentive plan, and obtain approval for an annual allowance with respect to the purchase of foreign exchange in connection with the stock purchase or stock option exercise. Such PRC individuals’ foreign exchange income received from the sale of stocks and dividends distributed by the overseas listed company and any other income shall be fully remitted into a collective foreign currency account in China opened and managed by the PRC domestic agent before distribution to such individuals. In addition, such domestic individuals must also retain an overseas entrusted institution to handle matters in connection with their exercise of stock options and their purchase and sale of stock. The PRC domestic agent also needs to update registration with SAFE within three months after the overseas-listed company materially changes its stock incentive plan or make any new stock incentive plans.

Prior to the issuance of SAFE Circular 7, we received approval from SAFE’s Beijing branch in regards to applications we had submitted on behalf of certain of our employees who hold a significant number of restricted shares. Upon the issuance of SAFE Circular 7, we renewed our registration on behalf of these employees in accordance with SAFE Circular 7 as SAFE Circular 78 ceased to be applicable for such registration. From time to time, we need to apply for or to update our registration with SAFE or its local branches on behalf of our employees who are granted options or registered shares under our share incentive plan or material changes in our current share incentive plan. We are in the process of making an application on behalf of certain PRC citizens who participate in our share incentive plan with SAFE or its local branches in compliance with SAFE Circular 7. However, we may not always be able to make applications or update our registration on behalf of our employees who hold our restricted shares or other types of share incentive awards in compliance with SAFE Circular 7, nor can we ensure you that such applications or update of registration will be successful. If we or the participants of our share incentive plan who are PRC citizens fail to comply with SAFE Circular 7, we and/or such participants of our share incentive plan may be subject to fines and legal sanctions, there may be additional restrictions on the ability of such participants to exercise their stock options or remit proceeds gained from sale of their stock into China, and we may be prevented from further granting share incentive awards under our share incentive plan to our employees who are PRC citizens. Such events could adversely affect our business operations.

The audit report included in this annual report is prepared by auditors who are not inspected by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board and, as such, you are deprived of the benefits of such inspection.

Our independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit reports included in our annual reports filed with the SEC, as auditors of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the United States Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, is required by the laws of the United States to undergo regular inspections by the PCAOB to assess its compliance with the laws of the United States and professional standards. Because our auditors are located in China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the PRC authorities, our auditors are not currently inspected by the PCAOB. On May 24, 2013, PCAOB announced that it had entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Enforcement Cooperation with the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, and the Ministry of Finance which establishes a cooperative framework between the parties for the production and exchange of audit documents relevant to investigations in the United States and China. On inspection, it appears that the PCAOB continues to be in discussions with the Mainland China regulators to permit inspections of audit firms that are registered with PCAOB in relation to the audit of Chinese companies that trade on U.S. exchanges. On December 7, 2018, the SEC and the PCAOB issued a joint statement highlighting continued challenges faced by the U.S. regulators in their oversight of financial statement audits of U.S.-listed companies with significant operations in China.

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On April 21, 2020, the SEC and the PCAOB issued another joint statement reiterating the greater risk that disclosures will be insufficient in many emerging markets, including China, compared to those made by U.S. domestic companies. In discussing the specific issues related to the greater risk, the statement again highlights the PCAOB's inability to inspect audit work paper and practices of accounting firms in China, with respect to their audit work of U.S. reporting companies. On June 4, 2020, the U.S. President issued a memorandum ordering the President's working group on financial markets to submit a report to the President within 60 days of the memorandum that should include recommendations for actions that can be taken by the executive branch and by the SEC or PCAOB to enforce U.S. regulatory requirements on Chinese companies listed on U.S. stock exchanges and their audit firms. However, it remains unclear what further actions, if any, the U.S. executive branch, the SEC and PCAOB will take to address the problem.

Inspections of other firms that the PCAOB has conducted outside China have identified deficiencies in those firms’ audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. This lack of PCAOB inspections in China prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating our auditor’s audits and its quality control procedures. As a result, investors may be deprived of the benefits of PCAOB inspections.

As part of a continued regulatory focus in the United States on access to audit and other information currently protected by national law, in particular China's, in June 2019, a bipartisan group of lawmakers introduced bills in both houses of the U.S. Congress that would require the SEC to maintain a list of issuers for which PCAOB is not able to inspect or investigate an auditor report issued by a foreign public accounting firm. The Ensuring Quality Information and Transparency for Abroad-Based Listings on our Exchanges (EQUITABLE) Act prescribes increased disclosure requirements for these issuers and, beginning in 2025, the delisting from U.S. national securities exchanges such as the New York Stock Exchange of issuers included on the SEC's list for three consecutive years. On May 20, 2020, the U.S. Senate passed S. 945, the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act (the "Kennedy Bill"). If passed by the U.S. House of Representatives and signed by the U.S. President, the Kennedy Bill would amend the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 to direct the SEC to prohibit securities of any registrant from being listed on any of the U.S. securities exchanges or traded "over-the-counter" if the auditor of the registrant's financial statements is not subject to PCAOB inspection for three consecutive years after the law becomes effective. Enactment of any of such legislations or other efforts to increase U.S. regulatory access to audit information could cause investor uncertainty for affected issuers, including us, the market price of our ADSs could be adversely affected, and we could be delisted if we are unable to cure the situation to meet the PCAOB inspection requirement in time. It is unclear if and when any of such proposed legislations will be enacted. Furthermore, there have been recent media reports on deliberations within the U.S. government regarding potentially limiting or restricting China-based companies from accessing U.S. capital markets. If any such deliberations were to materialize, the resulting legislation may have material and adverse impact on the stock performance of China-based issuers listed in the United States.

The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside China that are subject to PCAOB inspections. Investors may lose confidence in our reported financial information and procedures and the quality of our financial statements.

If additional remedial measures are imposed on the “big four” PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, in administrative proceedings brought by the SEC alleging such firms’ failure to meet specific criteria set by the SEC with respect to requests for the production of documents, we could be unable to timely file future financial statements in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.

Starting in 2011 the PRC affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms (including our independent registered public accounting firm) were affected by a conflict between U.S. and PRC law. Specifically, for certain U.S.-listed companies operating and audited in mainland China, the SEC and the PCAOB sought to obtain from the PRC firms access to their audit work papers and related documents. The firms were, however, advised and directed that under PRC law they could not respond directly to the U.S. regulators on those requests, and that requests by foreign regulators for access to such papers in China had to be channeled through the CSRC.

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In late 2012, the SEC commenced administrative proceedings under Rule 102(e) of its Rules of Practice and also under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 against the mainland Chinese affiliates of the “Big Four” accounting firms (including the mainland Chinese affiliate of our independent registered public accounting firm). A first instance trial of the proceedings in July 2013 in the SEC’s internal administrative court resulted in an adverse judgment against the firms. The administrative law judge proposed penalties on the Chinese accounting firms including a temporary suspension of their right to practice before the SEC, although that proposed penalty did not take effect pending review by the Commissioners of the SEC. On February 6, 2015, before a review by the Commissioner had taken place, the Chinese accounting firms reached a settlement with the SEC whereby the proceedings were stayed. Under the settlement, the SEC accepted that future requests by the SEC for the production of documents would normally be made to the CSRC. The Chinese accounting firms would receive requests matching those under Section 106 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, and would be required to abide by a detailed set of procedures with respect to such requests, which in substance would require them to facilitate production via the CSRC. The CSRC for its part initiated a procedure whereby, under its supervision and subject to its approval, requested classes of documents held by the accounting firms could be sanitized of problematic and sensitive content so as to render them capable of being made available by the CSRC to U.S. regulators.

Under the terms of the settlement, the underlying proceeding against the four PRC-based accounting firms was deemed dismissed with prejudice at the end of four years starting from the settlement date, which was on February 6, 2019. Despite the ending of the proceedings, the presumption is that all parties will continue to apply the same procedures. In other words, the SEC will continue to make its requests for the production of documents to the CSRC, and the CSRC will normally process those requests applying the sanitisation procedure. We cannot predict whether, in cases where the CSRC does not authorize production of requested documents to the SEC, the SEC will further challenge the four PRC-based accounting firms’ compliance with U.S. law. If additional challenges are imposed on the Chinese affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms, we could be unable to timely file future financial statements in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.

In the event that the SEC restarts the administrative proceedings, depending upon the final outcome, listed companies in the United States with major PRC operations may find it difficult or impossible to retain auditors in respect of their operations in China, which could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, including possible delisting. Moreover, any negative news about any such future proceedings against these audit firms may cause investor uncertainty regarding PRC-based, U.S.-listed companies and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely affected.

If our independent registered public accounting firm were denied, even temporarily, the ability to practice before the SEC and we were unable to timely find another registered public accounting firm to audit and issue an opinion on our financial statements, our financial statements could be determined not to be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act. Such a determination could ultimately lead to delisting of our ordinary shares from the NYSE or deregistration from the SEC, or both, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our ADSs in the United States.

Risks Related to Our ADSs

The market price for our ADSs may be volatile.

The market price for our ADSs has fluctuated significantly since we first listed our ADSs. For the fiscal year ended February 29, 2020, the closing prices of our ADSs have ranged from $30.98 to $59.47 per ADS, and the last reported trading price on June 29, 2020 was $67.44 per ADS.

The market price for our ADSs is likely to be highly volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to factors such as:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results,
changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts,
changes in the economic performance or market valuation of other education companies,
announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments,

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addition or departure of our executive officers and key personnel,
detrimental negative publicity about us, our competitors or our industry,
intellectual property litigation, regulatory investigation or other governmental proceedings against us,
substantial sales or perception of sales of our ADSs in the public market, and
general economic, regulatory or political conditions in China and the United States.

In addition, the stock market in general, and the market prices for companies with operations in China in particular, have experienced volatility that often has been unrelated to the operating performance of such companies. The securities of some PRC-based companies that have listed their securities in the United States have experienced significant volatility since their initial public offerings, including, in some cases, substantial price declines in the trading prices of their securities. The trading performances of these PRC-based companies’ securities after their offerings may affect the attitudes of investors toward PRC-based companies listed in the United States, which consequently may impact the trading performance of our ADSs, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, any negative news or perceptions about inadequate corporate governance practices or fraudulent accounting, corporate structure or other matters of other PRC-based companies may also negatively affect the attitudes of investors towards PRC-based companies in general, including us, regardless of whether we have conducted any inappropriate activities. Further, the global financial crisis, the ensuing economic recessions in many countries and the slowing PRC economy have contributed and may continue to contribute to extreme volatility in the global stock markets. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect operating performance. Volatility or a lack of positive performance in our ADS price may also adversely affect our ability to retain key employees, some of whom have been granted share incentive awards under our share incentive plan.

Our dual-class voting structure will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A common shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

Our common shares are divided into Class A common shares and Class B common shares. Holders of Class A common shares are entitled to one vote per share, while holders of Class B common shares are entitled to ten votes per share. We issued Class A common shares represented by our ADSs in our initial public offering in October 2010. As part of the redesignation of our capital structure at the time of our initial public offering, all of our existing shareholders as of September 29, 2010, including our founders, received Class B common shares, and our outstanding preferred shares at the time were automatically converted into Class B common shares immediately prior to the completion of our initial public offering. Each Class B common share is convertible into one Class A common share at any time by the holder thereof. Class A common shares are not convertible into Class B common shares under any circumstances.

Upon any transfer of Class B common shares by a holder thereof to any person or entity which is not an affiliate of such holder, such Class B common shares shall be automatically and immediately converted into the equal number of Class A common shares. In addition, if at any time, any of the persons who held Class B common shares immediately before our initial public offering and their affiliates collectively own less than 5% of the total number of the issued and outstanding Class B common shares, each issued and outstanding Class B common share owned by such Class B holder shall be automatically and immediately converted into one Class A common share, and no Class B common shares shall be issued by us thereafter. Due to the disparate voting powers attached to these two classes, as of June 8, 2020, holders of our Class B common shares (excluding any Class A common shares such holder may hold in the form of ADSs) collectively held approximately 83.4% the voting power of our outstanding shares and have considerable influence over matters requiring shareholder approval, including election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or sale of our company or our assets. This concentrated control will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any potential merger, takeover or other change of control transactions that holders of Class A common shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

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Our corporate actions are substantially controlled by our officers, directors and their affiliated entities.

As of June 8, 2020, our executive officers, directors and their affiliated entities beneficially owned approximately 34.0% of our total outstanding shares, representing 83.5% of our total voting power. These shareholders, if they acted together, could exert substantial influence over matters requiring approval by our shareholders, including electing directors and approving mergers or other business combination transactions and they may not act in the best interests of other minority shareholders. This concentration of ownership may also discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our company and might reduce the price of our ADSs. These actions may be taken even if they are opposed by our other shareholders.

If securities or industry analysts publish negative reports about our business, the price and trading volume of our securities could decline.

The trading market for our securities depends, in part, on the research reports and ratings that securities or industry analysts or ratings agencies publish about us, our business and the K-12 after-school tutoring market in China in general. We do not have any control over these analysts or agencies. If one or more of the analysts or agencies who cover us downgrades us or our securities, the price of our securities may decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause the price of our securities or trading volume to decline.

Substantial future sales or the expectation of substantial sales of our ADSs in the public market could cause the price of our ADSs to decline.

Sales of our ADSs in the public market or the perception that these sales could occur, may cause the market price of our ADSs to decline and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. We have Class A and Class B common shares outstanding, including Class A common shares represented by ADSs. All of our ADSs are freely transferable without restriction or additional registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Class A common shares not represented by ADS, such as grants of share incentive awards which have vested, and Class B common shares are available for sale subject to volume and other restrictions as applicable under Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act. To the extent shares are sold into the market, the market price of our ADSs could decline.

In addition, several of our shareholders have the right to cause us to register the sale of their shares under the Securities Act upon the occurrence of certain circumstances. Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in these shares becoming freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act immediately upon the effectiveness of the registration of these shares. Sales of these registered shares in the public market could cause the price of our ADSs to decline.

Our articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could discourage a third party from acquiring us, which could limit our shareholders’ opportunity to sell their shares, including Class A common shares represented by our ADSs, at a premium.

Our articles of association contain provisions that limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions. These provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transaction. For example, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares. These preferred shares may have better voting rights than our Class A common shares, in the form of ADSs or otherwise, and could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors decides to issue preferred shares, the price of our ADSs may fall and the voting rights of the holders of our common shares and ADSs may be diluted.

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Holders of ADSs have fewer rights than shareholders and must act through the depositary to exercise those rights.

Holders of ADSs do not have the same rights of our shareholders and may only exercise the voting rights with respect to the underlying Class A common shares in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Under our memorandum and articles of association, the minimum notice period required to convene a general meeting is ten days. When a general meeting is convened, you may not receive sufficient notice of a shareholders’ meeting to permit you to withdraw your common shares to allow you to cast your vote with respect to any specific matter. In addition, the depositary and its agents may not be able to send voting instructions to you or carry out your voting instructions in a timely manner. We will make all reasonable efforts to cause the depositary to extend voting rights to you in a timely manner, but we cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote your ADSs. Furthermore, the depositary and its agents will not be responsible for any failure to carry out any instructions to vote, for the manner in which any vote is cast or for the effect of any such vote. As a result, you may not be able to exercise your right to vote and you may lack recourse if the votes attaching to the common shares underlying your ADSs are not voted as you requested. In addition, in your capacity as an ADS holder, you will not be able to call a shareholders’ meeting.

You may not receive distributions on our common shares or any value for them if such distribution is illegal or if any required government approval cannot be obtained in order to make such distribution available to you.

The depositary of our ADSs has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on common shares or other deposited securities underlying our ADSs, after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of Class A common shares your ADSs represent. However, the depositary is not responsible if it decides that it is unlawful, inequitable or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. For example, it would be unlawful to make a distribution to a holder of ADSs if it consists of securities that require registration under the Securities Act but that are not properly registered or distributed under an applicable exemption from registration. The depositary may also determine that it is not feasible to distribute certain property through the mail. Additionally, the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the depositary may determine not to distribute such property. We have no obligation to register under U.S. securities laws any ADSs, common shares, rights or other securities received through such distributions. We also have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of ADSs, common shares, rights or anything else to holders of ADSs. This means that you may not receive distributions we make on our common shares or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical for us to make them available to you. These restrictions may cause a material decline in the value of our ADSs.

You may be subject to limitations on transfers of your ADSs.

Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary deem it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.

Your right to participate in any future rights offerings may be limited, which may cause dilution to your holdings.

We may from time to time distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire our securities. However, we cannot make rights available to you in the United States unless we register the rights and the securities to which the rights relate under the Securities Act or an exemption from the registration requirements is available. Also, under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not make rights available to you unless the distribution to ADS holders of both the rights and any related securities are either registered under the Securities Act, or exempted from registration under the Securities Act. We are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or securities or to endeavor to cause such a registration statement to be declared effective. Moreover, we may not be able to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act. Accordingly, you may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution in your holdings.

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We are a Cayman Islands company and, because judicial precedent regarding the rights of shareholders is more limited under Cayman Islands law than that under U.S. law, you may have less protection for your shareholder rights than you would under U.S. law.

Our corporate affairs are governed by our memorandum and articles of association, as amended and restated from time to time, the Cayman Islands Companies Law (as amended) and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as that from English common law, which has persuasive, but not binding, authority on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. In addition, some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands.

As a result of all of the above, public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as shareholders of a U.S. public company.

You may experience difficulties in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing original actions in China against us or our management.

We are a Cayman Islands company and substantially all of our assets are located outside the United States. Substantially all of our current operations are conducted in China. In addition, some of our directors and all of our officers are nationals and residents of China. As a result, it may be difficult for you to effect service of process within the United States or elsewhere outside China upon these persons. It may also be difficult for you to enforce in U.S. courts judgments obtained in U.S. courts based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws against us and our officers and directors, most of whom are not residents in the United States and the substantial majority of whose assets are located outside the United States. In addition, there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the Cayman Islands or China would recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts against us or such persons predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state and it is uncertain whether such Cayman Islands or PRC courts would be competent to hear original actions brought in the Cayman Islands or China against us or such persons predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state. In addition, since we are incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and our corporate affairs are governed by the laws of the Cayman Islands, it is difficult for you to bring an action against us based upon PRC laws in the event that you believe that your rights as a shareholder have been infringed.

It may be difficult for overseas regulators to conduct investigation or collect evidence within China.

Shareholder claims or regulatory investigation that are common in the United States generally are difficult to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in China. For example, in China, there are significant legal and other obstacles to obtaining information needed for regulatory investigations or litigation initiated outside China. Although the authorities in China may establish a regulatory cooperation mechanism with the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region to implement cross-border supervision and administration, such cooperation with the securities regulatory authorities in the Unities States may not be efficient in the absence of mutual and practical cooperation mechanism. Furthermore, according to Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law, or Article 177, which became effective in March 2020, no overseas securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct investigation or evidence collection activities within the territory of the PRC, and no organization or individual may provide documents or materials relating to securities business activities to overseas parties arbitrarily without the consent of the competent securities regulatory authority in China. While detailed interpretation of or implementation rules under Article 177 have yet to be promulgated, the inability for an overseas securities regulator to directly conduct investigation or evidence collection activities within China may further increase difficulties faced by you in protecting your interests.

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We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. Holders of our ADSs or common shares.

Under U.S. federal income tax law, we will be classified as a PFIC for any taxable year if either (i) at least 75% of our gross income for the taxable year is passive income or (ii) at least 50% of the value of our assets (generally determined on the basis of a quarterly average) is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income (the asset test). Although the law in this regard is unclear, we treat our VIEs and their respective subsidiaries and schools as being owned by us for U.S. federal income tax purposes, not only because we control their management decisions but also because we are entitled to substantially all of the economic benefits associated with these entities, and, as a result, we consolidate their operating results in our consolidated U.S. GAAP financial statements. If it were determined, however, that we are not the owner of the VIEs and their respective subsidiaries for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we would likely be treated as a PFIC for our current and any subsequent taxable year.

While we do not believe that we were a PFIC for the taxable year ended February 29, 2020 and do not anticipate becoming a PFIC for the foreseeable future, no assurance can be given in this regard because the determination of whether we will be or become a PFIC is a fact-intensive inquiry made on an annual basis that depends, in part, on the composition of our income and assets. Fluctuations in the market price of our ADSs may cause us to become a PFIC for the current or subsequent taxable years because the value of assets for the purpose of the asset test may be determined by reference to the market price of our ADSs from time to time (which may be volatile). The composition of our income and assets may also be affected by how, and how quickly, we use our liquid assets. Under circumstances where our revenue from activities that produce passive income significantly increase relative to our revenue from activities that produce non-passive income, or where we determine not to deploy significant amounts of cash for active purposes, our risk of becoming classified as a PFIC may substantially increase.

If we were to be or become classified as a PFIC, a U.S. Holder (as defined in “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation—U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—General”) may be subject to reporting requirements and may incur significantly increased U.S. federal income tax on gain recognized on the sale or other disposition of the ADSs or common shares and on the receipt of distributions on the ADSs or common shares to the extent such gain or distribution is treated as an “excess distribution” under the U.S. federal income tax rules. Further, if we were a PFIC for any year during which a U.S. Holder held our ADSs or common shares, we generally would continue to be treated as a PFIC for all succeeding years during which such U.S. Holder held our ADSs or common shares. You are urged to consult your tax advisor concerning the U.S. federal income tax consequences of holding and disposing of ADSs or common shares if we are or become classified as a PFIC. See “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation—U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—PFIC Considerations” and “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation—U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—PFIC Rules.”

Item 4.    Information on the Company

A.        History and Development of the Company

We started our operation in 2005 with the establishment of Xueersi Education, a domestic company in China. We then incorporated TAL Education Group to become our offshore holding company under the laws of the Cayman Islands on January 10, 2008, in order to facilitate foreign investment in our company. TAL Education Group established TAL Holdings Limited in Hong Kong in March 2008 as our intermediary holding company.

In August 2013, we changed the name of TAL Education Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd. to Beijing Century TAL Education Technology Co., Ltd. In addition, we changed our umbrella brand from “Xueersi” to “Haoweilai.”

We have made certain other principal expansion of our service offerings:

in January 2016, we completed the acquisition of Firstleap Education, a provider of all-subject tutoring services in English to children aged from two to fifteen years old in China;
in February 2016, we acquired majority equity interest of Beijing Yinghe Youshi Technology Co., Ltd., or Yinghe Youshi, which primarily provides online preparation services of English tests for study abroad purposes, and purchased all its remaining noncontrolling interest in 2017;

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in July 2016, we acquired majority interest in Beijing Shunshun Bida Information Consulting Co., Ltd., or Shunshun Bida, which primarily engages in providing professional counseling services to students who desire to study abroad;
in August 2016, we acquired majority equity interest in Shanghai Yaya Information Technology Co., Ltd., or Shanghai Yaya, which primarily operated an online platform focusing on children, babies and maternity market; in 2019, we acquired the remaining minority interest in steps;
in fiscal year 2019, we obtained control of Shanghai Xiaoxin Information and Technology Co., Ltd., a previously minority-owned investee. This investee is mainly engaged in the development of communication tools connecting teachers and students;
in fiscal year 2019, we made two investments in Dada, a company providing one-on-one online English tutoring for children. In March 2020, we entered into a definitive agreement to further invest US$10.4 million, upon the closing of which we would acquire controlling equity interests in Dada together with material deferred revenue liability.

We have also made certain material investments in other businesses that complement our existing business, including the following in recent years:

in January 2014, we made a minority equity investment in BabyTree Inc., an online parenting community and an online retailer of products for children, baby and maternity wear in China;
since April 2015, we have entered into a series of transactions to invest for minority equity interest in Changing Education Inc., which operates a customer-to-customer mobile tutoring platform in China;
in August 2016 and 2019, we completed two minority equity investment transactions in Shanghai Zhengda Ximalaya Technology Company Limited, an online Frequency Modulation radio platform;
in July 2018, we invested in minority equity interest in Jiangsu Qusu, a leading K-12 service platform for targeting teaching and learning, which we disposed of in September 2019; and
in December, 2018, we invested in minority equity interest in Xiamen Meiyou Information and Technology Co., Ltd, an internet company focusing on providing services to female clients; and fiscal year 2019, we completed three transactions with Hyphen, an online one-on-one teaching platform, to acquire its Series C+ convertible redeemable preferred shares.

For more information on our acquisitions and investments, see Note 3 “Business Acquisitions,” Note 10 “Long-term investments” and Note 15 “Fair Value” to the consolidated financial statements.

For information on our capital expenditures, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—B. Liquidity and Capital Resources—Capital Expenditures.”

In October 2010, we completed an initial public offering of 13,800,000 ADSs. On October 20, 2010, we listed our ADSs on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “XRS” and changed the symbol to “TAL” effective from December 1, 2016.

In May 2014, we issued $230 million in aggregate principal amount of 2.50% convertible senior notes due 2019. The notes matured on May 15, 2019.

In January 2018, we issued certain numbers of Class A common shares to a long-term equity investment firm for a total proceeds of approximately US$500 million.

In February 2019, we issued certain numbers of Class A common shares to a long-term equity investment firm for a total proceeds of approximately US$500 million.

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Our principal executive offices are located at 15/F, Danling SOHO, 6 Danling Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100080, People’s Republic of China. Our telephone number at this address is +86 (10) 5292 6692. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at Maples Corporate Services Limited, PO Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands. As of February 29, 2020, we had branch offices in 69 cities in China and one branch office in United States. Our agent for service of process in the United States in connection with our registration statement on Form F-1 for our initial public offering in October 2010 is Law Debenture Corporate Services Inc., located at 400 Madison Avenue, 4th Floor, New York, New York 10017.

B.        Business Overview

Overview

We are a leading K-12 after-school tutoring services provider in China. We mainly offer comprehensive tutoring services to K-12 students covering core academic subjects, including among others, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, history, geography, political science, English and Chinese. In order to diversify K-12 tutoring services, we also provide consulting services for overseas studies and preparation courses for major standardized tests, as well as operate several online community platforms including through www.jzb.com (together with the “Jiazhang Bang” app) and www.mmbang.com (together with the “Mama Bang” app). We also provide support in various forms such as educational products, contents, technologies, services and other learning resources to educational institutions and public schools in China through our various programs and solutions.

We have successfully established “Xueersi” as a leading brand in the PRC K-12 private education market closely associated with high teaching quality and academic excellence, as evidenced by our students’ academic performance, our ability to recruit students through word-of-mouth referrals and the numerous recognitions and awards we have received. In August 2013, we changed our umbrella brand from “Xueersi” to “Haoweilai,” and now we offer different service offerings under different brands, such as “Xueersi,” “Mobby” and “Firstleap,” through which we offer small-class services, “Izhikang,” through which we offer personalized premium services, and “Shunshun Liuxue,” through which we offer consulting services on overseas studies.

We deliver our tutoring services primarily through small classes (including Xueersi tutoring services, Mobby tutoring services and Firstleap tutoring services), personalized premium services and online course offerings. We are constantly working to expand and supplement our service offerings, through both internal development and strategic investments. As of February 29, 2020, our extensive educational network consisted of 871 learning centers and 767 service centers in 69 cities throughout China and one city in United States, as well as our online courses and online education platform. Our average student enrollments of normal priced long-term course per quarter increased by 55.2% from over 1.9 million in the fiscal year ended February 28, 2019 to approximately 3.0 million in the fiscal year ended February 29, 2020.

We operate www.jzb.com (formerly www.eduu.com), a leading online education platform in China. The website serves as a gateway to our other websites, including (i) those offering online courses, such as small-class training, personalized premium services, tutoring services for thinking development, and (ii) those dedicated to specific topics and offerings, such as college entrance examinations, high school entrance examinations, graduate school entrance examinations, preschool education, mathematics, English, Chinese composition, and raising infants and toddlers. We also offer select educational content through mobile applications. We are constantly working to expand our online offerings, with learning materials and services in varying stages of development. Our online platform enables us to continue to roll out and expand our online course offerings. Our online platform is protected by a combination of PRC laws and regulations that protect trademarks, copyrights, domain names, know-how and trade secrets, as well as confidentiality agreements. In addition to our online education platform, we also operate www.mmbang.com and the “Mama Bang” app, an online platform focusing on children, baby and maternity market.

Our total net revenues increased from $2,563.0 million in the fiscal year ended February 28, 2019 by 27.7% to $3,273.3 million in the fiscal year ended February 29, 2020. Net income attributable to TAL Education Group was $367.2 million in the fiscal year ended February 28, 2019, compared to net loss attributable to TAL Education Group of $110.2 million in the fiscal year ended February 29, 2020.

Our K-12 Tutoring Services

We deliver our K-12 tutoring services to our students through small-class offerings, personalized premium services and online courses.

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Small-Class Offerings

We have been delivering courses in small-class offerings since the inception of our company through Xueersi small classes, which currently covers major subjects in supplement to school learnings. Xueersi small classes course consists of four semesters, namely the two school semesters in Spring and Fall and the two holiday semesters in summer and winter. Throughout the years, we have increasingly integrated online technologies into the course offerings. As of February 29, 2020, 645 of our 871 learning centers and 541 of our 767 service centers offered Xueersi small classes.

In 2011, we began offering our Mobby tutoring services. Mobby small classes typically have up to 12 to 16 children per class and is currently focused on comprehensive development based on STEM education, namely science, technology, engineering and mathematics, for young learners aged from two to fifteen.

In January 2016, we acquired 100% of equity interest in Firstleap Education, which provides all-subject small-class tutoring in English to students aged from two to fifteen. Firstleap small classes typically have up to 14 students per class. Most of the Firstleap business is carried out through Lebai Education and its subsidiaries and schools which offered Firstleap small classes. A small portion of the Firstleap business is carried out through franchisees, who are typically located in lower-tier cities and operate their own learning centers not within our network. As of February 29, 2020, 95 of our learning centers and 95 of our service centers offered Firstleap or Mobby small classes, or both.

We believe that, under small-class offerings, students can receive more individual attention from teachers than what they would typically experience in a large class setting and are able to learn in an interactive group environment. We design curricula catering to our students’ different educational requirements and needs.

To maximize transparency, improve learning experience and build trust with students and parents, we allow parents to audit most of the small classes their children attend, and for all of our Xueersi small classes, also offer unconditional refunds for any remaining unattended classes net of the costs of materials.

In 2010, we launched Intelligent Classroom System (ICS), a proprietary classroom teaching solution used in small-class instruction. Through ICS, teachers at each of our learning centers are able to upload over the internet all of our internally developed multi-media teaching content, including instructional videos and audio materials, and project this content onto white boards to make the instructional process more efficient and the learning experience more interactive and stimulating.

Personalized Premium Services

We began to offer personalized premium services in 2007 under our “Izhikang” brand. As of February 29, 2020, our Izhikang network included 128 learning centers and 128 service centers in 18 cities.

Our personalized premium services mainly provide customized curricula and course materials and flexible schedules to suit each student’s educational focus in a one-on-one student-teacher setting. We provide personalized premium services to cater to the specific requirements of our students, such as addressing weaknesses in particular subjects or topics, providing intensive examination and tailoring the pace of learning to accommodate above- or below-average learning curves. Key features of our personalized premium services include:

Customized tutoring solution. Each prospective student of our personalized premium services must meet with our educational planner and undergo a diagnostic assessment of the student’s strengths, weaknesses and potential. We then design and recommend a customized tutoring solution to the student in consultation with the student’s parents with respect to timing, cost and other considerations specific to the students’ circumstances. During the entire course of our personalized premium services for a student, we actively monitor the student’s progress and adjust the curriculum and learning pace for the student when necessary.

Tailor-made course materials. The course materials used in our personalized premium services are selected by subject teachers from our comprehensive course material database for the benefits of each student. We leverage our strong curriculum and course material development capability to provide high quality course materials to our students.

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One-on-one student-teacher setting, supported by a team of experienced teachers. Each student in our personalized premium service has access to a large pool of experienced teachers. Teachers are chosen by students and their parents based on the interests and needs of each student. Our personalized premium services are mostly offered in one-on-one format, with a small portion of small-group classes, which typically consist of only two to eight students.

Personalized attention. For most students, we assign a coordinator, who routinely communicates with the student and the student’s parents to address their questions and concerns and to closely monitor the quality of our services. The coordinator also solicits monthly feedback from students and parents. We also accommodate any request by students or parents to change teachers to the extent practicable.

Online Courses

We began to offer online courses in 2010 through www.xueersi.com. Through www.xueersi.com, we offer online courses on mathematics, English, Chinese, physics, chemistry, biology, programming and other subjects. We also offer select online courses through other websites. Online courses enable us to leverage our proprietary curricula and course materials and high quality teachers to target markets beyond the reach of our physical network. It also enables our students to access our courses through the internet at times and places most convenient for them and enable more students to access quality courses with affordable prices.

In the past, our online courses were mostly in the format of pre-recorded classes. In March 2015, we launched a new TEPC (standing for teaching, examination, practice and communication) flipped classroom format, which was intended to serve as a major upgrade from the traditional model of recorded classes, and enable our students to participate in more proactive and interactive learnings. This new format was further developed into live-broadcasting classes starting from October 2015, which has become the principal format of our online courses.

Currently, our online courses mainly feature interactive, live-broadcasting lectures by experienced teachers. We seek to engage teachers who have a strong command of the respective subject areas and superior communication skills. By offering live broadcasting classes, our teachers can adjust the pace and content of each class according to student performance and reaction. Under this format, students can proactively participate in the class and obtain a more personalized learning experience. We also conduct in-class examination and have dedicated tutoring teachers who focus on the correction of examinations and post-exam tutoring for students. In this way, students can receive timely and tailored feedback on their learning.

We plan to further develop our online course offerings to extend our market reach and maximize the potential of our services. In particular, we intend to expand our course offerings to include more subjects and grade levels. We have also made a few acquisitions and investments to expand our online business and enhance our online presence.

Student Services

We strive to provide a supportive learning environment to our students through our teachers, class coordinators, call centers and online platform.

Our teachers keep track of the students’ performance and progress and regularly communicate with the students and parents. Moreover, we assign most of our students in the personalized premium services a class coordinator who is in close contact with the students and parents regarding scheduling and other logistical issues, receives feedback on teaching quality and arranges teacher replacements where necessary.

Through our call centers, websites, mobile applications and WeChat platform, we provide support services for students and parents, including receiving enquiries, accepting registrations, addressing course-related issues and facilitating communication with existing and prospective students for our center-based offerings and the parents of such students.

In addition, the online platform, among other things, provides an efficient channel for students and parents to submit study questions to our subject experts.

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Our Curricula and Course Materials

Curricula

The curricula for our K-12 tutoring services covers the core K-12 subjects. We started our business by offering tutoring classes in mathematics and then gradually rolled out courses in other subjects over years. In terms of grade levels, we initially focused on serving primary school students and over time expanded our course offerings into higher grade levels.

Our K-12 course offerings encompass all major subjects catered to students of grades ranging from kindergarten to the twelfth grade. Our offerings start off with the fundamentals such as mathematics, English and Chinese for kindergarten and primary school students. Physics, biology, and chemistry are added to our curricula as students progress through middle school, reflecting their expanded core subjects. For high school students, we offer a full spectrum of subjects in response to their expanded and elevated study needs, completing the offering with history, political science, and geography.

The history, political science and geography courses are offered mainly through personalized premium tutoring services under our “Izhikang” brand and small-class services under our “Xueersi” brand. In addition, we also offer science, programming and GO courses.

Curriculum and Course Material Development

Substantially all of our education content for our non-English subject areas is developed in-house.

For the science subjects offered through Xueersi small classes, our team works closely with experts in different subject fields to keep up with changing academic and examination requirements in the PRC education system and solicits feedback from our teachers based on their classroom experience. When developing our curricula and course materials, we typically review and reference recent teaching materials and teachers’ training materials from leading public schools, consider any new examination requirements and requirements on cultivation of student ability and quality, and analyze the latest market trends and needs. Our development team is able to identify subjects and concepts that are difficult for students and focuses on the most important and difficult concepts and skills in the curricula. We evaluate, update and improve course materials based upon usage rate, feedback from teachers, students and parents as well as student performance. Most of our curricula and course materials are developed at our corporate level in Beijing and adopted by other locations with modifications to meet local requirements and demands. We have modularized a portion of our course materials based on specific topics so that centrally developed content can be more easily adopted locally and make our services more scalable, and we are in the process of modularizing other portions of our course materials.

In March 2014, we, through our “Xueersi” brand, collaborated closely with Cambridge University Press, and together, launched a series of English learning materials called “Hello Learner’s English.” The Hello Learner’s English series of learning materials is tailored specifically for Chinese students, from grades one through six, and introduces new learning patterns for students to advance their English speaking, listening, reading and writing abilities, preparing students to pass the government authorized English examinations or well-recognized English assessment tests, and for their future secondary school or college English entrance examinations.

Moreover, Since May 2016, we have cooperated with LAZEL Inc. by entering into content license agreements with LAZEL Inc., pursuant to which we are granted license to use leveled English reading materials “Reading A-Z” and certain other distribution rights with respect to such reading materials. The leveled reading method of “Reading A-Z” scientifically provide children of different age groups English reading contents that are suitable for their development.

Since November 2017, we entered into certain content license agreements with Educational Testing Service, or ETS, pursuant to which, we and ETS intend to collaborate on launching our TOEFL and GRE preparation materials which, providing online practice and automated scoring and feedback systems to our students.

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Our Teachers

We have a team of dedicated and highly qualified teachers with a strong passion for education, whom we believe are essential to our success. We are committed to maintaining consistent and high teaching quality across our business. This commitment is reflected in our highly selective teacher hiring process, our emphasis on continued teacher training and rigorous evaluation, competitive performance-based compensation and opportunities for career advancement. We had 17,868, 21,387 and 27,500 full-time teachers and 2,511, 4,616 and 8,245 contract teachers as of February 28/29, 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively.

For our Xueersi business, personalized premium services and online education business, we recruit teachers from university graduates, including many top-tier universities in China, as well as experienced teachers with a solid track record and strong reputation from other schools. Each of our newly hired full-time teachers is required to undergo certain standard and customized trainings that focus on education content, teaching skills and techniques as well as our corporate culture and values. In addition, our teachers are regularly evaluated for their classroom performance and teaching results. Our teachers’ retention, compensation and promotion are to a large extent based on the results of such evaluations. We offer our teachers competitive and performance-based compensation packages and provide them with prospects of career advancement within the company. Our best teachers may be promoted to become directors of our operations in new geographic markets outside Beijing, invited to participate in our educational content development effort and even considered for senior management positions.

Our Network

As of February 29, 2020, our extensive network consisted of 871 learning centers and 767 service centers in the cities set forth in the table below. Our learning centers are physical locations where classes are conducted. Our service centers offer consultation, course selection, registration and other services, most of which are also provided by our call centers and online platform.

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The following table sets forth the number of learning centers and service centers in each of the 70 cities in our physical network as of February 29, 2020.

    

Number of Learning

    

Number  of Service

City

Centers

Centers

Beijing

 

146

 

133

Nanjing

 

83

 

62

Shanghai

 

80

 

72

Shenzhen

 

60

 

55

Guangzhou

 

58

 

58

Hangzhou

 

55

 

45

Tianjin

 

41

 

32

Wuhan

 

32

 

27

Xi’an

 

31

 

22

Chongqing

 

30

 

29

Zhengzhou

 

25

 

24

Chengdu

 

23

 

21

Suzhou

 

23

 

19

Shenyang

 

23

 

22

Jinan

 

13

 

13

Changsha

 

13

 

8

Taiyuan

 

11

 

7

Hefei

 

11

 

11

Fuzhou

 

11

 

10

Qingdao

 

8

 

8

Shijiazhuang

 

7

 

7

Nanchang

 

5

 

4

Changzhou

 

5

 

4

Foshan

 

5

 

5

Wuxi

 

4

 

4

Zhenjiang

 

4

 

4

Ningbo

 

3

 

1

Luoyang

 

3

 

3

Changchun

 

3

 

3

Guiyang

 

3

 

3

Xuzhou

 

3

 

3

Nantong

 

3

 

3

Wenzhou

 

3

 

3

Xiamen

 

2

 

2

Lanzhou

 

2

 

2

Dalian

 

2

 

1

Dongguan

 

2

 

2

Yangzhou

 

2

 

2

Zibo

 

2

 

2

Langfang

 

1

 

1

Jining

 

1

 

1

Zaozhuang

 

1

 

1

Taian

 

1

 

1

Yancheng

 

1

 

1

Suqian

 

1

 

1

Taizhou

 

1

 

1

Lianyungang

 

1

 

1

Jiaxing

 

1

 

1

Taizhou

 

1

 

1

Jinhua

 

1

 

1

Quanzhou

 

1

 

1

Zhangzhou

 

1

 

1

Shaoxing

 

1

 

1

Yantai

 

1

 

1

Zhongshan

 

1

 

1

Huizhou

 

1

 

1

Huaian

 

1

 

1

Handan

1

1

Nanning

1

1

Kunming

1

1

Yinchuan

1

1

Urumqi

1

1

Haikou

1

1

Tangshan

1

1

Harbin

1

1

Huhehaote

1

1

Linyi

1

1

Weifang

1

1

Hongkong

1

1

Silicon Valley

1

1

Total

871

767

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We intend to open new learning and service centers both in our existing and newly identified geographic markets to capitalize on growth opportunities. We have adopted a systematic approach to expansion of our learning centers and geographic markets. The decision on whether to enter a new city is typically made at the corporate business unit level and involves a well-established process requiring participation by different levels of management personnel within our organizational structure. Our process in identifying a new market involves developing plans for promoting our brand locally, recruiting teachers and other staff and commencing course offerings with an initial focus on certain core subjects and grades. In then selecting the locations for new learning centers, we perform studies of each location by gathering education statistics, demographic data, public transportation information and other data.

Marketing and Student Recruitment

We recruit students for our small-class business primarily through word-of-mouth referrals. Our reputation and brand have also greatly facilitated our student recruitment. Moreover, we engage in a range of marketing activities to enhance our brand recognition among prospective students and their parents, generate interest in our service offerings and further stimulate referrals. In the fiscal years ended February 28/29, 2018, 2019 and 2020, our selling and marketing expenses were $242.1 million, $484.0 million and $852.8 million, respectively, accounting for 14.1%, 18.9% and 26.1% of our total net revenues, respectively.

Referrals

We believe a great contributor to our success in small-class student recruitment has been word-of-mouth referrals by our students and their parents who share their learning experiences with others. Our recruitment through word-of-mouth referrals has enjoyed a strong network effect with the rapid growth in our student base, and benefits from our reputation, brand and the performance track record of our students.

Cross selling

We also use our interaction with parents and students for one type of service offerings as an opportunity to advertise our other service offerings. With a variety of offerings aimed at different student groups or focused on different areas, our goal is to create a brand name that permeates every aspect of our potential students’ educational needs.

Online Platform

Our online and mobile platform is an important component of our marketing and branding efforts. It also facilitates direct and frequent communications with and among our prospective students as well as our existing students and parents, supporting our overall sales and marketing efforts.

Public Lectures, Seminars, Diagnostic Sessions and Media Interviews

We frequently offer public lectures, seminars and diagnostic sessions to students and parents as a way of providing useful information to our prospective students and relevant experience for them to evaluate our offerings. In addition, our approach to teaching quality and the track record of our student performance has been covered by traditional and new media, which we believe has further enhanced our reputation and brand.

Advertisement and Others

We advertise through leading search engines in China and our cooperative relationships with other education websites targeting students in China. We also have advertising arrangements with national and regional newspapers in China and use other advertising channels such as outdoor advertising campaigns. In addition, we distribute marketing materials such as brochures, posters and flyers to current and prospective students and their parents in our learning centers, service centers and outside public school campuses. We also participate in various education services and products exhibitions and conventions.

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Competition

The after-school tutoring service sector in China is rapidly evolving, highly fragmented and competitive. We face competition in each type of service we offer and each geographic market in which we operate. Our competitors at the national level include New Oriental Education & Technology Group Inc., and certain online after-school tutoring services providers that integrate advanced technology in their services.

We believe the principal competitive factors in our business include the following:

brand;
overall student experience;
price-to-value;
type and quality of tutoring services offered; and
ability to effectively tailor service offerings to the needs of students, parents and educators.

We believe that we compete favorably with our competitors on the basis of the above factors. However, some of our competitors may have more resources than we do, and may be able to devote greater resources than we can to expand their business and market shares. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—We face significant competition, and if we fail to compete effectively, we may lose our market share and our profitability may be adversely affected.”

Intellectual Property

Our brands, trademarks, service marks, copyrights, patents and other intellectual property rights distinguish and protect our course offerings and services from infringement, and contribute to our competitive advantages in the after-school tutoring service sector in China. Our intellectual property rights include the following:

trademark registrations for our brand and logo in China and Hong Kong;
domain names;
copyrights to substantially all of the course contents we developed in house, including all of our online courses;
copyright registration certificates for software programs developed by us relating to different aspects of our operations; and
patents granted in China relating to interactive and technology-driven teaching and learning in our classes, as well as user interface on various platforms.

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Among the domain names we have registered, several are highly valued and unique online assets as the domain name incorporates the Chinese spelling of the theme of the corresponding website, and is therefore easy to remember. Our domain names include the following:

Website Domain Name

    

Topic

www.jzb.com

 

Our main webpage which mainly has links to the websites listed below

(formerly www.eduu.com)

 

 

www.xueersi.com

 

Online courses

www.gaokao.com

 

College entrance examinations

www.zhongkao.com

 

High school entrance examinations

www.jiajiaoban.com

 

Personalized premium services

www.aoshu.com

 

Mathematics for primary and middle schools; specialized training for competition mathematics

www.yingyu.com

 

English language

www.youjiao.com

 

Preschool and kindergarten education

www.speiyou.com

 

Small-class tutoring under our Xueersi brand

www.mobby.cn

 

Tutoring services for students aged two through fifteen under our Mobby brand

www.yuer.com

 

Raising infants and toddlers

www.kaoyan.com

 

Post-graduate degree entrance examination

www.firstleap.cn

 

All-subject tutoring services in English to children aged from two to fifteen years old

www.kmf.com

 

Preparation of English tests for study abroad purposes

www.vipx.com

 

Online one-on-one English tutoring services from foreign teachers

www.liuxue.com

 

Overseas studies services

www.mmbang.com

 

Communication platform related to pregnant preparations, pregnancy and raising infants and toddlers

www.xeslvl.com

(formerly www.dahai.com)

 

Online one-on-one tutoring services for secondary schools students

To protect our brand and other intellectual property, we rely on a combination of trademark, copyright, patent, domain names, know-how and trade secret laws as well as confidentiality agreements with our employees, contractors and others. We cannot be certain that our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights will be adequate or that third parties will not infringe or misappropriate these rights. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—If we fail to protect our intellectual property rights, our brand and business may suffer.”

Insurance

We have purchased limited liability insurance covering most of our learning centers and service centers. We consider our insurance coverage to be in line with that of other private education providers of a similar size in China.

PRC Regulation

This section summarizes the principal PRC regulations relating to our businesses.

We operate our business in China under a legal regime consisting of the National People’s Congress, which is the country’s highest legislative body, the State Council, which is the highest authority of the executive branch of the PRC central government, and several ministries and agencies under its authority, including the MoE, the General Administration of Press and Publication, the MIIT, the SAIC, the Ministry of Civil Affairs and their respective local offices.

Regulations on Private Education

The principal laws and regulations governing private education in China consist of the PRC Education Law, the Private Education Law and Implementation Rules, and the Regulations on PRC-Foreign Cooperation in Operating Schools. Below is a summary of relevant provisions of these regulations.

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PRC Education Law

The National People’s Congress enacted the PRC Education Law, most recent amendment of which was effective on June 1, 2016. The PRC Education Law sets forth provisions relating to the fundamental education systems of China, including a school system of preschool education, primary education, secondary education (including middle and high schools) and higher education, a system of nine-year compulsory education and a system of education certificates. The PRC Education Law stipulates that the government formulates plans for the development of education, and establishes and operates schools and other institutions of education. Under the PRC Education Law, enterprises, social organizations and individuals are in principle encouraged to operate schools and other types of educational organizations in accordance with PRC laws and regulations. The most recent amendment of Education Law, which became effective on June 1, 2016, abolished the provision that prohibits any organization or individual from establishing or operating a school or any other education institution for profit-making purposes. Nevertheless, schools and other education institutions sponsored wholly or partially by government financial funds and donated assets remain prohibited from being established as for-profit organizations.

The Private Education Law and the Implementation Rules for Private Education Law

The principal laws and regulations governing the private education industry in China are the Private Education Law and the Implementation Rules for Private Education Law, or collectively, the Private Education Law and Implementation Rules. The Private Education Law, which was promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress in 2002, the material amendments of which were effective in 2013 and 2017. Under the Private Education Law and Implementation Rules, “private schools” are defined as schools established by non-governmental organizations or individuals using non-government funds. In addition, under the regulations, private schools providing certifications, pre-school education, self-study aid and other academic education are subject to approval by the education authorities, while private schools engaging in occupational qualification training and occupational skill training are subject to approval by the authorities in charge of labor and social welfare. A duly approved private school will be granted a Permit for Operating a Private School, and shall be registered in accordance with relevant laws and regulations.

Under Private Education Law and Implementation Rules, private schools have the same status as public schools, though private schools are prohibited from providing military, police, political and other kinds of education that are of a special nature. Government-run schools that provide compulsory education are not permitted to be converted into private schools. In addition, under Private Education Law and Implementation Rules, operation of a private school is highly regulated. For example, a private school shall establish an executive council, a board of directors or any other form of decision-making body and such a decision-making body shall meet at least once a year. Teachers employed by a private school shall have the qualifications specified for teachers and meet the conditions provided for in the Teachers Law of the PRC, or the Teachers Law, and the other relevant laws and regulations, and there shall be a definite number of full-time teachers in a private school.

Before September 1, 2017, the date the Amended Private Education Law became effective, private education is treated as a public welfare undertaking in all aspects. Nonetheless, investors of a private school may choose to require “reasonable returns” from the annual net balance of the school net of costs, donations received, government subsidies, if any, the reserved development fund and other expenses as required by the regulations. Private schools fell into three categories, including private schools established with donated funds, private schools that require reasonable returns and private schools that do not require reasonable returns.

The election to establish a private school requiring reasonable returns was required to be provided in the articles of association of the school. The percentage of the school’s annual net income that could be distributed as reasonable return was required to be determined by the school’s board of directors, taking into consideration the following factors: (i) school fee types and collection criteria, (ii) the ratio of the school’s expenses in connection with educational activities and improvement of educational conditions to the total fees collected; and (iii) the admission standards and educational quality. The relevant information relating to the above factors was required to be publicly disclosed before the school’s board may determine the percentage of the school’s annual net income to be distributed as reasonable returns. Such information and the decision to distribute reasonable returns shall also be filed with the relevant government authorities within 15 days of the board decision. However, none of the then effective PRC laws and regulations provided any specific formula or guideline for determining “reasonable returns.” In addition, none of the then effective PRC laws and regulations set forth clear requirements or restrictions on a private school’s ability to operate its education business as a school that required reasonable returns or as a school that did not require reasonable returns.

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Every private school was required to allocate a certain amount to its development fund for the construction or maintenance of school facilities or procurement or upgrade of educational equipment. In the case of a private school that required reasonable returns, this amount shall be no less than 25% of the annual net income of the school, while in the case of a private school that does not require reasonable returns, this amount shall be equal to no less than 25% of the annual increase in the net assets of the school, if any. Private schools that did not require reasonable returns shall be entitled to the same preferential tax treatment as public schools, while the preferential tax treatment policies applicable to private schools requiring reasonable returns shall be formulated by the finance authority, taxation authority and other authorities under the State Council. However, no regulations had been promulgated by the relevant authorities in this regard.

On November 7, 2016 the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the Amended Private Education Law, which took effect on September 1, 2017.

Under the Amended Private Education Law, the term “reasonable return” is no longer used, and sponsors of private school may choose to establish non-profit or for-profit private schools at their own discretion. Nevertheless, school sponsors are not allowed to establish for-profit private schools that are engaged in compulsory education according to the Amended Private Education Law. Therefore, schools engaged in compulsory education must retain their non-profit status after the Amended Private Education Law takes effect.

The Amended Private Education Law further establishes a new classification system for private schools on whether they are established and operated for profit-making purposes. Key features of this system include the following:

sponsors of for-profit private schools are entitled to retain the profits and proceeds from the schools and the operation surplus may be allocated to the sponsors pursuant to the PRC Company Law and other relevant laws and regulations, whereas sponsors of non-profit private schools are not entitled to the distribution of profits or proceed from the non-profit schools and all operation surplus of non-profit schools shall be used for the operation of the schools, except that sponsors of private schools established before November 7, 2016 and registered as non-profit private schools, are allowed to obtain compensation or reward after the liquidation of such schools based on their investment to the schools, the reasonable returned they had obtained from the schools and the effectiveness of their operation of the school;
for-profit private schools are entitled to set their own tuition and other miscellaneous fees without seeking prior approval from or reporting to the relevant government authorities. whereas the collection of fees by non-profit private schools shall be regulated by the provincial, autonomous regional or municipal governments;
private schools (for-profit and non-profit alike) may enjoy preferential tax treatments; non-profit private schools will be entitled to the same tax benefits as public schools whereas taxation policies for for-profit private schools are still unclear as more specific provisions are yet to be introduced;
for construction or expansion of the school, non-profit schools may acquire the required land use rights in the form of allocation by the government as a preferential treatment, whereas for-profit private schools shall acquire the required land use rights by purchasing them from the government;
the remaining assets of non-profit private schools after liquidation shall continue to be used for the operation of non-profit schools, whereas the remaining assets of for-profit private schools shall be distributed to the sponsors in accordance with the PRC Company Law; and
governments at or above the prefecture level may support private schools (for-profit and non-profit alike) by subscribing to their services, providing student loans and scholarships, and leasing or transferring unused state assets to the schools, and the governments may further support non-profit private schools in the form of government subsidies, bonus funds and incentives for donation.

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On December 29, 2016, the State Council issued the Several Opinions of the State Council on Encouraging the Operation of Education by Social Forces and Promoting the Healthy Development of Private Education, which requires to ease the access to the operation of private schools and encourages social forces to enter the education industry. The opinions also provides that each level of the government shall increase their support to the private schools in terms of financial investment, financial support, autonomy policies, preferential tax treatments, land policies, fee policies, autonomy operation, protection of the rights of teachers and students etc. Further, the opinions require each level of the government to improve local policies on government support to for-profit and non-profit private schools by such means as preferential tax treatments.

On December 30, 2016, the MoE, Ministry of Civil Affairs, the SAIC, the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Welfare and the State Commission Office of Public Sectors Reform jointly issued the Implementation Rules on the Classification Registration of Private Schools to reflect the new classification system for private schools as set out in the Amended Private Education Law. Generally, if a private school established before promulgation of the Amended Private Education Law chooses to register as a non-profit school, it shall amend its articles of association, continue its operation and complete the new registration process. If such private school chooses to register as a for-profit school, it shall conduct financial liquidation process, have the property rights of its assets such as lands, school buildings and net balance being authenticated by relevant government authorities, pay up relevant taxes, apply for a new Permit for Operating a Private School, re-register as for-profit schools and continue its operation. Specific provisions regarding the above registration process shall be introduced by governments at the provincial level.

On December 30, 2016, the MoE, the SAIC and the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Welfare jointly issued the Implementation Rules on the Supervision and Administration of For-profit Private Schools, pursuant to which the establishment, division, merger and other material changes of a for-profit private school shall first be approved by the education authorities or the authorities in charge of labor and social welfare, and then be registered with the competent branch of the SAIC.

On August 31, 2017, SAIC and MoE jointly issued the Notice of Relevant Work on the Registration and Management of the Name of For-Profit Private Schools, which specifies the requirements on the names of for-profit private schools.

Besides the Amended Private Education Law and the above regulations, other details of the requirements on the operation of non-profit schools and for-profit schools will be provided in implementation regulations that are yet to be introduced, such as

an amendment to the Implementation Rules for the Law for Private Education Law;
local regulations relating to legal person registration of for-profit and non-profit private schools in certain areas; and
specific measures to be formulated and promulgated by the competent authorities responsible for the administration of private schools in the province(s) in which our schools are located, including but not limited to specific measures for registration of pre-existing private schools, specific requirements for authenticating various parties’ property rights and payment of taxes and fees of for-profit private schools, taxation policies for for-profit private schools, measures for the collection of non-profit private schools’ fees.

As of the date of this report, certain local governments, for example, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong Province, Jiangsu Province, Chengdu (a city of Sichuan Province) have promulgated regulations relating to the registration and administration of for-profit and non-profit after-school tutoring institutions, among which, some local governments, such as Beijing, Shanghai, Hubei, Hebei, Anhui, Yunnan and Zhejiang require the existing private schools to register either as for-profit or non-profit schools within a specific time period and certain local governments, for example, Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Zhejiang Province, Hainan Province, Ningxia Province, have promulgated specific measures for registration of pre-existing private schools.

As of April 30, 2020, none of our affiliated schools enjoys any preferential tax treatments pursuant to the requirements of local governmental authorities.

Regulations on PRC-Foreign Cooperation in Operating Schools

PRC-foreign cooperation in operating schools or training courses is specifically governed by the Regulations on PRC-Foreign Cooperation in Operating Schools, promulgated by the State Council in accordance with the PRC Education Law, the Occupational Education Law and Private Education Law, and the Implementation Rules for the Regulations on PRC-Foreign Cooperation in Operating Schools.

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The Regulations on PRC-Foreign Cooperation in Operating Schools and its implementation rules encourage substantive cooperation between overseas educational organizations with relevant qualifications and experience in providing high-quality education and PRC educational organizations to jointly operate various types of schools in China. Cooperation in the areas of higher education and occupational education is especially encouraged. PRC-foreign cooperative schools are not permitted, however, to engage in compulsory education or military, police, political and other kinds of education that are of a special nature in China.

Permits for schools jointly operated by PRC and foreign entities shall be obtained from the relevant education authorities or the authorities that regulate labor and social welfare in China. We are not required to apply for such permits since we currently do not have schools jointly operated by PRC and foreign entities.

Circular on Special Enforcement Campaign concerning After-school Tutoring Institutions to Alleviate Extracurricular Burden on Students of Primary and Secondary Schools

On February 13, 2018, the General Offices of MoE, SAIC, Ministry of Civil Affairs and Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security promulgated Circular on Special Enforcement Campaign concerning After-school Tutoring Institutions to Alleviate Extracurricular Burden on Students of Primary and Secondary Schools, or Circular 3. Among other things, the Circular 3 requires all local bureau of MoE, SAIC, Ministry of Civil Affairs and Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security to carry out a special enforcement campaign to prohibit the extracurricular private training schools and institutions from the following activities: (1) providing courses that do not follow the formal school curricula, and providing trainings to strengthen testing abilities for students; (2) organizing after-school examinations and competitions for primary and secondary school students; and (3) any activities linking students’ performance in extracurricular private training schools with admission of primary and secondary school. In addition, Circular 3 prohibits teachers in primary and secondary schools from engaging in part-time jobs to provide tutoring services in after-school tutoring institutions.

Opinions on Regulating Development of After-school Tutoring Institutions

On August 22, 2018, the General Office of the State Council issued the State Council Opinions 80 which provided various guidance on regulating after-school tutoring market for primary and secondary school students, including, among others, the operation standards that after-school tutoring institutions should follow, the requirements and approvals necessary for opening new after-school tutoring institutions, the guidance for daily operation of after-school tutoring institutions, and the regulatory supervision scheme for after-school tutoring institutions.

The State Council Opinions 80 set out the operation standards of after-school tutoring institutions, including but not limited to the requirements for the Permit for Operating a Private School, the size of training area, the teachers’ qualification, insurance, fire safety, environmental protection, and health and food safety. The State Council Opinions 80 also provide guidance on the daily operation of after-school tutoring institutions, including but not limited to the content of the course, the time of the courses, the methods of trainin