AS FILED WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ON JUNE 23, 2020

  

REGISTRATION NO. 333-__________

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM S-3

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

IDEANOMICS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Nevada

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

20-1778374

I.R.S. Employer Identification Number

 

55 Broadway, 19th Floor

New York, NY 10006

Telephone: (212)206-1216

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

Alfred Poor

Chief Executive Officer

Ideanomics, Inc.

55 Broadway, 19th Floor

New York, NY 10006

Telephone: (212)206-1216

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

Copies to:

 

William N. Haddad, Esq.

Venable LLP

1270 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10020

(212) 307-5500

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box: ¨

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plants, check the following box: x

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” , “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

¨ Large accelerated filer

x Accelerated filer

¨ Non-accelerated filer

x Smaller reporting company

¨ Emerging growth company

  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act. ¨

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

                Proposed        
          Proposed     maximum        
    Amount     maximum     aggregate     Amount of  
Title of each class of   to be     offering price     offering     registration  
Securities to be registered   registered(1)     per unit     price(2)     fee(3)  
Common stock, par value $0.001 per share                        
Preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share                        
Warrants(4)                        
Subscription Rights                                
Debt Securities                                
Units(5)                  —                    
Total                   $ 250,000,000     $ 32,450  

 

(1)There are being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of securities of each identified class of securities up to a proposed aggregate offering price not to exceed $250,000,000. The securities registered also include such indeterminate prices and numbers of securities as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including under any applicable anti-dilution provisions.

 

(2)In no event will the aggregate offering price of all securities issued from time to time pursuant to this registration statement exceed $250,000,000.

 

(3)Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act. The total amount is being paid herewith.

 

(4)Includes warrants to purchase common stock and warrants to purchase preferred stock.

 

(5)Any of the securities registered hereunder may be sold separately, or as units with other securities registered hereby. We will determine the proposed maximum offering price per unit when we issue the above listed securities. The proposed maximum per unit and aggregate offering prices per class of securities will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered under this registration statement and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.

 

The registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement relating to these securities that has been filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

(Subject to Completion, Dated June 23, 2020)

 

PROSPECTUS

 

$250,000,000

 

Ideanomics, Inc.

 

Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Warrants

Subscription Rights

Debt Securities
Units

 

We may from time to time, in one or more offerings at prices and on terms that we will determine at the time of each offering, sell common stock, preferred stock, warrants, or a combination of these securities, or units, for an aggregate initial offering price of up to $250,000,000. This prospectus describes the general manner in which our securities may be offered using this prospectus. Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide you with a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. Any prospectus supplement may also add, update, or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement as well as the documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus before you purchase any of the securities offered hereby.

 

This prospectus may not be used to offer and sell securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

Our Common Stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “IDEX”. On June 22, 2020, the closing price of our Common Stock was $3.29 per share. As of the date of this prospectus, none of the other securities that we may offer by this prospectus is listed on any national securities exchange or automated quotation system.

 

The securities offered by this prospectus involve a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 13, in addition to Risk Factors contained in the applicable prospectus supplement.

  

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

We may offer the securities directly or through agents or to or through underwriters or dealers. If any agents or underwriters are involved in the sale of the securities their names, and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them, will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in an accompanying prospectus supplement. We can sell the securities through agents, underwriters or dealers only with delivery of a prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities. See “Plan of Distribution.”

 

This prospectus is dated ___________, 2020

 

 2 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

    Page
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS   4
     
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS   4
     
ABOUT IDEANOMICS    5
     
CORPORATE INFORMATION   12
     
RISK FACTORS   13
     
USE OF PROCEEDS   14
     
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK   14
     
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS   16
     
DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS   18
     
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES   19
     
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS   27
     
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION   27
     
LEGAL MATTERS   30
     
EXPERTS   30
     
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION   30
     
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE   31

 

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. If any person does provide you with information that differs from what is contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, you should not rely on it. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained in this prospectus. You should assume that the information contained in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information contained in any document we have incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or any sale of a security. These documents are not an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy these securities by anyone in any jurisdiction in which such offer or solicitation is not authorized, or in which the person is not qualified to do so or to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation.

 

 3 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one of more offerings up to a total dollar amount of proceeds of $250,000,000. This prospectus describes the general manner in which our securities may be offered by this prospectus. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. The prospectus supplement that contains specific information about the terms of the securities being offered may also include a discussion of certain U.S. Federal income tax consequences and any risk factors or other special considerations applicable to those securities. To the extent that any statement that we make in a prospectus supplement is inconsistent with statements made in this prospectus or in documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement. You should carefully read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under “Where You Can Find More Information” before buying any securities in this offering.

 

Unless the context otherwise requires, references to “we,” “our,” “us,” “IDEX” or the “Company” in this prospectus mean Ideanomics, Inc., a Delaware corporation, on a consolidated basis with its wholly-owned subsidiaries, as applicable.

 

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus and the documents and information incorporated by reference in this prospectus include forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. These statements are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. Such forward-looking statements include those that express plans, anticipation, intent, contingency, goals, targets or future development and/or otherwise are not statements of historical fact.

 

All statements in this prospectus and the documents and information incorporated by reference in this prospectus that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements. We may, in some cases, use terms such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “projects,” “should,” “will,” “would” or similar expressions or the negative of such items that convey uncertainty of future events or outcomes to identify forward-looking statements.

 

Forward-looking statements are made based on management’s beliefs, estimates and opinions on the date the statements are made and we undertake no obligation to update forward-looking statements if these beliefs, estimates and opinions or other circumstances should change, except as may be required by applicable law. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements.

 

 4 

 

 

ABOUT IDEANOMICS

 

Overview

 

Ideanomics, Inc. (Nasdaq: IDEX) was incorporated in the State of Nevada on October 19, 2004. From 2010 through 2017, our primary business activities were providing premium content video on demand (“VOD”) services, with primary operations in the PRC, through our subsidiaries and variable interest entities under the brand name You-on-Demand (“YOD”). We closed the YOD business during 2019.

 

Starting in early 2017, the Company transitioned its business model to become a next-generation financial technology (“fintech”) company. The Company built a network of businesses, operating principally in the trading of petroleum products and electronic component that the Company believed had significant potential to recognize benefits from blockchain and AI technologies including, for example, enhancing operations, addressing cost inefficiencies, improving documentation and standardization, unlocking asset value and improving customer engagement. During 2018 the Company ceased operations in the petroleum products and electronic components trading businesses and disposed of the businesses during 2019. Fintech continues to be a priority for us as we look to invest in and develop businesses that can improve the financial services industry, particularly as it relates to deploying blockchain and AI technologies. As we looked to deploy fintech solutions in late 2018 and into 2019, we found a unique opportunity in the Chinese Electric Vehicle (EV) industry to facilitate large scale conversion of fleet vehicles from internal combustion engines to EV. This led us to establish our Mobile Energy Global (MEG) business unit.

 

Principal Products or services and their markets

 

The Company operates in one segment which has two business units, the Mobile Energy Global and Ideanomics Capital.

 

Mobile Energy Group (MEG)

 

MEG’s mission is to use EV and EV battery sales and financing to attract commercial fleet operators that will generate large scale demand for energy, Energy Storage Systems (ESS) and Energy Management Contracts (EMC). Additionally, MEG will become a key player in the supply chain of crucial metals required for EV batteries, which are the center piece of mobile energy. The MEG business operates as an end-to-end solutions provider for the procurement, financing, charging and energy management needs for fleet operators of commercial Electronic Vehicles (EV). MEG operates through a series of joint ventures with the leading companies in the commercial EV space, principally in China, and earns fees for every transaction completed based on the spread for group buying of vehicles and fees derived from the arrangement of financing and energy management such as commercial purchasing of pre-paid electricity credits. MEG focuses on commercial EV rather than passenger personal EV, as commercial EV is on an accelerated adoption path when compared to consumer EV adoption – which is expected to take between ten to fifteen years. We focus on four distinct commercial vehicles types with supporting income streams: 1) Closed-area heavy commercial, in areas such as Mining, Airports, and Sea Ports; 2) Last-mile delivery light commercial; 3) Buses and Coaches; 4) Taxis. The purchase and financing of vehicles provides for one-time fees and the charging and energy management provides for recurring revenue streams.

  

 5 

 

  

In May 2019, the Company signed an agreement with iUnicorn (also known as Shenma Zhuanche) to form a strategic joint venture (“JV”) that will focus on green finance and integrated marketing services for new energy taxi vehicles as part of Ideanomics’ Mobile Energy Group (“MEG”). The Company agreed to contribute advisory and sales resources which include arranging ABS-based auto financing with its bank partners, and will have 50.01% ownership interest in the JV and will have control of the board. iUnicorn, which will own 49.99% of the JV, agreed to contribute its vehicles sales orders in Sichuan province. The JV will generate revenues from commissions on vehicle sales order and ABS fees related to the financing, which will vary accordingly to manufacturer and vehicle model.

 

In July 2019 the Company made an equity investment in Glory Connection Snd. Bhd, (Glory) a vehicle manufacturer located in Malaysia. Glory’s principal operating entity is Tree Manufacturing which holds the only license granted so far to a domestic entity for the manufacture of electric vehicles in Malaysia and is in the process of setting up its manufacturing and assembly capabilities.

 

In September 2019, the Company entered into a revenue sharing agreement with First Auto Loan, one of the leading taxi finance companies in the PRC under which the Company’s MEG business unit would assist First Auto secure a funding pool for taxi finance and in return MEG will receive a commission on each loan written by First Auto Loan. The funding pool is led by Dasheng Licheng Lease Financing with additional funding provided by a consortium of large Chinese insurance companies.

  

The Company has preferred purchasing agreements with a number of EV manufacturers including Jianghuai Automobile Group Co. (frequently known as JAC), Geely Auto Group and Beijing Foton Motor Company and EV battery manufacturers including Contemporary Amperex Technology (frequently known as CATL) and Yinlong Energy Co Ltd. Under the terms of these preferred purchasing agreements the Company receives preferred pricing and volume discounts for EV and EV batteries purchased through these partners.

 

In November 2019, the Company announced an agreement with China’s Yunnan province under the terms of which Yunnan, in its capacity as the PRC’s province responsible for China’s Belt and Road initiative in the ASEAN countries, will make an investment into the Company’s Malaysian headquartered Tree Technologies subsidiary. The terms of this investment are under negotiation.

 

The Company has entered into a sales referral agreement with Zhitong 3000 (Zhitong) an operator of a SaaS platform for the management of commercial truck fleets. This agreement will enable to Zhitong to broaden the services offered to its customers by providing access to MEG’s vehicle purchasing and financing platform. MEG will earn its normal fees for any business transacted by customers of Zhitong on the MEG platform.

 

In September 2019, the company entered into a framework agreement with the China National Petroleum Corporation Nanjing (PetroChina), one of the world largest oil companies. The Company and PetroChina will negotiate an agreement under which the Company will earn a commission for each charge at a EV fast charging station financed by investment from the Company’s EV financing consortium which includes Three Georges, Tianda Energy, Ding Fang and Palcan Energy.

   

 6 

 

 

In August 2018, the Company entered into an agreement with National Transport Capacity (NTC) (also known as National Transport of Shenzhen) under which the Company receives an origination fee for any ABS transactions for assets that NTC originates through its platform.

 

In August 2019 the Company entered into a joint venture agreement with Golden Concord Holdings Limited (GCL) thru which GCL took a 49.9% equity interest in logistical vehicle unit of the Company’s MEG subsidiary. As consideration for the 49.9% interest, GCL made an exclusive commitment to introduce sales of 500,000 EVs to MEG over three years. The transaction includes performance criteria with share-based claw back formula in the event that GCL does not meet its committed targets.

 

In December 2019 the Company purchased a controlling interest in Tree Technologies Sdn Bhd (“Tree Technologies”) a company that holds the distribution license for the EV’s manufactured by Glory’s Tree Manufacturing subsidiary. In addition to the distribution license, Tree Technologies has a 99 year lease on 250 acres of vacant land zoned for industrial development in the Gebeng Industrial Area adjacent to Kuantan Port. Kuantan is the capital city of the state of Pahang on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The Company intends to develop this land and lease it to Tree Manufacturing for the manufacture of EVs.

 

Ideanomics Capital

 

The Company’s Ideanomics Capital business unit consists of the Delaware Board of Trade (DBOT), Intelligenta and EKAR.

 

The Delaware Board of Trade is a broker dealer that also operates an Alternative Trading System (ATS) focused on the trading of traditional OTC securities. The Company purchased DBOT in July 2019 and has been implementing a new trading platform to improve its competitive position in the trading of traditional OTC securities and provide enhanced functionality to allow for the trading of digital securities when all necessary regulatory approvals have been obtained.

 

Intelligenta (formerly BDCG)

 

Intelligenta is a pre-revenue company focused on delivering AI driven solutions for the financial services industry. Intelligenta has a license from BBD to adapt BBD’s solutions for use in the US market.

 

Between December 2017 and April 2018, we formed BBD Digital Capital Group Ltd., a New York corporation (“BDCG”), as a joint venture with management partner Seasail, an affiliate of Big Business Data (“BBD”). In April 2019 the Company rebranded the name BDCG to Intelligenta. We hold approximately 60% of the equity interest of Inteligenta and have the power to appoint three of the five directors of the board of Intelligenta. Intelligenta focuses on developing AI-driven financial data services as well as building transactional platforms for index, futures and derivative trading, for both global commodity and energy clients. Planned financial data services also include risk management solutions, platforms for trading derivatives and indices, and debt and credit product offerings, with the primary objective being enhancing trading and risk management strategies. 

 

We believe we can leverage Intelligenta’s AI services for the creation of financial products, risk ratings and indexing, and selection and recommendation systems on behalf of key stakeholders. By using AI technology to analyze the digital securitized assets we intend to develop, we aim to elevate not only the quality of the financial product, but also interactions among stakeholders. We also intend to design the digital securitized assets we develop to have data attributes that can be integrated into Intelligenta’s approach for processing financial data.

  

 7 

 

 

EKAR – Exchange Traded Fund (ETF)

 

EKAR is an ETF listed on the NY Stock Exchange under the symbol EKAR. EKAR tracks the Innovation Labs Next Generation Vehicles Index, which is comprised of a basket of global stocks that have exposure to the theme of electric and self driving/autonomous vehicles. As at December 31, 2019 the total assets under management for EKAR stood at $1.7 million.

 

FinTalk

 

In September 2018, we entered into an agreement for the acquisition of FinTalk, a secure mobile messaging, collaboration and information services platform that delivers encrypted text and media messaging, with high performance large file transfer capabilities. The company has determined through analysis that the technology is rapidly changing and the cost of maintaining this does not justify further investment.

 

Blockchain And AI Technologies

 

The Company considers deploying blockchain & AI technologies, where appropriate, to be an important part of its strategy of building new businesses and disrupting established businesses and processes. The Company does not develop proprietary blockchain or AI technologies, the company will license the necessary technology.

 

Non-Core Assets

 

The company has identified a number of business units that it considers non-core and is evaluating strategies for divesting these assets. The non-core assets are Grapevine, a marketing and ecommerce platform focused on influencer marketing, and FinTech Village a 58-acre development site in West Hartford, Connecticut.

 

Sources and availability of raw materials

 

The Company does not directly manufacture any products, consequently it is not dependent on a reliable source of materials to operate its business. However, the Company’s partners that manufacture EVs and batteries do depend on a ready supply of raw materials and consequently a shortage of raw materials would adversely impact their manufacturing process and, potentially, indirectly impact the Company’s revenues as it may not be able to complete orders that it had received.

  

 8 

 

 

Seasonality

 

The Company’s MEG division operates in the market for fleet sales of commercial EVs and the Company expects that orders and sales will be influenced by the amount and timing of budgeted expenditure by its customers. Typically, the Company would expect to see higher sales at the start of the year when companies start executing on their capital programs and at the end of the year when companies are spending any surplus or uncommitted budget before the new budget cycle commences. The Company’s MEG division is building out its network and has not generated sufficient orders to allow it to establish with any degree of certainty an expected pattern of seasonality.

 

Working Capital requirements

 

The Company’s MEG division is still in the development stage and its business model continues to evolve, however, management does not believe that the MEG divisions anticipated business model will require substantial amounts of working capital as it does not anticipate holding material amounts of inventory or offering customers extended payment terms. The Company’s Tree Technologies subsidiary will require substantial amounts of investment to build out its distribution business. It is the Company’s intention to fund this with borrowings secured against Tree Technologies assets, however the Company may need to fund all, or a material portion of the investment if the Tree Technologies is not able to raise the required capital to set-up and operate the business. The Company will continue to raise funds to support its US based Head Office functions and its US based operating subsidiaries until such time as the operations become cash flow positive.

 

Trade marks, patents and licenses

 

The Company’s Intelligenta business operates under a license granted by Seasail Ventures. The license does not have a stated term.

 

Customer Concentration

 

The Company is in the process of building out its Mobile Energy Group subsidiary and has not yet reached a stage of development where the loss of any single customer would have a material adverse effect on the Company.

 

Reliance on government contracts

 

The Company does not contract directly with the government of the PRC, however it does have joint ventures, partnerships and agreements with the State Own Entities (SOE) described above. Additionally, the rate at which commercial fleets convert to EV is heavily influenced by federal and provincial policies in the PRC as they relate to clean air and adoption of EV technology. Consequently, the Company’s results may be adversely impacted by changes in regulations in the PRC.

   

 9 

 

 

Competitive business conditions, competitive position in the industry and methods of competition

 

Mobile Energy Group

 

The Company’s MEG business unit is focused on the PRC and the ASEAN Region. The most important drivers for the development of the commercial fleet EV market in the PRC are federal and provincial regulations relating to clean air and electronic vehicles including subsidies and incentives to help owners of fleets of commercial vehicles to convert from combustion engines to EV. The government of the PRC has a stated policy of converting all taxis and buses to EV by the end of 2022. The speed at which fleet operators convert to EV is highly correlated with government regulations, targets and related subsidies and incentives. If the government of the PRC, or a municipality, changes the regulations, targets, incentives or subsidies then the rate at which fleet operators convert their vehicles to EV could slow down which in turn may lead to lower revenues for the Company. Additionally, the rate, and form in which, the commercial fleet EV market develops is dependent upon the development of new financing and lending structures that address the different collateral and resale values of the battery and vehicle. For vehicles with Internal Combustion Engines the power source, i.e. the engine, and the car body are one integrated unit, however EVs are designed with the intention of the battery being easily removed from the vehicle to enable fast recharging through “swapping’ of batteries. Additionally, the EV market is still developing and there is a very limited history of resale values for lenders to use when calculating resale values when evaluating a financing application.

 

The Company operates through a network of joint ventures, partnerships and formal and informal alliances; consequently, its competitive position could be adversely impacted if one of the members of the alliance was not able to meet the demand for its products or goes out of business.

 

Ideanomics Capital

 

The Company’s Ideanomics Capital business unit operates in sectors that are undergoing rapid change.

 

The Delaware Board of Trade is a broker dealer that also operates an Alternative Trading System for the trading of OTC equities, this is market which is undergoing rapid change as retail focused stock brokers introduce zero commission trading for their clients and the industry continues to consolidates as large financial firms acquire national stock brokers. These changes make for a very difficult competitive environment. The Company has applied for regulatory approval to broker digital securities and tokens, this is a nascent market which the Company believes has good long term potential.

 

Intelligenta is developing a platform for AI driven decision making and risk management for financial data. The company is developing proof of concepts.

 

The Company owns the EKAR ETF listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol EKAR.

 

 10 

 

  

Preferred Stock

 

The Company has a multi-tiered capital structure that includes Series A Preferred Stock.

 

Ranking. With respect to rights upon liquidation, winding-up or dissolution, the Series A Preferred Stock ranks senior to our common stock and pari passu with any other series of our preferred stock established by our board of directors.

 

Voting. The holders of the Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to ten (10) votes for each one (1) share of common stock that is issuable upon conversion of a share of Series A Preferred Stock (each of the 7,000,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock is convertible into 0.1333333 shares of Common Stock, or a total of 9,333,330 votes). Except as required by law, all shares of Series A Preferred Stock and all shares of common stock shall vote together as a single class.

 

Conversion. Each share of Series A Preferred Stock is convertible, at any time at the option of the holder, into ten (10) fully paid and nonassessable shares of common stock, subject to adjustment as provided in the Certificate of Designation.

 

Dividends. The Series A Preferred Stock is only entitled to receive dividends when and if declared by our board of directors.

 

Liquidation. Upon the occurrence of a liquidation event, the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock then outstanding will be entitled to receive, out of the assets of the Company available for distribution to its stockholders, an amount equal to $0.50 per share, as may be adjusted from time to time, plus all accrued, but unpaid dividends, before any payment shall be made or any assets distributed to the holders of common stock or any other class or series of stock issued by the Company not designated as ranking senior to or pari passu with the Series A Preferred Stock in respect of the right to participate in distributions or payments upon a liquidation event. For purposes of the Certificate of Designation, a “liquidation event” means any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company, either voluntary or involuntary, and upon the election of the holders of a majority of the then outstanding Series A Preferred Stock shall be deemed to be occasioned by, or to include, (i) the acquisition of the Company by another entity by means of any transaction or series of related transactions (including, without limitation, any reorganization, merger, consolidation, or other transaction in which control of the Company is transferred, but, excluding any merger effected exclusively for the purpose of changing the domicile of the Company) unless the Company’s stockholders of record as constituted immediately prior to such acquisition or sale will, immediately after such acquisition or sale (by virtue of securities issued as consideration for the Company’s acquisition or sale or otherwise) hold at least 50% of the voting power of the surviving or acquiring entity or (ii) a sale of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company.

 

 11 

 

 

CORPORATE INFORMATION

 

Ideanomics, Inc. (formerly China Broadband, Inc., Seven Stars Cloud Group, Inc. and WeCast) was incorporated in Nevada on October 19, 2004 pursuant to a reorganization of a California entity formed in 1988. Prior to January 2007 we were a blank check shell company. On January 23, 2007, we acquired CB Cayman, which at the time was a party to the cooperation agreement with our PRC-based WFOE, in a reverse acquisition transaction. Our principal executive offices are located at 55 Broadway, 19th Floor, New York, NY 10006, and our telephone number is (212) 206-1216. Our corporate website address is www.ideanomics.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.

  

 12 

 

  

RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should consider carefully the risks, uncertainties and other factors described in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as supplemented and updated by subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K that we have filed or will file with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

Our business, affairs, prospects, assets, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected by these risks. For more information about our SEC filings, please see “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

 13 

 

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities under this prospectus for general corporate purposes, including for general working capital purposes, which may include the repayment of outstanding debt.

 

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

Description of Common Stock

 

We are authorized to issue up to 1,500,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share. Each outstanding share of common stock entitles the holder thereof to one vote per share on all matters. Our bylaws provide that elections for directors shall be by a plurality of votes. Stockholders do not have preemptive rights to purchase shares in any future issuance of our common stock. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, and after payment of creditors and preferred stockholders, if any, our assets will be divided pro-rata on a share-for-share basis among the holders of the shares of common stock.

 

The holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to dividends out of funds legally available when and as declared by our board of directors. Our board of directors has never declared a dividend and does not anticipate declaring a dividend in the foreseeable future. Should we decide in the future to pay dividends, as a holding company, our ability to do so and meet other obligations depends upon the receipt of dividends or other payments from our operating subsidiary and other holdings and investments. In addition, our operating subsidiary, from time to time, may be subject to restrictions on its ability to make distributions to us, including as a result of restrictive covenants in loan agreements, restrictions on the conversion of local currency into U.S. dollars or other hard currency and other regulatory restrictions. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive, ratably, the net assets available to stockholders after payment of all creditors.

 

All of the issued and outstanding shares of our common stock are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable. To the extent that additional shares of our common stock are issued, the relative interests of existing stockholders will be diluted.

 

Description of Preferred Stock

 

We are authorized to issue up to 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, in one or more classes or series within a class as may be determined by our board of directors, who may establish, from time to time, the number of shares to be included in each class or series, may fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each such class or series and any qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof as shall be stated and expressed in the resolution or resolutions providing for the issuance of such stock adopted from time to time by the board of directors. Any preferred stock so issued by the board of directors may rank senior to the common stock with respect to the payment of dividends or amounts upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of us, or both or have voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of common stock. Moreover, under certain circumstances, the issuance of preferred stock or the existence of the unissued preferred stock might tend to discourage or render more difficult a merger or other change of control.

 

 14 

 

 

A prospectus supplement relating to any series of preferred stock being offered will include specific terms relating to the offering. Such prospectus supplement will include:

 

·the title and stated or par value of the preferred stock;

 

·the number of shares of the preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of the preferred stock;

 

·the dividend rate(s), period(s) and/or payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation thereof applicable to the preferred stock;

 

·whether dividends shall be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends on the preferred stock shall accumulate;

 

·the provisions for a sinking fund, if any, for the preferred stock;

 

·any voting rights of the preferred stock;

 

·the provisions for redemption, if applicable, of the preferred stock;

 

·any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange;

 

·the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock, including the conversion price or the manner of calculating the conversion price and conversion period;

 

·if appropriate, a discussion of Federal income tax consequences applicable to the preferred stock;

 

·any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of the preferred stock.

 

The terms, if any, on which the preferred stock may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock will also be stated in the preferred stock prospectus supplement. The terms will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option, and may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock to be received by the holders of preferred stock would be subject to adjustment.

 

 15 

 

 

Series A Preferred Stock

 

On July 30, 2010, we filed a Certificate of Designation with the Secretary of State of Nevada establishing a new series of our preferred stock designated as “Series A Preferred Stock.” A summary of the Certificate of Designation is set forth below:

 

Ranking. With respect to rights upon liquidation, winding-up or dissolution, the Series A Preferred Stock ranks senior to our common stock and pari passu with any other series of our preferred stock established by our board of directors.

 

Voting. The holders of the Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to ten (10) votes for each one (1) share of common stock that is issuable upon conversion of a share of Series A Preferred Stock. Except as required by law, all shares of Series A Preferred Stock and all shares of common stock shall vote together as a single class.

 

Conversion. Each share of Series A Preferred Stock is convertible, at any time at the option of the holder, into ten (10) fully paid and nonassessable shares of common stock, subject to adjustment as provided in the Certificate of Designation.

 

Dividends. The Series A Preferred Stock is only entitled to receive dividends when and if declared by our board of directors.

 

Liquidation. Upon the occurrence of a liquidation event, the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock then outstanding will be entitled to receive, out of the assets of the Company available for distribution to its stockholders, an amount equal to $0.50 per share, as may be adjusted from time to time, plus all accrued, but unpaid dividends, before any payment shall be made or any assets distributed to the holders of common stock or any other class or series of stock issued by the Company not designated as ranking senior to or pari passu with the Series A Preferred Stock in respect of the right to participate in distributions or payments upon a liquidation event. For purposes of the Certificate of Designation, a “liquidation event” means any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company, either voluntary or involuntary, and upon the election of the holders of a majority of the then outstanding Series A Preferred Stock shall be deemed to be occasioned by, or to include, (i) the acquisition of the Company by another entity by means of any transaction or series of related transactions (including, without limitation, any reorganization, merger, consolidation, or other transaction in which control of the Company is transferred, but, excluding any merger effected exclusively for the purpose of changing the domicile of the Company) unless the Company’s stockholders of record as constituted immediately prior to such acquisition or sale will, immediately after such acquisition or sale (by virtue of securities issued as consideration for the Company’s acquisition or sale or otherwise) hold at least 50% of the voting power of the surviving or acquiring entity or (ii) a sale of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company.

 

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

We may issue warrants for the purchase of preferred stock or common stock. Warrants may be issued independently or together with any preferred stock or common stock, and may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between a warrant agent specified in the agreement and us. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants of that series and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants. This summary of some provisions of the warrants is not complete. You should refer to the warrant agreement, including the forms of warrant certificate representing the warrants, relating to the specific warrants being offered for the complete terms of the warrant agreement and the warrants. The warrant agreement, together with the terms of the warrant certificate and warrants, will be filed with the SEC in connection with the offering of the specific warrants.

 

 16 

 

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the following terms, where applicable, of the warrants in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered:

 

·the title of the warrants;

 

·the aggregate number of the warrants;

 

·the price or prices at which the warrants will be issued;

 

·the designation, amount and terms of the offered securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

·if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the offered securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants will be separately transferable;

 

·the terms of the securities purchasable upon exercise of such warrants and the procedures and conditions relating to the exercise of such warrants;

 

·any provisions for adjustment of the number or amount of securities receivable upon exercise of the warrants or the exercise price of the warrants;

 

·the price or prices at which and currency or currencies in which the offered securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants may be purchased;

 

·the date on which the right to exercise the warrants shall commence and the date on which the right shall expire;

 

·the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

·information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

·if appropriate, a discussion of Federal income tax consequences; and

 

·any other material terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.

 

Warrants for the purchase of common stock or preferred stock will be offered and exercisable for U.S. dollars only. Warrants will be issued in registered form only.

 

 17 

 

 

Upon receipt of payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the purchased securities. If less than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate are exercised, a new warrant certificate will be issued for the remaining warrants.

 

Prior to the exercise of any warrants to purchase preferred stock or common stock, holders of the warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon exercise, including in the case of warrants for the purchase of common stock or preferred stock, the right to vote or to receive any payments of dividends on the preferred stock or common stock purchasable upon exercise.

 

DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

 

We may issue subscription rights to purchase our common stock and/or preferred stock. These subscription rights may be issued independently or together with any other security offered hereby and may or may not be transferable by the shareholder receiving the subscription rights in such offering. In connection with any offering of subscription rights, we may enter into a standby arrangement with one or more underwriters or other purchasers pursuant to which the underwriters or other purchasers may be required to purchase any securities remaining unsubscribed for after such offering.

 

The prospectus supplement relating to any subscription rights we offer, if any, will, to the extent applicable, include specific terms relating to the offering, including some or all of the following:

 

  · the price, if any, for the subscription rights;

 

  · the exercise price payable for each share of common stock and/or preferred stock upon the exercise of the subscription rights;

 

  · the number of subscription rights to be issued to each shareholder;

 

  · the number and terms of the shares of common stock and/or shares of preferred stock which may be purchased per each subscription right;

 

  · the extent to which the subscription rights are transferable;

 

  · any other terms of the subscription rights, including the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the subscription rights;

 

  · the date on which the right to exercise the subscription rights shall commence, and the date on which the subscription rights shall expire;

 

  · the extent to which the subscription rights may include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities; and

 

  · if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or purchase arrangement which may be entered into by us in connection with the offering of subscription rights.

 

The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any subscription rights we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable subscription right agreement, which will be filed with the SEC if we offer subscription rights. For more information on how you can obtain copies of the applicable subscription right agreement if we offer subscription rights, see “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.” We urge you to read the applicable subscription right agreement and any applicable prospectus supplement in their entirety.

 

 18 

 

  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as senior, subordinated debt and/or convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

 

We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”). We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

 

The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.

 

General

 

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.

 

We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

  · the title of the series of debt securities;

 

  · any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

  

 19 

 

  

  · the maturity date or dates;

 

  · the form of the debt securities of the series;

 

  · whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

  · whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

  · if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

  · the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

  · our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

  · if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

  · the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

 

  · the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

  · any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

 

  · whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities;

 

  · the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities, and the depositary for such global security or securities;

  

 20 

 

  

  · if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

 

  · if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

  · additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

 

  · additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

 

  · additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

  · additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

 

  · additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

  · the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

  · whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

 

  · the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

  · any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and

 

  · any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

 

Conversion or Exchange Rights

 

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

  

 21 

 

 

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.

 

Events of Default under the Indenture

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

  · if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

  · if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

  · if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

  · if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

 

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

  

 22 

 

  

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

 

Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

  · the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

  · subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

 

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

 

  · the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

  · the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request,

 

  ·

such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

 

  · the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

 

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

 

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.

 

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

 

We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

 

  · to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;

  

 23 

 

  

  · to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities—Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”

 

  · to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

 

  · to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

 

  · to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

 

  · to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

  · to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under “Description of Debt Securities—General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

 

  · to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or

 

  · to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

 

In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

  · extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;

 

  · reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or

 

  · reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

  

 24 

 

  

Discharge

 

The indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

  · provide for payment;

 

  · register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

  · replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

  · pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;

 

  · maintain paying agencies;

 

  · hold monies for payment in trust;

 

  · recover excess money held by the trustee;

 

  · compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

  · appoint any successor trustee.

 

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

 

Form, Exchange and Transfer

 

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating to any book entry securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

 

Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

 

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

 

 25 

 

  

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

  · issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

  · register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

 

Information Concerning the Trustee

 

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities, unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

 

Payment and Paying Agents

 

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

 

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

 

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

 

Governing Law

 

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

 

 26 

 

  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

As specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may issue units consisting of one or more of the other securities described in this prospectus.

  

The applicable prospectus supplement will specify the following terms of any units in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered:

 

·the terms of the units and of any of the common stock, preferred stock and warrants comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances the securities comprising the units may be traded separately;

 

·a description of the terms of any unit agreement governing the units; and

 

  · a description of the provisions for the payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units.

  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell the securities offered through this prospectus (i) to or through underwriters or dealers, (ii) directly to purchasers, including our affiliates, (iii) through agents, or (iv) through a combination of any these methods. The securities may be distributed at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, market prices prevailing at the time of sale, prices related to the prevailing market prices, or negotiated prices. The prospectus supplement will include the following information:

 

·the terms of the offering;

 

·the names of any underwriters or agents;

 

·the name or names of any managing underwriter or underwriters;

 

·the purchase price of the securities;

 

 27 

 

 

·any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

·the net proceeds from the sale of the securities

 

·any delayed delivery arrangements

 

·any underwriting discounts, commissions and other items constituting underwriters’ compensation;

 

·any initial public offering price;

 

·any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers;

 

·any commissions paid to agents; and

 

·any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

 

·Sale Through Underwriters or Dealers

 

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement are underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.

 

If underwriters are used in the sale, the underwriters will acquire the securities for their own account, including through underwriting, purchase, security lending or repurchase agreements with us. The underwriters may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions. Underwriters may sell the securities in order to facilitate transactions in any of our other securities (described in this prospectus or otherwise), including other public or private transactions and short sales. Underwriters may offer securities to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by one or more managing underwriters or directly by one or more firms acting as underwriters. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to certain conditions, and the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all the offered securities if they purchase any of them. The underwriters may change from time to time any initial public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers.

 

If dealers are used in the sale of securities offered through this prospectus, we will sell the securities to them as principals. They may then resell those securities to the public at varying prices determined by the dealers at the time of resale. The prospectus supplement will include the names of the dealers and the terms of the transaction.

 

Direct Sales and Sales Through Agents

 

We may sell the securities offered through this prospectus directly. In this case, no underwriters or agents would be involved. Such securities may also be sold through agents designated from time to time. The prospectus supplement will name any agent involved in the offer or sale of the offered securities and will describe any commissions payable to the agent. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, any agent will agree to use its reasonable best efforts to solicit purchases for the period of its appointment.

 

 28 

 

  

 

We may sell the securities directly to institutional investors or others who may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act with respect to any sale of those securities. The terms of any such sales will be described in the prospectus supplement.

 

Delayed Delivery Contracts

 

If the prospectus supplement indicates, we may authorize agents, underwriters or dealers to solicit offers from certain types of institutions to purchase securities at the public offering price under delayed delivery contracts. These contracts would provide for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. The contracts would be subject only to those conditions described in the prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the commission payable for solicitation of those contracts.

 

Continuous Offering Program

 

Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, we may enter into a continuous offering program equity distribution agreement with a broker-dealer, also known as an At-the-Market offering, or “ATM”, under which we may offer and sell shares of our common stock from time to time through a broker-dealer as our sales agent. If we enter into such a program, sales of the shares of common stock, if any, will be made by means of ordinary brokers’ transactions at market prices on the securities exchange or quotation or trading service on which such securities may be listed, quoted or traded at the time of sale, block transactions and such other transactions as agreed upon by us and the broker-dealer. Under the terms of such a program, we also may sell shares of common stock to the broker-dealer, as principal for its own account at a price agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell shares of common stock to such broker-dealer as principal, we will enter into a separate terms agreement with such broker-dealer, and we will describe this agreement in a separate prospectus supplement or pricing supplement.

 

Market Making, Stabilization and Other Transactions

 

All securities we offer, other than shares of our Common Stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. Any shares of our Common Stock sold pursuant to a prospectus supplement will be quoted on the OTC Markets Group Inc.’s OTCQB tier. We may apply to list any other securities sold pursuant to a prospectus supplement but we are not obligated to do so. Therefore, no assurance can be given as to whether an active trading market will develop for the offered securities. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.

 

Any underwriter may also engage in stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Rule 104 under the Securities Exchange Act. Stabilizing transactions involve bids to purchase the underlying security in the open market for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of the securities. Syndicate covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover syndicate short positions.

 

 29 

 

 

Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a syndicate member when the securities originally sold by the syndicate member are purchased in a syndicate covering transaction to cover syndicate short positions. Stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would be in the absence of the transactions. The underwriters may, if they commence these transactions, discontinue them at any time.

 

General Information

 

Agents, underwriters, and dealers may be entitled, under agreements entered into with us, to indemnification by us against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. Our agents, underwriters, and dealers, or their affiliates, may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

Legal matters relating to the issuance of the securities offered by this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Sherman & Howard L.L.C., Las Vegas, Nevada.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated balance sheets of Ideanomics, Inc. as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, equity, and cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2019, and related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”), have been audited by B F Borgers CPA PC, independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which includes explanatory paragraphs as to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern and emphasis of a matter, which is incorporated herein by reference. Such financial statements have been incorporated herein by reference in reliance on the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We file annual, quarterly and special reports, along with other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the Public Reference Room.

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the SEC to register the securities offered hereby under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement, including certain exhibits and schedules. You may obtain the registration statement and exhibits to the registration statement from the SEC at the address listed above or from the SEC’s internet site.

 

 30 

 

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement filed with the SEC. The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” into this prospectus the information that we file with them, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. The following documents are incorporated by reference and made a part of this prospectus:

 

·our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on March 16, 2020;

  · our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on May 11, 2020;

·our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 2, 2020, January 7, 2020, January 10, 2020, January 29, 2020, January 29, 2020 and June 9, 2020;

·the description of our common stock which is registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed on May 29, 2012, including any amendment or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description; and

·all reports and other documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of this offering.

 

We also incorporate by reference any future filings (other than information furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits furnished on such form that are related to such items unless such Form 8-K expressly provides to the contrary) made with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including those made after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of such registration statement, until we file a post-effective amendment that indicates the termination of the offering of the common stock made by this prospectus and will become a part of this prospectus from the date that such documents are filed with the SEC. Information in such future filings updates and supplements the information provided in this prospectus. Any statements in any such future filings will automatically be deemed to modify and supersede any information in any document we previously filed with the SEC that is incorporated or deemed to be incorporated herein by reference to the extent that statements in the later filed document modify or replace such earlier statements.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, information furnished under Items 2.02 and 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K, including the related exhibits, is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

The information about us contained in this prospectus should be read together with the information in the documents incorporated by reference. You may request a copy of any or all of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at 55 Broadway, 19th Floor, New York, , NY10006, phone number (212) 206-.1216

 

 31 

 

 

$250,000,000
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Warrants

Subscription Rights

Debt Securities
Units

 

Ideanomics, Inc.

 

Prospectus

  

, 2020

 

 32 

 

 

PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

 

The following table sets forth the costs and expenses payable by the Registrant in connection with this offering, other than underwriting commissions and discounts, all of which are estimated except for the SEC registration fee.

 

Item     Amount  
SEC registration fee   $ 32,450  
Printing and engraving expenses     5,000  
Legal fees and expenses     50,000  
Accounting fees and expenses     10,000  
Transfer agent and registrar’s fees and expenses     2,000  
Miscellaneous expenses     1,510  
Total   $ 100,960  

  

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

 

We are a Nevada corporation and generally governed by the Nevada Private Corporations Code, Title 78 of the Nevada Revised Statutes, or NRS.

 

Section 78.138 of the NRS provides that, unless the corporation’s articles of incorporation provide otherwise, a director or officer will not be individually liable unless it is proven that (a) the director’s or officer’s acts or omissions constituted a breach of his or her fiduciary duties, and (b) such breach involved intentional misconduct, fraud, or a knowing violation of the law. Our articles of incorporation adopt the statutory standard for exculpation of our officers and directors from individual liability for their acts or omissions as an officer or director.

 

Section 78.7502 of the NRS permits a company to indemnify its directors and officers against expenses, judgments, fines, and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with a threatened, pending, or completed action, suit, or proceeding, if the officer or director (a) is not liable pursuant to NRS 78.138, or (b) acted in good faith and in a manner the officer or director reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation and, if a criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe the conduct of the officer or director was unlawful. Generally, indemnification under Section 78.7502 is discretionary and may be made by the corporation only as authorized in each specific case upon a determination that the indemnification is proper under the circumstances.  Section 78.7502 of the NRS precludes indemnification by the corporation if the officer or director has been adjudged by a court of competent jurisdiction, after exhaustion of all appeals, to be liable to the corporation or for amounts paid in settlement to the corporation, unless and only to the extent that the court determines that in view of all the circumstances, the person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses.

 

Section 78.751 of the NRS requires a Nevada company to indemnify its officers and directors to the extent such person is successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of (a) any threatened, pending, or contemplated action, suit, or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative, or investigative, including any action by or in the right of the corporation, by reason of the fact that the person is or was a director, officer, employee, or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee, or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, or (b) any claim, issue or matter therein, against expenses incurred by them in defending the action, including attorney’s fees. Unless restricted by the articles of incorporation, the bylaws, or agreement, the corporation may pay the expenses of officers and directors incurred in defending a civil or criminal action, suit or proceeding as they are incurred and in advance of the final disposition of the action, suit, or proceeding, upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of the director or officer to repay the amount if it is ultimately determined by a court of competent jurisdiction that the director or officer is not entitled to be indemnified by the corporation. The articles of incorporation, the bylaws, or agreement may require the corporation to pay such expenses upon receipt of such an undertaking.

 

Indemnification pursuant to NRS 78.7502 and advancement of expenses authorized in or ordered by a court pursuant to NRS 78.751 (a) does not exclude any other rights to which a person seeking indemnification or advancement of expenses may be entitled under the articles of incorporation or any bylaw, agreement, vote of stockholders, or disinterested directors or otherwise, for either an action in the person’s official capacity or an action in another capacity while holding office, and (b) continues for a person who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee or agent and inures to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person. The foregoing notwithstanding, indemnification, unless ordered by a court pursuant to NRS 78.7502 or for the advancement of expenses upon undertaking as provided in 78.751(2), may not be made to or on behalf of any director or officer finally adjudged by a court of competent jurisdiction, after exhaustion of any appeals taken therefrom, to be liable for intentional misconduct, fraud, or a knowing violation of law, and such misconduct, fraud or violation was material to the cause of action.

 

A right to indemnification or to advancement of expenses arising under a provision of the articles of incorporation or any bylaw is not eliminated or impaired by an amendment to such provision after the occurrence of the act or omission that is the subject of the civil, criminal, administrative or investigative action, suit or proceeding for which indemnification

 

Section 78.752 of the NRS provides that a Nevada company may purchase and maintain insurance or make other financial arrangements on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee, or agent of the company, or is or was serving at the request of the company as a director, officer, employee, or agent of another company, partnership, joint venture, trust, or other enterprise, for any liability asserted against him and liability and expenses incurred by him in his capacity as a director, officer, employee, or agent, or arising out of his status as such, whether or not the company has the authority to indemnify him against such liability and expenses.

 

Our articles of incorporation and bylaws implement the indemnification provisions permitted by Chapter 78 of the NRS by providing that we shall indemnify our directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by the NRS against expense, liability, and loss reasonably incurred or suffered by them in connection with their service as an officer or director.  Our articles of incorporation and bylaws also provide that we may purchase and maintain liability insurance, or make other arrangements for such obligations or otherwise, to the extent permitted by the NRS. 

 

 33 

 

 

Item 16. Exhibits.

 

Exhibit   
Number  Description of Document
    
1.1  Form of Underwriting Agreement.*
    
3.1  Articles of Incorporation of the Company, as amended to date [incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K (File No. 001-35561) filed on March 30, 2012].
    
3.2  Second Amended and Restated Bylaws, adopted on January 31, 2014 [incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-35561) filed on February 6, 2014].
    
3.3  Amendment No. 1 to the Second Amended and Restated Bylaws, adopted on March 26, 2015 [incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.3 to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K (File No. 001-35561) filed on March 30, 2015].
    
3.4  Amendment No. 2 to the Second Amended and Restated Bylaws, adopted on November 20, 2015. [incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.3 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-35561) filed on November 24, 2015]

 

 34 

 

 

3.6  Certificate of Designation of Series C Preferred Stock [incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-35561) filed on August 31, 2012].
    
3.7  Certificate of Designation of Series D 4% Convertible Preferred Stock [incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-35561) filed on July 11, 2013].
    
3.8  Certificate of Designation of Series E Preferred Stock [incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-35561) filed on February 6, 2014].
    
4.1  Form of Certificate of Designation*
    
4.2  Form of Preferred Stock Certificate.*
    
4.3  Form of Warrant Agreement.*
    
4.4  Form of Warrant Certificate.*
    
4.5  Form of Stock Purchase Agreement.*
    
4.6  Form of Unit Agreement.*
    
4.7  Form of Subscription Right Agreement (including form of Right Certificate)*
    
4.8  Form of Indenture
    
5.1  Opinion of Sherman & Howard L.L.C.
    
23.1  Consent of BF Borgers CPA PC
    
23.3  Consent of Sherman & Howard L.L.C. (contained in Exhibit 5.1).

 

*To the extent applicable, to be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a document filed under the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and incorporated by reference herein.

 

Item 17. Undertakings

 

(a)           The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1)           To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

(i)            To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

(ii)           To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement.

 

 35 

 

 

(iii)          To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement; provided, however, Paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the registration statement is on Form S-3 or Form F-3 and the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

(2)            That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(3)            To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(5)            That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

(A)           Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

(B)           Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date;

 

 36 

 

 

(6)           That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i)            Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

(ii)           Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

(iii)          The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

(iv)          Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(b)           The registrant hereby undertakes that for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(h)            Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

(i)            The registrant hereby undertakes that:

 

(1)           For purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective.

 

(2)           For the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

 37 

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of New York, State of New York, on June 23, 2020.

 

IDEANOMICS, INC.
 
By: /s/ Alfred Poor
  Alfred Poor
  Chief Executive Officer (Principal Executive Officer)
 
By: /s/ Conor McCarthy
  Conor McCarthy
  Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

 

Each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Alfred Poor and Michael McCarthy as his true and lawful attorney in fact and agent, with full powers of substitution and resubstitution, for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any or all amendments (including post effective amendments) to the Registration Statement, and to sign any registration statement for the same offering covered by this Registration Statement that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and all post effective amendments thereto, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and all documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorney-in-fact and agent, each acting alone, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorney-in-fact and agent, each acting alone, or his or her substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities held on the dates indicated.

 

Signature   Title   Date
         
/s/ Alfred Poor        
Alfred Poor   Chief Executive Officer (Principal Executive Officer)   June 23, 2020
         
/s/ Conor McCarthy        
    Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer)   June 23, 2020
         
/s/ Bruno Wu        
Bruno Wu   Chairman   June 23, 2020
         
/s/ Shane McMahon        
Shane McMahon   Director   June 23, 2020
         
/s/ James Cassano        
James Cassano   Director   June 23, 2020
         
/s/ John Wallace        
John Wallace   Director   June 23, 2020
         
/s/ Jerry Fan        
Jerry Fan   Director   June 23, 2020
         
/s/ Steven Fadem        
Steven Fadem   Director   June 23, 2020
         
/s/ Chao Yang        
Chao Yang   Director   June 23, 2020
         
/s/ Harry Edelson        
Harry Edelson   Director   June 23, 2020

 

 38 

 

 

Exhibit 4.8

 

IDEANOMICS, INC.

Issuer

  

AND

 

[TRUSTEE],

Trustee

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of [●], 20

 

Debt Securities

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

      PAGE 
ARTICLE 1 DEFINITIONS  1 
        
Section 1.01  Definition of Terms  1 
        
ARTICLE 2 ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES  5 
        
Section 2.01  Designation and Terms of Securities  5 
Section 2.02  Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate  7 
Section 2.03  Denominations: Provisions for Payment  8 
Section 2.04  Execution and Authentications  9 
Section 2.05  Registration of Transfer and Exchange  10 
Section 2.06  Temporary Securities  11 
Section 2.07  Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities  12 
Section 2.08  Cancellation  12 
Section 2.09  Benefits of Indenture  13 
Section 2.10  Authenticating Agent  13 
Section 2.11  Global Securities  14 
Section 2.12  CUSIP Numbers  14 
        
ARTICLE 3 REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS  15 
        
Section 3.01  Redemption  15 
Section 3.02  Notice of Redemption  15 
Section 3.03  Payment Upon Redemption  16 
Section 3.04  Sinking Fund  17 
Section 3.05  Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities  17 
Section 3.06  Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund  17 
        
ARTICLE 4 COVENANTS  17 
        
Section 4.01  Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest  17 
Section 4.02  Maintenance of Office or Agency  18 
Section 4.03  Paying Agents  18 
Section 4.04  Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee  19 
        
ARTICLE 5 SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE  19 
        
Section 5.01  Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders  19 
Section 5.02  Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders  20 
Section 5.03  Reports by the Company  20 
Section 5.04  Reports by the Trustee  21 

 

i

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

(CONTINUED)

 

   PAGE 
ARTICLE 6 REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT  21 
        
Section 6.01  Events of Default  21 
Section 6.02  Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee  23 
Section 6.03  Application of Moneys Collected  24 
Section 6.04  Limitation on Suits  24 
Section 6.05  Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver  25 
Section 6.06  Control by Securityholders  26 
Section 6.07  Undertaking to Pay Costs  26 
        
ARTICLE 7 CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE  26 
        
Section 7.01  Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee  26 
Section 7.02  Certain Rights of Trustee  28 
Section 7.03  Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities  30 
Section 7.04  May Hold Securities  30 
Section 7.05  Moneys Held in Trust  30 
Section 7.06  Compensation and Reimbursement  30 
Section 7.07  Reliance on Officer’s Certificate  31 
Section 7.08  Disqualification; Conflicting Interests  31 
Section 7.09  Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility  31 
Section 7.10  Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor  32 
Section 7.11  Acceptance of Appointment by Successor  33 
Section 7.12  Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business  34 
Section 7.13  Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company  35 
Section 7.14  Notice of Default  35 
        
ARTICLE 8 CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS  35 
        
Section 8.01  Evidence of Action by Securityholders  35 
Section 8.02  Proof of Execution by Securityholders  36 
Section 8.03  Who May be Deemed Owners  36 
Section 8.04  Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded  36 
Section 8.05  Actions Binding on Future Securityholders  37 
        
ARTICLE 9 SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES  37 
        
Section 9.01  Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders  37 
Section 9.02  Supplemental Indentures with Consent of Securityholders  38 
Section 9.03  Effect of Supplemental Indentures  39 
Section 9.04  Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures  39 
Section 9.05  Execution of Supplemental Indentures  39 
        
ARTICLE 10 SUCCESSOR ENTITY  40 
        
Section 10.01  Company May Consolidate, Etc.  40 
Section 10.02  Successor Entity Substituted  40 

 

ii

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

(CONTINUED)

 

      PAGE 
ARTICLE 11 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE  41 
        
Section 11.01  Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture  41 
Section 11.02  Discharge of Obligations  41 
Section 11.03  Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust  42 
Section 11.04  Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents  42 
Section 11.05  Repayment to Company  42 
        
ARTICLE 12 IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS  42 
        
Section 12.01  No Recourse  42 
        
ARTICLE 13 MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS  43 
        
Section 13.01  Effect on Successors and Assigns  43 
Section 13.02  Actions by Successor  43 
Section 13.03  Surrender of Company Powers  43 
Section 13.04  Notices  43 
Section 13.05  Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver  43 
Section 13.06  Treatment of Securities as Debt  44 
Section 13.07  Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent  44 
Section 13.08  Payments on Business Days  44 
Section 13.09  Conflict with Trust Indenture Act  45 
Section 13.10  Counterparts  45 
Section 13.11  Separability  45 
Section 13.12  Compliance Certificates  45 
Section 13.13  U.S.A Patriot Act  45 
Section 13.14  Force Majeure  46 
Section 13.15  Table of Contents; Headings  46 

 

iii

 

 

INDENTURE

 

INDENTURE, dated as of [●], 20 , among Ideanomics, Inc.., a Nevada corporation (the “Company”), and [TRUSTEE], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

 

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

 

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

 

ARTICLE 1

 

DEFINITIONS

 

Section 1.01 Definition of Terms.

 

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

 

Authenticating Agent” means the Trustee or an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

 

Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

 

Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors (or the functional equivalent thereof) of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

 

1

 

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors (or duly authorized committee thereof) and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

 

Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York, or in the city of the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

 

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

 

Company” means Ideanomics, Inc., a Nevada corporation, and, subject to the provisions of Article Ten, shall also include its successors and assigns.

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at.

 

Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law. “Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.

 

Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.

 

Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

 

Exchange Act” means the United States Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder.

 

Global Security” means a Security issued to evidence all or a part of any series of Securities which is executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

 

2

 

 

Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (a) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (b) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof at any time prior to the stated maturity of the Securities, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

 

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.01.

 

Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

 

Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the chairman of the Board of Directors, a chief executive officer, a president, a chief financial officer, a chief operating officer, any executive vice president, any senior vice president, any vice president, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, the controller or any assistant controller or the secretary or any assistant secretary.

 

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing subject to customary exceptions of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company, that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as provided in Article Three, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

 

3

 

 

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

 

Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

 

Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer within the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and in each case who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

 

Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security is registered on the Security Register kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

 

Security Register” and “Security Registrar” shall have the meanings as set forth in Section 2.05.

 

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any corporation, association, partnership or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of capital stock or other interests (including partnership interests) entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers, general partners or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by (i) such Person; (ii) such Person and one or more Subsidiaries of such Person; or (iii) one or more Subsidiaries of such Person.

 

Trustee” means, and, subject to the provisions of Article Seven, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

 

Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

 

U.S.A. Patriot Act” means the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107-56, as amended and signed into law October 26, 2001.

 

4

 

 

ARTICLE 2

 

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

 

Section 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities.

 

(a) The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

 

(1) the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that series from all other Securities);

 

(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

 

(3) the maturity date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable;

 

(4) the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the certificate of authentication for such series;

 

(5) the applicability of any guarantees;

 

(6) whether or not the Securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

(7) whether the Securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

(8) if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such Securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

5

 

 

(9) the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

(10) the Company’s right, if any, to defer the payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

(11) if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, the Company may at its option, redeem the series of Securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

(12) the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which the Company is obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the Securityholder’s option to purchase, the series of Securities and the currency or currency unit in which the Securities are payable;

 

(13) the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable, if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof;

 

(14) any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the Securities of that series and any security for the obligations of the Company with respect to such Securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

 

(15) whether the Securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a Global Security or Securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such Global Security or Securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual Securities; and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities;

 

(16) if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at the Company’s option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange, which may, without limitation, include the payment of cash as well as the delivery of securities;

 

(17) if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;

 

(18) additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the series of Securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

 

(19) additions to or changes in the Events of Default with respect to the Securities and any change in the right of the Trustee or the Securityholders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such Securities to be due and payable;

 

6

 

 

(20) additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

(21) additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture;

 

(22) additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of this Indenture both with and without the consent of Securityholders of Securities issued under this Indenture;

 

(23) the currency of payment of Securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

(24) whether interest will be payable in cash or additional Securities at the Company’s or the Securityholders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

 

(25) the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Company shall pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the Securities of the series to any Securityholder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

(26) any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the Securities of the series; and

 

(27) any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the Securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of this Indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

 

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

 

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officer’s Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

 

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.

 

Section 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.

 

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, and they may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

 

7

 

 

Section 2.03 Denominations: Provisions for Payment.

 

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(13). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. Subject to Section 2.01(a)(23), the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption or repurchase thereof prior to maturity, and any cash amount due upon conversion or exchange thereof, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

 

The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

 

Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

 

(1) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted

 

Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be mailed, first class postage prepaid, to each Securityholder at his or her address as it appears in the Security Register (as hereinafter defined), not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been mailed as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered on such special record date.

 

8

 

 

(2) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

 

Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities and any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the first day of the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

 

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

 

Section 2.04 Execution and Authentications.

 

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by one of its Officers. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature.

 

The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been an Officer (at the time of execution), notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be such an officer of the Company. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.

 

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by an Officer, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

 

9

 

 

Upon the Company’s delivery of any such authentication order to the Trustee at any time after the initial issuance of Securities under this Indenture, the Trustee shall be provided with, and (subject to Sections 315(a) through 315(d) of the Trust Indenture Act) shall be fully protected in relying upon, (1) an Opinion of Counsel or reliance letter and (2) an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent to the execution, authentication and delivery of such Securities are in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

 

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

Section 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

 

(a) Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

(b) The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution (the “Security Registrar”).

 

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

 

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

 

(c) Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, no service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series or repurchase, conversion or exchange of less than the entire principal amount of a Security, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

 

10

 

 

(d) The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption or surrendered for repurchase, but not validly withdrawn, other than the unredeemed portion of any such Securities being redeemed in part or not surrendered for repurchase, as the case may be. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

 

The Trustee shall have no obligation or duty to monitor, determine or inquire as to compliance with any restrictions on transfer imposed under this Indenture or under applicable law with respect to any transfer of any interest in any Security (including any transfers between or among depositary participants or beneficial owners of interests in any Global Security) other than to require delivery of such certificates and other documentation or evidence as are expressly required by, and to do so if and when expressly required by the terms of, this Indenture, and to examine the same to determine substantial compliance as to form with the express requirements hereof.

 

Section 2.06 Temporary Securities.

 

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the holders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

 

11

 

 

 

Section 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

 

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

 

In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

 

Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

 

Section 2.08 Cancellation.

 

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, repurchase, exchange, registration of transfer or conversion shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent (or any other applicable agent), be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

12

 

 

Section 2.09 Benefits of Indenture.

 

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.

 

Section 2.10 Authenticating Agent.

 

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption, repurchase or conversion thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

 

Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

 

13

 

 

Section 2.11 Global Securities.

 

(a) If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all of the Outstanding Securities of such series, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction (or if the Depositary names the Trustee as its custodian, retained by the Trustee), and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

 

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

(c) If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, or if an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing and the Company has received a request from the Depositary or from the Trustee, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event the Company will execute and, subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

Section 2.12 CUSIP Numbers.

 

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Company will promptly notify the Trustee of any change in the “CUSIP” numbers.

 

14

 

 

ARTICLE 3

 

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

 

Section 3.01 Redemption.

 

The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

 

Section 3.02 Notice of Redemption.

 

(a) In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with any right the Company reserved for itself to do so pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, first class postage prepaid (or with regard to any Global Security held in book entry form, by electronic mail), a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such holders at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security Register, unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed. Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice. In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officer’s Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.

 

Each such notice of redemption shall identify the Securities to be redeemed (including CUSIP numbers, if any), specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is from a sinking fund, if such is the case. If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed.

 

In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

 

15

 

 

(b) If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 45 days’ notice (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Trustee shall select, by lot or in such other manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part. The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by an Officer, instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent may deem advisable. In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.

 

Section 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption.

 

(a) If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof. On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an Interest Payment Date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

 

(b) Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the holder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

 

16

 

 

Section 3.04 Sinking Fund.

 

The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series. The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

 

Section 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

 

The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

 

Section 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

 

Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities (unless a shorter period shall be satisfactory to the Trustee), the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officer’s Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

 

ARTICLE 4

 

COVENANTS

 

Section 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

 

The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities. Payments of principal on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check drawn on and mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions to the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date. Payments of interest on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions in writing to the Security Registrar and the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date.

 

17

 

 

Section 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency.

 

So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as herein above authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by any officer authorized to sign an Officer’s Certificate and delivered to the Trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands. The Company initially appoints the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as its paying agent with respect to the Securities.

 

Section 4.03 Paying Agents.

 

(a) If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:

 

(1) that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;

 

(2) that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;

 

(3) that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and

 

(4) that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.

 

18

 

 

(b) If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action. Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.

 

(c) Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by the Company or any paying agent to the Trustee, the Company or such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

 

Section 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.

 

The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.

 

ARTICLE 5

 

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.

 

The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) within 15 days after each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.

 

19

 

 

Section 5.02 Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders.

 

(a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

 

(b) The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

(c) Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities, and, in connection with any such communications, the Trustee shall satisfy its obligations under Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the provisions of Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 5.03 Reports by the Company.

 

(a) The Company will at all times comply with Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act. The Company covenants and agrees to provide (which delivery may be via electronic mail) to the Trustee within 30 days, after the Company files the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company is required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any correspondence filed with the Commission or any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Commission; and provided further, that so long as such filings by the Company are available on the Commission’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval System (EDGAR), or any successor system, such filings shall be deemed to have been filed with the Trustee for purposes hereof without any further action required by the Company. For the avoidance of doubt, a failure by the Company to file annual reports, information and other reports with the SEC within the time period prescribed thereof by the Commission shall not be deemed a breach of this Section 5.03.

 

(b) Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under Section 5.03 is for informational purposes only and the information and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein, or determinable from information contained therein including the Company’s compliance with any of their covenants thereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on an Officer’s Certificate). The Trustee is under no duty to examine any such reports, information or documents delivered to the Trustee or filed with the SEC via EDGAR to ensure compliance with the provision of this Indenture or to ascertain the correctness or otherwise of the information or the statements contained therein. The Trustee shall have no responsibility or duty whatsoever to ascertain or determine whether the above referenced filings with the SEC on EDGAR (or any successor system) has occurred.

 

20

 

 

Section 5.04 Reports by the Trustee.

 

(a) If required by Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee, within sixty (60) days after each May 1, shall transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register, a brief report dated as of such May 1, which complies with Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(b) The Trustee shall comply with Section 313(b) and 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(c) A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each securities exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and also with the Commission. The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any securities exchange.

 

ARTICLE 6

 

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

 

Section 6.01 Events of Default.

 

(a) Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing:

 

(1) the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

(2) the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

(3) the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;

 

(4) the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

 

21

 

 

(5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 days.

 

(b) In each and every such case (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above), unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above occurs, the principal of and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series shall automatically be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the holders of the Securities.

 

(c) At any time after the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that such payment is enforceable under applicable law, upon overdue installments of interest, at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series to the date of such payment or deposit) and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06, and (ii) any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal on (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on Securities of that series that shall not have become due by their terms, shall have been remedied or waived as provided in Section 6.06.

 

No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

(d) In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceedings, the Company and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

 

22

 

 

Section 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

 

(a) The Company covenants that (i) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 days, or (ii) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.

 

(b) If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law or equity out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.

 

(c) In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affecting the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under the Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.

 

(d) All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.

 

23

 

 

In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in the Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

 

Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

 

Section 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected.

 

Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon of the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

FIRST: To the payment of costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06;

 

SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively; and

 

THIRD: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Company or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto.

 

Section 6.04 Limitation on Suits.

 

No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as Trustee hereunder; (iii) such holder or holders shall have offered to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request; (iv) the Trustee for 90 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and (v) during such 90 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request.

 

24

 

 

Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary or any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

Section 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

 

(a) Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.

 

(b) No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

 

25

 

 

 

Section 6.06 Control by Securityholders.

 

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or subject the Trustee in its sole discretion to personal liability. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed, subject to the Trustee’s duties under the Trust Indenture Act, would involve the Trustee in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the Securityholders not involved in the proceeding. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding affected thereby, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c)). Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

Section 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs.

 

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees and expenses, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

 

ARTICLE 7

 

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.

 

(a) The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

 

26

 

 

(b) No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

(i) prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:

 

(A) the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

 

(B) in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture;

 

(ii) the Trustee shall not be liable to any Securityholder or to any other Person for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

(iii) the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series;

 

(iv) none of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if there is reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it;

 

(v) The Trustee shall not be required to give any bond or surety in respect of the performance of its powers or duties hereunder;

 

(vi) The permissive right of the Trustee to do things enumerated in this Indenture shall not be construed as a duty of the Trustee; and

 

(vii) No Trustee shall have any duty or responsibility for any act or omission of any other Trustee appointed with respect to a series of Securities hereunder.

 

27

 

 

Section 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:

 

(a) The Trustee may conclusively rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

(b) Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company by any authorized officer of the Company (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);

 

(c) The Trustee may consult with counsel and the opinion or written advice of such counsel or, if requested, any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

 

(d) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity reasonably acceptable to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred therein or thereby; nothing contained herein shall, however, relieve the Trustee of the obligation, upon the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to a series of the Securities (that has not been cured or waived), to exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and to use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs;

 

(e) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

 

(f) The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security, or other papers or documents or inquire as to the performance by the Company of one of its covenants under this Indenture, unless requested in writing so to do by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the particular series affected thereby (determined as provided in Section 8.04); provided, however, that if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require security or indemnity reasonably acceptable to the Trustee against such costs, expenses or liabilities as a condition to so proceeding. The reasonable expense of every such examination shall be paid by the Company or, if paid by the Trustee, shall be repaid by the Company upon demand;

 

28

 

 

(g) The Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder;

 

(h) In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances;

 

(i) In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for special, indirect, punitive or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, loss of profit) irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action; and

 

(j) The Trustee agrees to accept and act upon instructions or directions pursuant to this Indenture sent by unsecured e-mail, facsimile transmission or other similar unsecured electronic methods; provided, however, that (a) the party providing such written instructions, subsequent to such transmission of written instructions, shall provide the originally executed instructions or directions to the Trustee in a timely manner, and (b) such originally executed instructions or directions shall be signed by an authorized representative of the party providing such instructions or directions. If the party elects to give the Trustee e-mail or facsimile instructions (or instructions by a similar electronic method) and the Trustee in its discretion elects to act upon such instructions, the Trustee’s understanding of such instructions shall be deemed controlling. The Trustee shall not be liable for any losses, costs or expenses arising directly or indirectly from the Trustee’s reliance upon and compliance with such instructions notwithstanding such instructions conflict or are inconsistent with a subsequent written instruction. The party providing electronic instructions agrees to assume all risks arising out of the use of such electronic methods to submit instructions and directions to the Trustee, including without limitation the risk of the Trustee acting on unauthorized instructions, and the risk or interception and misuse by third parties. The Trustee may request that the Company deliver an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to furnish the Trustee with Officer’s Certificates, Company Orders and any other matters or directions pursuant to this Indenture.

 

(k) The rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder.

 

29

 

 

(l) The Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of any Default or Event of Default (other than an Event of Default relating to the failure to pay the interest on, or the principal of, the Securities) until the Trustee shall have received written notification in the manner set forth in this Indenture or a Responsible Officer of the Trustee shall have obtained actual knowledge.

 

Section 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities.

 

(a) The recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same. The Trustee shall not be responsible for any statement in any registration statement, prospectus, or any other document in connection with the sale of Securities. The Trustee shall not be responsible for any rating on the Securities or any action or omission of any rating agency.

 

(b) The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.

 

(c) The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of any of the Securities or of the proceeds of such Securities, or for the use or application of any moneys paid over by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture or established pursuant to Section 2.01, or for the use or application of any moneys received by any paying agent other than the Trustee.

 

Section 7.04 May Hold Securities.

 

The Trustee or any paying agent or Security Registrar, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, paying agent or Security Registrar.

 

Section 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder except such as it may agree with the Company to pay thereon.

 

Section 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement.

 

(a) The Company shall pay to the Trustee for each of its capacities hereunder from time to time compensation for its services as the Company and the Trustee shall from time to time agree upon in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

 

30

 

 

(b) The Company shall indemnify each of the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder against any loss, liability or expense (including the cost of defending itself and including the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel) incurred by it except as set forth in Section 7.06(c) in the exercise or performance of its powers, rights or duties under this Indenture as Trustee or Agent. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnity. The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have one separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.

 

(c) The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through negligence or bad faith.

 

(d) To ensure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities on all funds or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal of or interest on particular Securities. When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services in connection with an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(4) or (5), the expenses (including the reasonable fees and expenses of its counsel) and the compensation for services in connection therewith are to constitute expenses of administration under any bankruptcy law. The provisions of this Section 7.06 shall survive the termination of this Indenture and the resignation or removal of the Trustee.

 

Section 7.07 Reliance on Officer’s Certificate.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01, whenever in the administration of the provisions of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it reasonably necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting to take any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

 

Section 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.

 

If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Company shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.

 

There shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to the Securities issued hereunder which shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or any state or territory thereof or of the District of Columbia, or a corporation or other Person permitted to act as trustee by the Commission, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, having a combined capital and surplus of at least two hundred and fifty million U.S. dollars ($250,000,000), and subject to supervision or examination by federal, state, territorial, or District of Columbia authority.

 

31

 

 

If such corporation or other Person publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of the aforesaid supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation or other Person shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. The Company may not, nor may any Person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Company, serve as Trustee. In case at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in Section 7.10.

 

Section 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.

 

(a) The Trustee or any successor hereafter appointed may at any time resign with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company and by transmitting notice of resignation by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders of such series, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the mailing of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series, or any Securityholder of that series who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

 

(b) In case at any time any one of the following shall occur:

 

(i) the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 7.08 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months; or

 

(ii) the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 7.09 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Securityholder; or

 

(iii) the Trustee shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or commence a voluntary bankruptcy proceeding, or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or consented to, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation;

 

32

 

 

then, in any such case, the Company may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities and appoint a successor trustee by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may, on behalf of that holder and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

 

(c) The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to such series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company and may appoint a successor Trustee for such series with the consent of the Company.

 

(d) Any resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of a series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 7.11.

 

(e) Any successor trustee appointed pursuant to this Section may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more series or all of such series, and at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series.

 

Section 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment by Successor.

 

(a) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of its charges, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all the rights, powers, and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.

 

(b) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor trustee shall accept such appointment and which (i) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates, (ii) shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (iii) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust, that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee and that no Trustee shall be responsible for any act or failure to act on the part of any other Trustee hereunder; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein, such retiring Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates have no further responsibility for the exercise of rights and powers or for the performance of the duties and obligations vested in the Trustee under this Indenture, and each such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee, to the extent contemplated by such supplemental indenture, the property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates.

 

33

 

 

 

(c) Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Section, as the case may be.

 

(d) No successor trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.

 

(e) Upon acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee as provided in this Section, the Company shall transmit notice of the succession of such trustee hereunder by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. If the Company fails to transmit such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be transmitted at the expense of the Company.

 

Section 7.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.

 

Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to all or substantially all the corporate trust business of the Trustee, including the administration of the trust created by this Indenture, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 7.08 and eligible under the provisions of Section 7.09, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities.

 

34

 

 

Section 7.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company.

 

The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein.

 

Section 7.14 Notice of Default.

 

If any Event of Default occurs and is continuing and if such Event of Default is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act notice of the Event of Default within the earlier of 90 days after it occurs and 30 days after it is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee or written notice of it is received by the Trustee, unless such Event of Default has been cured; provided, however, that, except in the case of a default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determine that the withholding of such notice is in the interest of the Securityholders.

 

ARTICLE 8

 

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

 

Section 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders.

 

Whenever in this Indenture it is provided that the holders of a majority or specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series may take any action (including the making of any demand or request, the giving of any notice, consent or waiver or the taking of any other action), the fact that at the time of taking any such action the holders of such majority or specified percentage of that series have joined therein may be evidenced by any instrument or any number of instruments of similar tenor executed by such holders of Securities of that series in person or by agent or proxy appointed in writing.

 

If the Company shall solicit from the Securityholders of any series any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, the Company may, at its option, as evidenced by an Officer’s Certificate, fix in advance a record date for such series for the determination of Securityholders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so. If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action may be given before or after the record date, but only the Securityholders of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be Securityholders for the purposes of determining whether Securityholders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities of that series have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, and for that purpose the Outstanding Securities of that series shall be computed as of the record date; provided, however, that no such authorization, agreement or consent by such Securityholders on the record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than six months after the record date.

 

35

 

 

Section 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, proof of the execution of any instrument by a Securityholder (such proof will not require notarization) or his or her agent or proxy and proof of the holding by any Person of any of the Securities shall be sufficient if made in the following manner:

 

(a) The fact and date of the execution by any such Person of any instrument may be proved in any reasonable manner acceptable to the Trustee.

 

(b) The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register of such Securities or by a certificate of the Security Registrar thereof.

 

The Trustee may require such additional proof of any matter referred to in this Section as it shall deem necessary.

 

Section 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners.

 

Prior to the due presentment for registration of transfer of any Security, the Company, the Trustee, any paying agent and any Security Registrar may deem and treat the Person in whose name such Security shall be registered upon the books of the Security Registrar as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notice of ownership or writing thereon made by anyone other than the Security Registrar) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, premium, if any, and (subject to Section 2.03) interest on such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any paying agent nor any Security Registrar shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.

 

Section 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded.

 

In determining whether the holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Securities of a particular series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, the Securities of that series that are owned by the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities of such series that the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. The Securities so owned that have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding for the purposes of this Section, if the pledgee shall establish to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not a Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company or any such other obligor. In case of a dispute as to such right, any decision by the Trustee taken upon the advice of counsel shall be full protection to the Trustee.

 

36

 

 

Section 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders.

 

At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 8.01, of the taking of any action by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any holder of a Security of that series that is shown by the evidence to be included in the Securities the holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice with the Trustee, and upon proof of holding as provided in Section 8.02, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security.

 

Except as aforesaid any such action taken by the holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such holder and upon all future holders and owners of such Security, and of any Security issued in exchange therefor, on registration of transfer thereof or in place thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon such Security. Any action taken by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Company, the Trustee and the holders of all the Securities of that series.

 

ARTICLE 9

 

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

 

Section 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders.

 

In addition to any supplemental indenture otherwise authorized by this Indenture, the Company and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect), without the consent of the Securityholders, for one or more of the following purposes:

 

(a) to cure any ambiguity, defect, or inconsistency herein or in the Securities of any series;

 

(b) to comply with Article Ten;

 

(c) to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;

 

(d) to add to the covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions relating to the Company for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of Securities (and if such covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series), to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an Event of Default, or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company;

 

(e) to add to, delete from, or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication, and delivery of Securities, as herein set forth;

 

37

 

 

(f) to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder in any material respect;

 

(g) to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the Securities of any series as provided in Section 2.01, to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or any series of Securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of Securities;

 

(h) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee; or

 

(i) to comply with any requirements of the Commission or any successor in connection with the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

 

The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations that may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture that affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

 

Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed by the Company and the Trustee without the consent of the holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 9.02.

 

Section 9.02 Supplemental Indentures with Consent of Securityholders.

 

With the consent (evidenced as provided in Section 8.01) of the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series affected by such supplemental indenture or indentures at the time Outstanding, the Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect) for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner not covered by Section 9.01 the rights of the holders of the Securities of such series under this Indenture; provided, however, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the holders of each Security then Outstanding and affected thereby, (a) extend the fixed maturity of any Securities of any series, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any premium payable upon the redemption thereof or (b) reduce the aforesaid percentage of Securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any such supplemental indenture.

 

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders of any series affected thereby under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

 

38

 

 

Section 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures.

 

Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, this Indenture shall, with respect to such series, be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Company and the holders of Securities of the series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.

 

Section 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures.

 

Securities of any series affected by a supplemental indenture, authenticated and delivered after the execution of such supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, may bear a notation in form approved by the Company, provided such form meets the requirements of any securities exchange upon which such series may be listed, as to any matter provided for in such supplemental indenture. If the Company shall so determine, new Securities of that series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Board of Directors, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Company, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of that series then Outstanding.

 

Section 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures.

 

Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by its Board Resolutions authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders required to consent thereto as aforesaid, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion but shall not be obligated to enter into such supplemental indenture. The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, shall receive an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article is authorized or permitted by the terms of this Article and that all conditions precedent to the execution of the supplemental indenture have been complied with; provided, however, that such Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel need not be provided in connection with the execution of a supplemental indenture that establishes the terms of a series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

 

Promptly after the execution by the Company and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Company shall (or shall direct the Trustee to) transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, a notice, setting forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture, to the Securityholders of all series affected thereby .as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Any failure of the Company to mail, or cause the mailing of, such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

 

39

 

 

 

ARTICLE 10

 

SUCCESSOR ENTITY

 

Section 10.01 Company May Consolidate, Etc.

 

Nothing contained in this Indenture shall prevent any consolidation or merger of the Company with or into any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company) or successive consolidations or mergers in which the Company or its successor or successors shall be a party or parties, or shall prevent any sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition of the property of the Company or its successor or successors as an entirety, or substantially as an entirety, to any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company or its successor or successors); provided, however, the Company hereby covenants and agrees that, upon any such consolidation or merger (in each case, if the Company is not the survivor of such transaction) or any such sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition (other than a sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition to a Subsidiary of the Company), the due and punctual payment of the principal of (premium, if any) and interest on all of the Securities of all series in accordance with the terms of each series, according to their tenor, and the due and punctual performance and observance of all the covenants and conditions of this Indenture with respect to each series or established with respect to such series pursuant to Section 2.01 to be kept or performed by the Company shall be expressly assumed, by supplemental indenture (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act, as then in effect) reasonably satisfactory in form to the Trustee executed and delivered to the Trustee by the entity formed by such consolidation, or into which the Company shall have been merged, or by the entity which shall have acquired such property.

 

Section 10.02 Successor Entity Substituted.

 

(a) In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition and upon the assumption by the successor entity by supplemental indenture, executed and delivered to the Trustee and satisfactory in form to the Trustee, of the obligations set forth under Section 10.01 on all of the Securities of all series Outstanding, such successor entity shall succeed to and be substituted for the Company with the same effect as if it had been named as the Company herein, and thereupon the predecessor corporation shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

(b) In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition, such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.

 

(c) Nothing contained in this Article shall require any action by the Company in the case of a consolidation or merger of any Person into the Company where the Company is the survivor of such transaction, or the acquisition by the Company, by purchase or otherwise, of all or any part of the property of any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company).

 

40

 

 

ARTICLE 11

 

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

 

Section 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

 

If at any time: (a) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of a series theretofore authenticated and not delivered to the Trustee for cancellation (other than any Securities that shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.07 and Securities for whose payment money or Governmental Obligations have theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by the Company and thereupon repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust, as provided in Section 11.05); or (b) all such Securities of a particular series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and the Company shall deposit or cause to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount in moneys or Governmental Obligations or a combination thereof, sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder with respect to such series by the Company then this Indenture shall thereupon cease to be of further effect with respect to such series except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4.01, 4.02, 4.03 and 7.10, that shall survive until the date of maturity or redemption date, as the case may be, and Sections 7.06 and 11.05, that shall survive to such date and thereafter, and the Trustee, on demand of the Company and at the cost and expense of the Company shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series.

 

Section 11.02 Discharge of Obligations.

 

If at any time all such Securities of a particular series not heretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or that have not become due and payable as described in Section 11.01 shall have been paid by the Company by depositing irrevocably with the Trustee as trust funds moneys or an amount of Governmental Obligations sufficient to pay at maturity or upon redemption all such Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company with respect to such series, then after the date such moneys or Governmental Obligations, as the case may be, are deposited with the Trustee the obligations of the Company under this Indenture with respect to such series shall cease to be of further effect except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4,01, 4.02, 4,03, 7.06, 7.10 and 11.05 hereof that shall survive until such Securities shall mature and be paid.

 

Thereafter, Sections 7.06 and 11.05 shall survive.

 

41

 

 

Section 11.03 Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust.

 

All moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Sections 11.01 or 11.02 shall be held in trust and shall be available for payment as due, either directly or through any paying agent (including the Company acting as its own paying agent), to the holders of the particular series of Securities for the payment or redemption of which such moneys or Governmental Obligations have been deposited with the Trustee.

 

Section 11.04 Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents.

 

In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture all moneys or Governmental Obligations then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture shall, upon demand of the Company, be paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations.

 

Section 11.05 Repayment to Company.

 

Any moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with any paying agent or the Trustee, or then held by the Company, in trust for payment of principal of or premium, if any, or interest on the Securities of a particular series that are not applied but remain unclaimed by the holders of such Securities for at least two years after the date upon which the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on such Securities shall have respectively become due and payable, or such other shorter period set forth in applicable escheat or abandoned or unclaimed property law, shall be repaid to the Company on May 31 of each year or upon the Company’s request or (if then held by the Company) shall be discharged from such trust; and thereupon the paying agent and the Trustee shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations, and the holder of any of the Securities entitled to receive such payment shall thereafter, as a general creditor, look only to the Company for the payment thereof.

 

ARTICLE 12

 

IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

 

Section 12.01 No Recourse.

 

No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, either directly or through the Company or any such predecessor or successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, stockholder, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities.

 

42

 

 

ARTICLE 13

 

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

 

Section 13.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns.

 

All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements in this Indenture made by or on behalf of the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

 

Section 13.02 Actions by Successor.

 

Any act or proceeding by any provision of this Indenture authorized or required to be done or performed by any board, committee or officer of the Company shall and may be done and performed with like force and effect by the corresponding board, committee or officer of any corporation that shall at the time be the lawful successor of the Company.

 

Section 13.03 Surrender of Company Powers.

 

The Company by instrument in writing executed by authority of its Board of Directors and delivered to the Trustee may surrender any of the powers reserved to the Company, and thereupon such power so surrendered shall terminate both as to the Company and as to any successor corporation.

 

Section 13.04 Notices.

 

Except as otherwise expressly provided herein, any notice, request or demand that by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given, made or served by the Trustee, the Security Registrar, any paying or other agent under this Indenture or by the holders of Securities or by any other Person pursuant to this Indenture to or on the Company may be given or served by being deposited in first class mail, postage prepaid, addressed (until another address is filed in writing by the Company with the Trustee), as follows: . Any notice, election, request or demand by the Company or any Securityholder or by any other Person pursuant to this Indenture to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made in writing at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.

 

Section 13.05 Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver.

 

This Indenture and each Security shall governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

 

EACH PARTY HERETO, AND EACH HOLDER OF A SECURITY BY ACCEPTANCE THEREOF, HEREBY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY RIGHT IT MAY HAVE TO A TRIAL BY JURY IN RESPECT OF ANY LITIGATION DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY ARISING OUT OF, UNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS INDENTURE.

 

43

 

 

Section 13.06 Treatment of Securities as Debt.

 

It is intended that the Securities will be treated as indebtedness and not as equity for federal income tax purposes. The provisions of this Indenture shall be interpreted to further this intention.

 

Section 13.07 Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent.

 

(a) Upon any application or demand by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture (other than the certificate to be delivered pursuant to Section 13.12) relating to the proposed action have been complied with and, if requested, an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

 

(b) Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant in this Indenture (other than the certificate to be delivered pursuant to Section 13.12 or Section 314(a)(1) of the Trust Indenture Act) shall include (i) a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition; (ii) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based; (iii) a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, he has made such examination or investigation as is reasonably necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and (iv) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

Section 13.08 Payments on Business Days.

 

Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, in any case where the date of maturity of interest or principal of any Security or the date of redemption of any Security shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or principal (and premium, if any) may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the nominal date of maturity or redemption, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such nominal date.

 

44

 

 

Section 13.09 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.

 

If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with the duties imposed by Section 318(c) of the Trust Indenture Act, such imposed duties shall control.

 

Section 13.10 Counterparts.

 

This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original, but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument. The exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile or PDF transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture for all purposes. Signatures of the parties hereto transmitted by facsimile or PDF shall be deemed to be their original signatures for all purposes.

 

Section 13.11 Separability.

 

In case any one or more of the provisions contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of any series shall for any reason be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provisions of this Indenture or of such Securities, but this Indenture and such Securities shall be construed as if such invalid or illegal or unenforceable provision had never been contained herein or therein.

 

Section 13.12 Compliance Certificates.

 

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year during which any Securities of any series were outstanding, an officer’s certificate stating whether or not the signers know of any Event of Default that occurred during such fiscal year. Such certificate shall contain a certification from the principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer of the Company that a review has been conducted of the activities of the Company and the Company’s performance under this Indenture and that the Company has complied with all conditions and covenants under this Indenture. For purposes of this Section 13.12, such compliance shall be determined without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided under this Indenture. If the officer of the Company signing such certificate has knowledge of such an Event of Default, the certificate shall describe any such Event of Default and its status.

 

Section 13.13 U.S.A Patriot Act.

 

The parties hereto acknowledge that in accordance with Section 326 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act, the Trustee, like all financial institutions and in order to help fight the funding of terrorism and money laundering, is required to obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person or legal entity that establishes a relationship or opens an account with the Trustee. The parties to this Indenture agree that they will provide the Trustee with such information as it may request in order for the Trustee to satisfy the requirements of the U.S.A. Patriot Act.

 

45

 

 

Section 13.14 Force Majeure.

 

In no event shall the Trustee, the Security Registrar, any paying agent or any other agent under this Indenture be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions or utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee, the Security Registrar, any paying agent or any other agent under this Indenture shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.

 

Section 13.15 Table of Contents; Headings.

 

The table of contents and headings of the articles and sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not intended to be considered a part hereof, and will not modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

 

46

 

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed all as of the day and year first above written.

 

  IDEANOMICS, INC.
     
  By:  
     
  Name:  
     
  Title:  
     
  [TRUSTEE], as Trustee
     
  By:  
     
  Name:  
     
  Title:           

 

47

 

 

CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE (1)

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as Amended   Section of
Indenture
310(a)   7.09
310(b)   7.08
    7.10
310(c)   Inapplicable
311(a)   7.13
311(b)   7.13
311(c)   Inapplicable
312(a)   5.01
    5.02(a)
312(b)   5.02(c)
312(c)   5.02(c)
313(a)   5.04(a)
313(b)   5.04(b)
313(c)   5.04(a)
    5.04(b)
313(d)   5.04(c)
314(a)   5.03
    13.12
314(b)   Inapplicable
314(c)   13.07(a)
314(d)   Inapplicable
314(e)   13.07(b)
314(f)   Inapplicable
315(a)   7.01(a)
    7.01(b)
315(b)   7.14
315(c)   7.01
315(d)   7.01(b)
315(e)   6.07
316(a)   6.06
    8.04
316(b)   6.04
316(c)   8.01
317(a)   6.02
317(b)   4.03
318(a)   13.09

 

(1) This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

48

 

Exhibit 5.1

 

 

50 West Liberty Street, Suite 1000, Reno, Nevada 89501-1950

Telephone: 775-323-1980 Fax: 775-323-2339

3960 Howard Hughes Parkway, Suite 500, Las Vegas, Nevada 89169

Telephone: 702-387-6073 Fax: 702-990-3564

www.shermanhoward.com

 

June 23, 2020

 

Ideanomics, Inc.

55 Broadway, 19th Floor

New York, New York 10006

 

Re:Ideanomics, Inc./Registration Statement on Form S-3

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

We have acted as special Nevada counsel to Ideanomics, Inc., a Nevada corporation (the “Company”), in connection with the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-3 (the “Registration Statement”), under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”), as filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”). The prospectus (the “Prospectus”) that forms part of the Registration Statement provides that it will be supplemented in the future by one or more prospectus supplements (each, a “Prospectus Supplement”). The Registration Statement, including the Prospectus as supplemented from time-to-time by one or more Prospectus Supplements, covers the offering and issuance by the Company of up to $250,000,000 aggregate offering price of the following:

 

·shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share (the “Common Stock”);

 

·shares of one or more series of preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share (the “Preferred Stock”);

 

·debt securities, in one or more series (the “Debt Securities”), which may be issued pursuant to an indenture to be dated on or about the date of the first issuance of Debt Securities thereunder, by and between a trustee to be selected by the Company (the “Trustee”) and the Company (an “Indenture”);

 

·warrants to purchase Common Stock or Preferred Stock (“Warrants”);

 

 

 

 

June 23, 2020

Page 2

 

·rights to purchase Common Stock, Preferred Stock, or Debt Securities (“Rights”); and

 

·units comprised of one or more shares of Common Stock, shares of Preferred Stock, Debt Securities, Warrants, or Rights (“Units,” and, collectively with the Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Debt Securities, Warrants, and Rights, the (“Securities”).

 

For purposes of these opinions, we have examined originals or copies, certified or otherwise identified to our satisfaction, of:

 

(a)       the Registration Statement;

 

(b)       Articles of Incorporation of the Company filed with the Nevada Secretary of State on October 19, 2004 (“Original Articles”), as amended by (i) Articles of Merger Pursuant to NRS 92A.200 filed with the Nevada Secretary of State on December 15, 2004 (“Articles of Merger”), (ii) Certificate of Amendment to Articles of Incorporation For Nevada Profit Corporations filed with the Nevada Secretary of State on January 27, 2005 (“First Amendment”), (iii) Certificate of Amendment to Articles of Incorporation For Nevada Profit Corporations filed with the Nevada Secretary of State on May 7, 2007 (“Second Amendment”), (iv) Certificate of Amendment to Articles of Incorporation For Nevada Profit Corporations filed with the Nevada Secretary of State on July 8, 2010 (“Third Amendment”), (v) Certificate of Amendment to Articles of Incorporation For Nevada Profit Corporations filed with the Nevada Secretary of State on February 23, 2011 (“Fourth Amendment”), (vi) Certificate of Amendment to Articles of Incorporation For Nevada Profit Corporations filed with the Nevada Secretary of State on February 9, 2012 (“Fifth Amendment”), (vii) Certificate of Amendment to Articles of Incorporation for Nevada Profit Corporations filed with the Nevada Secretary of State on November 2, 2016 (“Sixth Amendment”); (viii) Certificate of Amendment to Articles of Incorporation for Nevada Profit Corporations filed with the Nevada Secretary of State on July 12, 2017 (“Seventh Amendment”); and (ix) Certificate of Amendment to Articles of Incorporation for Nevada Profit Corporations filed with the Nevada Secretary of State on October 17, 2018 (“Eighth Amendment”) and collectively with the Original Articles, the Articles of Merger, the First Amendment, the Second Amendment, the Third Amendment, the Fourth Amendment, the Fifth Amendment, the Sixth Amendment, and the Seventh Amendment, the “Articles of Incorporation”);

 

(c)       Second Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Company, adopted on January 31, 2014, as amended on March 26, 2015 and on November 20, 2015;

 

(d)       forms of agreements, resolutions of the Board of Directors, and such other matters as relevant related to the issuance and the registration of the Securities under the Securities Act, and such other matters as relevant.

We also have examined originals or copies, certified or otherwise identified to our satisfaction, of such records of the Company and other documents, certificates, and records as we have deemed necessary or appropriate as a basis for the opinions set forth herein.

 

 

 

 

June 23, 2020

Page 3

 

In our examination, we have assumed:

 

(a)       the legal capacity of all natural persons executing the documents;

 

(b)        the genuineness of all signatures on the documents;

 

(c)       the authenticity of all documents submitted to us as originals, and the conformity to original documents of all documents submitted to us as copies;

 

(d)       that the parties to such documents, other than the Company, had the power, corporate or other, to enter into and perform all obligations thereunder; and

 

(e)       other than with respect to the Company, the due authorization by all requisite action, corporate or other, the execution and delivery by all parties of the documents, and the validity and binding effect thereof on such parties.

 

With respect to our opinion as to the Common Stock, we have assumed that, at the time of issuance, sale, and delivery, a sufficient number of shares of Common Stock are authorized and available for issuance and that the consideration for the issuance and sale of the Common Stock, and with respect to shares of Common Stock issuable upon the conversion of Preferred Stock or Debt Securities or the exercise of Warrants or Rights, the consideration for the issuance and sale of such Preferred Stock or Debt Securities convertible into Common Stock or the exercise price for the exercise of the Warrants and Rights, is in an amount that is not less than the par value of the Common Stock.

 

With respect to our opinion as to the Preferred Stock, we have assumed that, at the time of issuance, sale, and delivery, a sufficient number of shares of Preferred Stock are authorized, designated, and available for issuance and that the consideration for the issuance and sale of the Preferred Stock or the exercise of Warrants or Rights, and with respect to shares of Preferred Stock issuable upon the conversion of Debt Securities or the exercise of Warrants or Rights, the consideration for the issuance and sale of such Debt Securities convertible into Preferred Stock or the exercise price for the exercise of the Warrants and Rights, is in an amount that is not less than the par value of the Preferred Stock.

 

We have assumed that (i) with respect to Common Stock being issued upon conversion of any convertible preferred stock other than the Preferred Stock offered pursuant to the Registration Statement, the applicable convertible preferred stock will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable; and (ii) with respect to any Common Stock or Preferred Stock being issued upon conversion of any convertible debt securities other than the Debt Securities offered pursuant to the Registration Statement, the applicable convertible debt securities will be valid and legally binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms.

 

 

 

 

June 23, 2020

Page 4

 

We have assumed that upon issuance, sale, and delivery of the Debt Securities the amount of Debt Securities outstanding will not exceed the amount authorized by the Board.

 

On the basis of the foregoing and in reliance thereon, and subject to the assumptions, limitations and qualifications set forth herein, we are of the opinion that (subject to compliance with the pertinent provisions of the Securities Act and, with respect to an Indenture, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, and to compliance with such securities or “blue sky” laws of any jurisdiction as may be applicable, as to which we express no opinion):

 

1.       With respect to the Common Stock offered under the Registration Statement, provided that at the time of issuance, sale, and delivery of the Common Stock (i) the Registration Statement and any required post-effective amendment thereto have all become effective under the Securities Act and no stop order has been issued by the SEC relating to the Registration Statement, and the Prospectus and any and all Prospectus Supplement(s) required by applicable laws, rules, and regulations have been delivered and filed in compliance with and as required by such laws, rules and regulations; (ii) the Board of the Company has duly adopted in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws (as such terms are defined below) and the Nevada Private Corporations Act, NRS 78.010, et. seq. (the “NPCA”), final resolutions authorizing the terms of and the issuance and sale of the Common Stock as contemplated by the Registration Statement and such resolutions have not been modified or rescinded; (iii) the terms of the shares of Common Stock and the issuance and sale of the Common Stock do not violate any applicable law, are in conformity with the Company’s then operative Certificate of Incorporation (the “Certificate of Incorporation”), and Bylaws (the “Bylaws”), do not result in a default under or breach of any agreement or instrument binding upon the Company, and comply with any applicable requirement or restriction imposed by any court or governmental body having jurisdiction over the Company; (iv) the Common Stock has been issued as provided in the resolutions of the Board of the Company described in clause (ii) above, (v) the certificates, if any, for the Common Stock have been duly executed by the Company and countersigned by the transfer agent therefor, and (vi) the shares of Common Stock (including any certificates therefor) have been duly delivered to the purchasers thereof against payment of the agreed consideration therefor as described in the Registration Statement and in accordance with the terms of any purchase, underwriting or similar agreement, if any, then the Common Stock, when issued and sold as contemplated in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, and the related Prospectus Supplement(s) and in accordance with any applicable duly authorized, executed, and delivered purchase, underwriting, or similar agreement, or upon conversion of any convertible Preferred Stock or convertible Debt Securities in accordance with their terms, will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid, and nonassessable.

 

 

 

 

June 23, 2020

Page 5

 

2.       With respect to the Preferred Stock offered under the Registration Statement, provided that at the time of issuance, sale, and delivery of the Preferred Stock (i) the Registration Statement and any required post-effective amendment thereto have all become effective under the Securities Act and no stop order has been issued by the SEC relating to the Registration Statement, and the Prospectus and any and all Prospectus Supplement(s) required by applicable laws, rules, and regulations have been delivered and filed in compliance with and as required by such laws, rules, and regulations; (ii) the Board of the Company has duly adopted in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation, the Bylaws, and the NPCA, final resolutions authorizing the terms of and the issuance and sale of the Preferred Stock as contemplated by the Registration Statement and such resolutions have not been modified or rescinded; (iii) the terms of the shares of Preferred Stock and the issuance and sale of the Preferred Stock do not violate any applicable law, are in conformity with the Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws, do not result in a default under or breach of any agreement or instrument binding upon the Company and comply with any applicable requirement or restriction imposed by any court or governmental body having jurisdiction over the Company; (iv) the Preferred Stock has been issued as provided in the resolutions of the Board of the Company described in clause (ii) above; (v) the certificates, if any, for the Preferred Stock have been duly executed by the Company and countersigned by the transfer agent therefor, and (vi) the shares of Preferred Stock (including any certificates therefor) have been duly delivered to the purchasers thereof against payment of the agreed consideration therefor as described in the Registration Statement and in accordance with the terms of any purchase, underwriting, or similar agreement, if any, then the Preferred Stock, when issued and sold as contemplated in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, and the related Prospectus Supplement(s) and in accordance with any applicable duly authorized, executed, and delivered purchase, underwriting, or similar agreement, or upon conversion of any convertible Debt Securities in accordance with their terms, will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

 

3.       With respect to any series of the Debt Securities issued under an Indenture and offered under the Registration Statement, provided that at the time of issuance, sale, and delivery of each series of the Debt Securities (i) the Registration Statement and any required post-effective amendment thereto have all become effective under the Securities Act and no stop order has been issued by the SEC relating to the Registration Statement, and the Prospectus and any and all Prospectus Supplement(s) required by applicable laws, rules, and regulations have been delivered and filed in compliance with and as required by such laws, rules, and regulations; (ii) the Board of the Company has duly adopted in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation, the Bylaws and the NPCA, final resolutions authorizing the execution, delivery, and performance of an Indenture, as applicable, and the terms of and the issuance and sale of the Debt Securities and such resolutions have not been modified or rescinded; (iii) the Indenture, as applicable, has been duly authorized by the applicable Trustee by all necessary corporate action in accordance with its charter, bylaws, and other governing documents and applicable law and such corporate action has not been modified or rescinded; (iv) the Indenture, as applicable, has been duly executed and delivered by the Company and the Trustee, and has not been modified and such Indenture, as applicable, constitutes the legal, valid and binding obligation of the parties thereto (other than the Company); (v) the terms of the Debt Securities and of their issuance and sale have been duly established in conformity with the Indenture, as applicable, so as not to violate any applicable law or result in a default under or breach of any agreement or instrument binding upon the Company, so as to be in conformity with the Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and so as to comply with any requirement or restriction imposed by any court or governmental body having jurisdiction over the Company; (vi) the Indenture, as applicable, relating to such Debt Securities has been qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended; and (vii) the Debt Securities have been duly executed and delivered by the Company and authenticated by the Trustee pursuant to the Indenture, as applicable, and as provided in the resolutions of the Board of the Company described in clause (ii) above, and delivered against payment of the agreed consideration therefor as described in the Registration Statement and in accordance with the terms of the applicable purchase, underwriting, or similar agreement, then the Debt Securities, when issued and sold in accordance with the Indenture, as applicable, and a duly authorized, executed, and delivered purchase, underwriting, or similar agreement, will be valid and legally binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms, subject to the effect of any bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium, arrangement, or similar laws affecting the enforcement of creditors’ rights generally (including, without limitation, the effect of statutory or other laws regarding fraudulent transfers or conveyances or preferential transfers or conveyances) and general principles of equity, regardless of whether enforceability is considered in a proceeding in equity or at law.

 

 

 

 

June 23, 2020

Page 6

 

The opinions expressed herein are limited to the matters specifically set forth herein and no other opinion shall be inferred beyond the matters expressly stated. We disclaim any undertaking to advise you of any subsequent changes in the facts stated or assumed herein or any changes in applicable law that may come to our attention subsequent to the date the Registration Statement is declared effective.

 

While certain members of this firm are admitted to practice in certain jurisdictions other than Nevada, in rendering the foregoing opinions we have not examined the laws of any jurisdiction other than Nevada. Accordingly, the opinions we express herein are limited to matters involving the laws of the State of Nevada (excluding securities laws). We express no opinion regarding the effect of the laws of any other jurisdiction or state, including any federal securities laws related to the issuance and sale of the Securities.

 

We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and we consent to the reference of our name under the caption “Legal Matters” in the Prospectus forming a part of the Registration Statement. In giving the foregoing consent, we do not hereby admit that we are in the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Securities Act or the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

 

  Very truly yours,
   
  /s/ Sherman & Howard L.L.C.
   
  SHERMAN & HOWARD L.L.C.

 

 

 

 

 

Exhibit 23.1

  

 

 

CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

  

We hereby consent to the incorporation in this Registration Statement on Form S-3 of our report dated March 16, 2020, relating to the consolidated financial statements of Ideanomics, Inc. as of and for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, to all references to our firm included in this Registration Statement filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on June 23, 2020.

  

 

/s/ B F Borgers CPA PC

 

Lakewood, Colorado

June 23, 2020