As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 8, 2020

Registration No. 333-238172

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

AMENDMENT NO. 1

TO

FORM S-3

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

AIKIDO PHARMA INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware   52-0849320
(State or other jurisdiction of   (I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)   Identification Number)

 

One Rockefeller Plaza, 11th Floor

New York, NY 10020

(703) 992-9325

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

Anthony Hayes

Chief Executive Officer

AIkido Pharma Inc.

One Rockefeller Plaza, 11th Floor

New York, NY 10020

Phone: (703) 992-9325

 (Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

Please send a copy of all communications to:

Robert F. Charron, Esq.

Sarah E. Williams, Esq.

Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP

1345 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10105-0302

(212) 370-1300

 

Approximate date of commencement proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement. 

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ☐

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. ☒

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:

 

Large accelerated filer ☐ Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer ☒ Smaller reporting company ☒
  Emerging growth company ☐

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐

 

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

  

Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered (1)  

Amount to be

Registered
(2) (3)

    Proposed
Maximum Aggregate
Offering Price per Security
(2) (3)
    Proposed
Maximum Aggregate
Offering
Price
(2) (3)
    Amount of
Registration Fee
(4)
 
Common Stock, par value $.0001 per  share            —              —              —              —  
Preferred Stock, par value $.0001 per share                        
Purchase Contracts (5)                        
Warrants to Purchase common stock, Preferred Stock or other Securities (6)                        
Subscription Rights to Purchase common stock or Preferred Stock                                
Depositary Shares                                
Debt Securities (which may be senior or subordinated, convertible or non-convertible, secured or unsecured)                                
Units (7)                        
TOTAL     ---           $ 100,000,000     $ 12,980 (8)

 

(1) Securities registered hereunder may be sold separately, together or as units with other securities registered hereunder.

 

(2) Not specified as to each class of securities to be registered pursuant to Form S-3 General Instruction II.D.

 

(3) The Registrant is registering an indeterminate aggregate principal amount and number of securities of each identified class of securities up to a proposed aggregate offering price of $100,000,000, which may be offered from time to time in unspecified numbers and at indeterminate prices, and as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange, or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including under any applicable anti-dilution provisions.  In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.

 

(4) The registration fee is calculated in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

(5) Includes purchase contracts issuable upon conversion or exchange of securities registered hereunder to the extent any such securities are by their terms convertible into or exchangeable for purchase contracts.  Each purchase contract obligates the registrant to sell, and the holder thereof to purchase, an indeterminate number of debt securities, shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock or other securities registered hereunder.

 

(6) Warrants may represent rights to purchase debt securities, common stock, preferred stock or other securities registered hereunder.

 

(7) Each Unit consists of any combination of two or more of the securities being registered hereby.

 

(8) Previously paid.

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until this Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell the securities until the Registration Statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, of which this prospectus is a part, is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JUNE 8, 2020

 

Prospectus 

 

 

$100,000,000

 

COMMON STOCK

PREFERRED STOCK

PURCHASE CONTRACTS

WARRANTS

SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

DEPOSITORY SHARES

DEBT SECURITIES

UNITS

 

common stock;

 

preferred stock;

 

purchase contracts;

 

warrants to purchase our securities;

 

subscription rights to purchase any of the foregoing securities;

 

depository shares;

 

secured or unsecured debt securities consisting of notes, debentures or other evidences of indebtedness which may be senior debt securities, senior subordinated debt securities or subordinated debt securities, each of which may be convertible into equity securities; or

 

units comprised of, or other combinations of, the foregoing securities.

 

We may offer and sell these securities separately or together, in one or more series or classes and in amounts, at prices and on terms described in one or more offerings.  We may offer securities through underwriting syndicates managed or co-managed by one or more underwriters or dealers, through agents or directly to purchasers.  The prospectus supplement for each offering of securities will describe in detail the plan of distribution for that offering.  For general information about the distribution of securities offered, please see “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus.

 

Each time our securities are offered, we will provide a prospectus supplement containing more specific information about the particular offering and attach it to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. This prospectus may not be used to offer or sell securities without a prospectus supplement which includes a description of the method and terms of this offering.

 

Our common stock is quoted on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “AIKI”. The last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market on June 5, 2020 was $0.73 per share. The aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates is $25.5 million based on 34,920,219 shares of outstanding common stock, of which 34,891,230 shares are held by non-affiliates, and a per share price of $0.73 which was the closing sale price of our common stock as quoted on The Nasdaq Capital Market on June 5, 2020.

 

If we decide to seek a listing of any preferred stock, purchase contracts, warrants, subscriptions rights, depository shares, debt securities or units offered by this prospectus, the related prospectus supplement will disclose the exchange or market on which the securities will be listed, if any, or where we have made an application for listing, if any.

 

Investing in our securities involves certain risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 11 and the risk factors in our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, which is incorporated by reference herein, as well as in any other recently filed annual, quarterly or current reports and, if any, in the relevant prospectus supplement.  We urge you to carefully read this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement, together with the documents we incorporate by reference, describing the terms of these securities before investing.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus.  Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this Prospectus is June 8, 2020

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  Page
About This Prospectus ii
Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements iii
Prospectus Summary 1
Risk Factors 11
Use of Proceeds 28
Plan of Distribution 29
Description of Securities We May Offer 31
Forms of Securities 42
Legal Matters 43
Experts 43
Where You Can Find Additional Information 43
Incorporation of Documents by Reference 43

 

i

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may offer and sell, either individually or in combination, in one or more offerings, any of the securities described in this prospectus, for total gross proceeds of up to $100,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that will contain more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

We urge you to read carefully this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Documents by Reference,” before investing in any of the securities being offered. You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, along with the information contained in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so.

 

The information appearing in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and any information we have incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of a security.

 

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the section entitled “Where You Can Find Additional Information.”

 

This prospectus contains, or incorporates by reference, trademarks, tradenames, service marks and service names of AIkido Pharma Inc.

 

ii

 

 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference herein may contain forward looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties.  All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference herein, including statements regarding future events, our future financial performance, business strategy, and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. We have attempted to identify forward-looking statements by terminology including “anticipates,” “believes,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “should,” or “will” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. Although we do not make forward looking statements unless we believe we have a reasonable basis for doing so, we cannot guarantee their accuracy. These statements are only predictions and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including the risks outlined under “Risk Factors” or elsewhere in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein, which may cause our or our industry’s actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Moreover, we operate in a highly regulated, very competitive, and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time and it is not possible for us to predict all risk factors, nor can we address the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

 

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short term and long term business operations, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those reflected in the forward looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in this prospectus, and in particular, the risks discussed below and under the heading “Risk Factors” and those discussed in other documents we file with the SEC. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 and notes incorporated by reference herein. We undertake no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to these forward-looking statements, except as required by law. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this prospectus may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statement.

 

You should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement, each of which applies only as of the date of this prospectus. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any of the forward-looking statements after the date of this prospectus to conform our statements to actual results or changed expectations.

 

Any forward-looking statement you read in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any document incorporated by reference reflects our current views with respect to future events and is subject to these and other risks, uncertainties and assumptions relating to our operations, operating results, growth strategy and liquidity. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements because such statements speak only as to the date when made. We assume no obligation to publicly update or revise these forward-looking statements for any reason, or to update the reasons actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements, even if new information becomes available in the future, except as otherwise required by applicable law. You are advised, however, to consult any further disclosures we make on related subjects in our reports on Forms 10-Q, 8-K and 10-K filed with the SEC. You should understand that it is not possible to predict or identify all risk factors. Consequently, you should not consider any such list to be a complete set of all potential risks or uncertainties.

 

iii

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus.  This summary does not contain all the information that you should consider before investing in our Company.  You should carefully read the entire prospectus, including all documents incorporated by reference herein. In particular, attention should be directed to our “Risk Factors”, “Information With Respect to the Company”, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the financial statements and related notes thereto contained herein or otherwise incorporated by reference hereto, before making an investment decision.

 

As used herein, and any amendment or supplement hereto, unless otherwise indicated, “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company,” “AIKI” or similar terminology means AIkido Pharma Inc.

 

Business Overview

 

AIkido Pharma Inc., formerly known as Spherix Incorporated, was initially formed in 1967 and is currently a biotechnology company with a diverse portfolio of small-molecule anti-cancer therapeutics in development. The Company’s platform consists of patented technology from leading universities and researchers and we are currently in the process of developing an innovative therapeutic drug platform through strong partnerships with world renowned educational institutions, including The University of Texas at Austin, the University of Maryland, Baltimore and Wake Forest University. Our diverse pipeline of therapeutics includes therapies for pancreatic cancer, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The Company is also developing a broad spectrum antiviral platform that may potentially inhibit replication of multiple viruses including Influenza virus, SARS-CoV (coronavirus), MERS-CoV, Ebolavirus and Marburg virus.

 

The Company previously focused its efforts on owning, developing, acquiring and monetizing intellectual property assets. Since May 2016, the Company has received limited funds from its intellectual property monetization. In addition to its patent monetization efforts, since the fourth quarter of 2017, the Company has been transitioning to focus its efforts as a technology and biotechnology development company. These efforts have focused on biotechnology research and blockchain technology research. The Company’s biotechnology research development includes: (i) an investment in Hoth Therapeutics Inc. (“Hoth”), a development stage biopharmaceutical company focused on unique targeted therapeutics for patients suffering from indications such as atopic dermatitis, also known as eczema, (ii) an investment in DatChat, Inc. (“DatChat”), a privately held personal privacy platform focused on encrypted communication, internet security and digital rights management, and (iii) the acquisition of assets of CBM BioPharma, Inc. (“CBM”), a pharmaceutical company focusing on the development of cancer treatments.

 

As a result of the Company’s biotechnology research development and associated investments and acquisitions, our business portfolio now focuses on the treatment of three different cancers, including pancreatic cancer, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Our AML and ALL compounds, developed at the Wake Forest University, are targeted therapeutics designed to overcome multiple resistance mechanisms observed with the current standard of care. DHA-dFdC, our pancreatic drug candidate developed at the University of Texas at Austin, is a new compound that we hope will become the next generation of chemotherapy treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer. DHA-dFdC overcomes tumor cell resistance to current chemotherapeutic drugs and is well tolerated in preclinical toxicity tests. Preclinical studies have also indicated that DHA-dFdC inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth (up to 100,000-fold more potent that gemcitabine, a current standard therapy), targets pancreatic tumors and has demonstrated activities against other cancers, including leukemia, lung and melanoma. In addition, we are constantly seeking to grow our pipe to treat unmet medical needs in oncology.

 

In addition, the Company owns an exclusive world-wide license to patented technology from the University of Maryland Baltimore (“UMB”). Our license is for a broad spectrum antiviral drug platform. The licensed technology is a broadly acting pan-viral inhibitory compound targeting multiple viral pathogens. The technology works to inhibit replication of multiple viruses including Influenza virus, SARS-CoV (coronavirus), MERS-CoV, Ebolavirus and Marburg virus. The technology is covered by two patent applications already on file with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The UMB inventors are Drs. Matthew Frieman, Alexander MacKerell and Stuart Watson. The Company has also executed a Sponsored Research Agreement with UMB to support the development of the technology.

 

Our Products and Services

 

The acquisition of the CBM assets has transformed the Company into an innovative pharmaceutical company dedicated to translating fundamental biological insights into new drugs and treatments that address unmet medical needs. Our drug platform focuses on the treatment of three cancers, including pancreatic cancer, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

 

Our Drug Platform

 

DHA-dFdC 4-(N)-Docosahexaenoyl 2´, 2´-Difluorodeoxycytidine, referred to as DHA-dFdC, is patented technology licensed to the Company from the University of Texas at Austin. DHA-dFdC is a new compound poised to become the next generation of second-line chemotherapy treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer. DHA-dFdC overcomes tumor cell resistance to current chemotherapeutic drugs and is well tolerated in preclinical toxicity tests. Preclinical studies have also indicated that DHA-dFdC inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth (up to 100,000-fold more potent that gemcitabine, a current standard therapy (for example, the IC50 value of DHA-dFdC is more than 100,000-fold smaller than gemcitabine), targets pancreatic tumors and has demonstrated activities against other cancer cell lines, including leukemia, lung and melanoma. Our AML and ALL compounds, developed at the Wake Forest University and called KPC34, are next generation targeted therapeutics designed to overcome multiple resistance mechanisms observed with the current standard of care. Combined, the Company’s drug platform offers a robust drug pipeline focused on the development and commercialization of drugs to treat unmet medical needs in oncology. In addition, we are constantly seeking to grow our pipeline to treat unmet medical needs in oncology.

1

 

 

Background*

 

Pancreatic cancer is the 3rd leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, surpassing breast cancer. It is expected to become the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States by the year 2020, surpassing colorectal cancer. In fact, pancreatic cancer has the highest mortality rate of all major cancers. Approximately 91% of pancreatic cancer patients will die within five years of diagnosis, only 8% will survive more than five years and 74% of patients die within the first year of diagnosis.

 

Pancreatic cancer is one of the few cancers for which survival has not improved substantially over nearly 40 years. Treatment options for pancreatic cancer include surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy, which extend survival or relieve symptoms, but seldom produce a cure. Surgical removal of the tumor is possible in less than 20% of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer because detection is often in late stages and has spread beyond the pancreas. The current state of the art chemotherapy treatment is gemcitabine, Folfirinox cocktail or gemcitabine in combination with Abraxane.

 

*Hirshberg Foundation for Pancreatic Cancer Research

 

The University of Texas at Austin has identified a new drug, DHA-dFdC, that has shown positive results in preclinical studies, inhibiting pancreatic tumor growth in clinically relevant transgenic mouse models. In preclinical studies, DHA-dFdC has:

 

inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth (up to 100,000-fold more potent that gemcitabine, a current standard therapy);

 

targets pancreatic tumors;

 

has overcome tumor cell resistance to current chemotherapeutic drugs;

 

is well tolerated in preclinical toxicity test;

 

has demonstrated activities against other cancers (e.g. leukemia, lung, melanoma); and

 

may stimulate immunogenic cell death to activate host antitumor immunity.

 

Gem-DHA Technology Summary

 

Gem-DHA is a conjugate molecule containing gemcitabine linked to a fatty acid called docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The structure is:

 

 

The DHA structure is illustrated above the dashed line in the graphic above and the gemcitabine structure is illustrated below the dashed line. The DHA patent states that Gem-DHA was more effective than gemcitabine alone in killing cancer cells in vitro and in vivo in a certain mouse model. The patent also states that conjugation of gemcitabine with fatty acids other than DHA did not increase effectiveness over gemcitabine.

 

2

 

 

Gem-DHA Published Data

 

The science behind Gem-DHA has been published in the following peer-reviewed scientific journals:

 

Naguib et al. (2016) Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo evaluations of 4-(N)-docosahexaenoyl 2 ́, 2 ́- difluorodeoxycytidine with potent and broad-spectrum antitumor activity, NeoPlasia 18: 33-48.

 

Valdes et al. (2017) Preclinical evaluation of the short-term toxicity of 4-(N)-docosahexaenoyl 2 ́, 2 ́- difluorodeoxycytidine (DHA-dFdC), Pharm. Res. 34: 1224-1232.

 

Valdes et al. (2019) A solid lipid nanoparticle formulation of 4-(N)-docosahexaenoyl 2 ́, 2 ́- difluorodeoxycytidine with increased solubility, stability, and antitumor activity, Int. J. Pharm. 570:118609

 

The portions of the published data state the following:

 

The drug unexpectedly concentrates itself in the pancreas relative to other organs.

 

It significantly increases the lifespan of mice with pancreatic cancer in either mice predisposed to develop the cancer, or into which human pancreatic cancer has been injected.

 

It significantly decreases the growth of pancreatic tumors in mice, better than gemcitabine, the current standard of care.

 

An oral formulation using lipid nanoparticles is highly effective and stable and has outstanding bioavailability.

 

Gem-DHA Patent Coverage

 

Gem-DHA has one issued patent on the drug itself and one application on the oral formulation, as listed in the following table:

 

Number   Priority   Expiration   Title
App. Serial No. 16/576,127, filed 9/19/2019 as continuation of App. Serial No. 15/115,393, filed 1/29/2015   1/29/2014   N/A   Nucleobase Analogue Derivatives and Their Applications
U.S. Patent No. 10,463,684, issued 11/5/2019 from App. Serial No. 15/115,393, filed 1/29/2015   1/29/2014   10/7/2035   Nucleobase Analogue Derivatives and Their Applications
Provisional App. Serial No. 62/858,114, filed 6/6/2019   6/6/2019   N/A   Lipid Nanoparticles Containing Pharmaceutical and/or Nutraceutical agents and methods thereof

 

All of this technology has been exclusively licensed to the Company for commercial development.

 

AML & ALL Cancer

 

Our AML and ALL compounds, developed at the Wake Forest University and called KPC34, are next generation targeted therapeutics designed to overcome multiple resistance mechanisms observed with the current standard of care.

 

Background

 

Approximately 70% of all AML patients are over the age of 60 and only 6.6% of patients are still alive 5 years after diagnosis. Gemcitabine and Cytarabine are the backbone of AML and ALL therapy, but life expectancy is poor and relapses are much harder to treat.

 

Cytarabine (Ara-C) has been a major drug for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment for more than three decades, but KPC34 has shown superior results when tested against Cytarabine.

 

3

 

 

KPC34 Technology Summary

 

KPC34, a conjugate molecule made of a gemcitabine molecule linked to a phospholipid, has the following structure:

 

 

Picture in the illustration above, to the left of the dashed line is the phospholipid portion and to the right of the dashed line is gemcitabine.

 

Gemcitabine is a chemotherapy drug used to treat a wide array of cancers, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and bladder cancer. The drug interferes with DNA and its function of the phospholipid to which the gemcitabine is linked in KPC34, is to inhibit protein kinase C-type enzymes, which are involved in multiple signaling pathways in leukemia.

 

The strategy behind targeting both DNA synthesis and protein kinase C with one molecule is to double-target different mechanisms of action in leukemia cells and greatly reduce the possibility of development of resistance to the drug.

 

KPC34 is intended to treat the relatively small population of patients with AML and acute ALL. In 2019, an estimated 21,450 people of all ages (11,650 men and boys and 9,800 women and girls) in the United States will be diagnosed with AML. AML is the second most common type of leukemia diagnosed in adults and children, but most cases occur in adults. AML makes up 32% of all adult leukemia cases (source: https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/leukemia-acute-myeloid-aml/statistics). In 2019, an estimated 5,930 people of all ages (3,280 men and boys and 2,650 women and girls) in the United States were diagnosed with ALL (source: https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/leukemia-acute-lymphocytic-all/statistics).

 

The drug is intended for oral application, unlike standard chemotherapy drugs, which are given by injection.

 

Because of the low patient population, and the imminent expiration of the patent, FDA orphan drug status will be sought, which provides expedited review and seven years of exclusivity from approval of the new drug application.

 

Preliminary data from preclinical studies at Wake Forest on the drug includes the following results:

 

kills leukemia cells in vitro;

 

inhibits protein kinase C in biochemical assays;

 

targets ALL;

 

targets central nervous system leukemia;

 

targets AML exhibiting phosphorylated protein kinase C;

 

Wake Forest claims KPC34 targeted gemcitabine alone or cytarabine (another chemo drug) alone; and

 

KPC34 also appears to overcome resistance to gemcitabine; it is effective against gemcitabine-resistant cancer.

 

The technology licensed is much broader than KPC34 represents, and includes both anticancer and antiviral conjugates, and could include a much broader range of indications, but we have no such drug candidates in development other than KPC34.

 

KPC34 Patent Coverage

 

The KPC34 license includes five issued patents, but only one of them covers KPC34. The patent is US7309696, entitled “Compositions and methods for targeting cancer cells.” It expires on August 11, 2021. All five of the licensed patents will expire by late 2022.

 

4

 

 

Licenses

 

On April 12, 2018, CBM entered into a patent license agreement (the “UT Agreement”) with the University of Texas at Austin on behalf of the Board of Regents of the University of Texas System. The UT Agreement granted to CBM an exclusive, royalty-bearing license to certain patent applications related to nucleobase analogue derivatives and their applications, and specifically to the DHA-dFdC drug candidate. On November 13, 2019, the University of Texas at Austin, the Company and CBM entered into an assignment of agreement, whereby CBM assigned all of its rights, title and interest to, and obligations under the UT Agreement to the Company.

 

On April 17, 2018, CBM entered into a license agreement (the “WF Agreement”) with Wake Forest University Health Sciences (“WF”). The WF Agreement granted to CBM an exclusive, royalty-bearing license to WF’s and The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill’s patents relating to the KPC34 drug candidate. On November 13, 2019, WF, the Company and CBM entered into an assignment of agreement, whereby CBM assigned all of its rights, title and interest to, and obligations under the WF Agreement to the Company.

 

On April 13, 2020, the Company executed a Master License Agreement (the “UMB License Agreement”) with UMB, pursuant to which UMB agreed to license inventions collectively known as “Broad Spectrum Antiviral Compounds Which Target the SKI Complex” (the “Inventions”) to the Company. The Inventions, which are covered by two patent applications on file with the United States Patent and Trademark Office, are currently in the pre-clinical stage and seek to inhibit replication of multiple viruses, including the Influenza virus, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, Ebolavirus and Marburg virus. In addition, the Company entered into a Sponsored Research Agreement with UMB to support the development of various technologies.

 

Pursuant to the UMB License Agreement, UMB grants to the Company the ability to utilize the licensed products (“Licensed Products”) and patents associated with the Inventions, subject to certain limitations described in the UMB License Agreement. All improvements to the Inventions are solely owned by the party improving the Inventions, unless jointly made, in which case both parties jointly own the improvements; however, the Company grants to UMB the royalty-free license to practice the Company’s improvements. The Company has agreed to deliver to UMB a commercialization plan setting forth the Company’s plan for research and development required to develop the Licensed Products and the Company’s overall commercialization strategy by December 31, 2022.

 

The Company is required to pay UMB a license fee of $100,000, an annual license maintenance fee of $25,000 on the fourth anniversary of the UMB License Agreement, certain milestone payments as described in the UMB License Agreement, a royalty on sales of Licensed Products until certain threshold levels are reached and a percentage of income received from any sublicensing income.

 

The UMB License Agreement, which continues on a Licensed Product-by-Licensed Product and country-by-country basis, will terminate upon the later of (i) the date of expiration of the last to expire claim of patent rights covering the Licensed Products, (ii) the expiration of data protection, new chemical entity, orphan drug exclusivity, regulatory exclusivity or other legally enforceable market exclusivity, or (iii) ten years after the first commercial sale of a Licensed Product. If none of the previously listed items occur, the UMB License Agreement will expire twenty years after the date of the UMB License Agreement. However, the parties may terminate the UMB License Agreement under certain conditions described in the UMB License Agreement, including but not limited to, missed payments and failure to achieve required milestones. The UMB License Agreement also contains various non-compete, non-solicitation and indemnification provisions as well as representations and warranties made by each party.

 

Commercialization

 

Our business success with our drug portfolio depends not only on the successful development and approval of the products but also on the commercialization. At present, our plan anticipates us making the investments necessary to build an in-house marketing and sales capability for the U.S. market for our drug pipeline, or to partner with a larger drug development company to commercialize our drugs as they move through the FDA approval process. As our drug compounds make their way through clinical development in the U.S., we intend to approach pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies outside the U.S. to negotiate and enter into strategic partnerships that will enable development and commercialization of our platform outside the U.S., where we believe the market opportunity is larger than that of the U.S. albeit far more complex to reach. We have no operations outside the U.S., nor are we planning to have any non-U.S. operations.

 

Manufacturing and Supply

 

We do not have any manufacturing capabilities and therefore we will have to engage a third party to assist in manufacturing. Such manufacturing will need to be done in accordance with good manufacturing practice requirements (“cGMP”) regulations, to formulate and manufacture our product candidates. A list of third party manufacturers is currently being developed.

 

Government Regulation

 

Governmental authorities in the U.S. and other countries extensively regulate the research, development, testing, manufacture, labeling, promotion, advertising, distribution and marketing of pharmaceutical products such as those being developed by us. In the U.S., the FDA regulates such products under the FDCA and implements related regulations. Failure to comply with applicable FDA requirements, both before and after approval, may subject us to administrative and judicial sanctions, such as a delay in approving or refusal by the FDA to approve pending applications, warning letters, product recalls, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions and/or criminal prosecution.

 

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U.S. Food and Drug Administration Regulation

 

United States Drug Development

 

In the United States, the FDA regulates drugs, medical devices and combinations of drugs and devices, or combination products, under the FDCA and its implementing regulations. Drugs are also subject to other federal, state and local statutes and regulations. The process of obtaining regulatory approvals and the subsequent compliance with appropriate federal, state, local and foreign statutes and regulations requires the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. Failure to comply with the applicable U.S. requirements at any time during the product development process, approval process or after approval, may subject an applicant to administrative or judicial sanctions. These sanctions could include, among other actions, the FDA’s refusal to approve pending applications, withdrawal of an approval, a clinical hold, untitled or warning letters, requests for voluntary product recalls or withdrawals from the market, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution injunctions, fines, refusals of government contracts, restitution, disgorgement, or civil or criminal penalties. Any agency or judicial enforcement action could have a material adverse effect on us.

 

The process required by the FDA before a drug may be marketed in the United States generally involves the following:

 

completion of extensive pre-clinical laboratory tests, animal studies and formulation studies in accordance with applicable regulations, including the FDA’s Good Laboratory Practice regulations;

 

submission to the FDA of an IND, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin;

 

performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials in accordance with an applicable IND and other clinical study related regulations, sometimes referred to as good clinical practices, or GCPs, to establish the safety and efficacy of the proposed drug for its proposed indication;

 

submission to the FDA of an NDA;

 

satisfactory completion of an FDA pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities at which the product, or components thereof, are produced to assess compliance with the FDA’s cGMP requirements;

 

potential FDA audit of the clinical trial sites that generated the data in support of the NDA; and

 

FDA review and approval of the NDA prior to any commercial marketing or sale.

 

Once a pharmaceutical product candidate is identified for development, it enters the pre-clinical testing stage. Pre-clinical tests include laboratory evaluations of product chemistry, toxicity, formulation and stability, as well as animal studies. An IND sponsor must submit the results of the pre-clinical tests, together with manufacturing information, analytical data and any available clinical data or literature, to the FDA as part of the IND. The sponsor must also include a protocol detailing, among other things, the objectives of the initial clinical trial, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety and the effectiveness criteria to be evaluated if the initial clinical trial lends itself to an efficacy evaluation. Some pre-clinical testing may continue even after the IND is submitted. The IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless the FDA raises concerns or questions related to a proposed clinical trial and places the trial on a clinical hold within that 30-day period. In such a case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before the clinical trial can begin. Clinical holds also may be imposed by the FDA at any time before or during clinical trials due to safety concerns or non-compliance, and may be imposed on all drug products within a certain class of drugs. The FDA also can impose partial clinical holds, for example, prohibiting the initiation of clinical trials of a certain duration or for a certain dose.

 

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All clinical trials must be conducted under the supervision of one or more qualified investigators in accordance with GCP regulations. These regulations include the requirement that all research subjects provide informed consent in writing before their participation in any clinical trial. Further, an IRB must review and approve the plan for any clinical trial before it commences at any institution, and the IRB must conduct continuing review and reapprove the study at least annually. An IRB considers, among other things, whether the risks to individuals participating in the clinical trial are minimized and are reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits. The IRB also approves the information regarding the clinical trial and the consent form that must be provided to each clinical trial subject or his or her legal representative and must monitor the clinical trial until completed.

 

Each new clinical protocol and any amendments to the protocol must be submitted for FDA review, and to the IRBs for approval. Protocols detail, among other things, the objectives of the clinical trial, dosing procedures, subject selection and exclusion criteria, and the parameters to be used to monitor subject safety.

 

Human clinical trials are typically conducted in three sequential phases that may overlap or be combined:

 

Phase 1. The product is initially introduced into a small number of healthy human subjects or patients and tested for safety, dosage tolerance, absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion and, if possible, to gain early evidence on effectiveness. In the case of some products for severe or life-threatening diseases, especially when the product is suspected or known to be unavoidably toxic, the initial human testing may be conducted in patients.

 

Phase 2. Involves clinical trials in a limited patient population to identify possible adverse effects and safety risks, to preliminarily evaluate the efficacy of the product for specific targeted diseases and to determine dosage tolerance and optimal dosage and schedule.

 

Phase 3. Clinical trials are undertaken to further evaluate dosage, clinical efficacy and safety in an expanded patient population at geographically dispersed clinical trial sites. These clinical trials are intended to establish the overall risk/benefit relationship of the product and provide an adequate basis for product labeling.

 

Post-approval trials, sometimes referred to as Phase 4 clinical trials, may be conducted after initial marketing approval. These studies are used to gain additional experience from the treatment of patients in the intended therapeutic indication. In certain instances, the FDA may mandate the performance of Phase 4 trials. Companies that conduct certain clinical trials also are required to register them and post the results of completed clinical trials on a government-sponsored database, such as ClinicalTrials.gov in the United States, within certain timeframes. Failure to do so can result in fines, adverse publicity and civil and criminal sanctions.

 

Progress reports detailing the results of the clinical trials, among other information, must be submitted at least annually to the FDA, and written IND safety reports must be submitted to the FDA and the investigators for serious and unexpected adverse events, findings from other studies that suggest a significant risk to humans exposed to the product, findings from animal or in vitro testing that suggest a significant risk to human subjects, and any clinically important increase in the rate of a serious suspected adverse reaction over that listed in the protocol or investigator brochure. Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials may not be completed successfully within any specified period, if at all. The FDA or the clinical trial sponsor may suspend or terminate a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the research subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Similarly, an IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution if the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB’s requirements or if the product has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients. Additionally, some clinical trials are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the clinical trial sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board or committee. This group provides authorization for whether a trial may move forward at designated check points based on access to certain data from the study. The clinical trial sponsor may also suspend or terminate a clinical trial based on evolving business objectives and/or competitive climate.

 

Concurrent with clinical trials, companies usually complete additional animal studies and must also develop additional information about the chemistry and physical characteristics of the product and finalize a process for manufacturing the product in commercial quantities in accordance with cGMP requirements. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of the product candidate and, among other things, the manufacturer must develop methods for testing the identity, strength, quality and purity of the final product. Additionally, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that the product candidate does not undergo unacceptable deterioration over its shelf life. 

 

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NDA and FDA Review Process

 

The results of product development, pre-clinical studies and clinical trials, along with descriptions of the manufacturing process, analytical tests conducted on the drug, proposed labeling and other relevant information, are submitted to the FDA as part of an NDA for a new drug, requesting approval to market the product. The submission of an NDA is subject to the payment of a substantial user fee, and the sponsor of an approved NDA is also subject to an annual program user fee; although a waiver of such fee may be obtained under certain limited circumstances. For example, the agency will waive the application fee for the first human drug application that a small business or its affiliate submits for review.

 

The FDA reviews all NDAs submitted before it accepts them for filing and may request additional information rather than accepting an NDA for filing. The FDA typically makes a decision on accepting an NDA for filing within 60 days of receipt. The decision to accept the NDA for filing means that the FDA has made a threshold determination that the application is sufficiently complete to permit a substantive review. Under the goals and policies agreed to by the FDA under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (“PDUFA”), the FDA’s goal to complete its substantive review of a standard NDA and respond to the applicant is ten months from the receipt of the NDA. The FDA does not always meet its PDUFA goal dates, and the review process is often significantly extended by FDA requests for additional information or clarification and may go through multiple review cycles.

 

After the NDA submission is accepted for filing, the FDA reviews the NDA to determine, among other things, whether the proposed product is safe and effective for its intended use, and whether the product is being manufactured in accordance with cGMPs to assure and preserve the product’s identity, strength, quality and purity. The FDA may refer applications for novel drug products or drug products which present difficult questions of safety or efficacy to an advisory committee, typically a panel that includes clinicians and other experts, for review, evaluation and a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. The FDA is not bound by the recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations carefully when making decisions. The FDA will likely re-analyze the clinical trial data, which could result in extensive discussions between the FDA and us during the review process. The review and evaluation of an NDA by the FDA is extensive and time consuming and may take longer than originally planned to complete, and we may not receive a timely approval, if at all.

 

Before approving an NDA, the FDA will conduct a pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facilities for the new product to determine whether they comply with cGMPs. The FDA will not approve the product unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities are in compliance with cGMP requirements and adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications. In addition, before approving an NDA, the FDA may also audit data from clinical trials to ensure compliance with GCP requirements. After the FDA evaluates the application, manufacturing process and manufacturing facilities, it may issue an approval letter or a Complete Response Letter. An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the drug with specific prescribing information for specific indications. A Complete Response Letter indicates that the review cycle of the application is complete and the application will not be approved in its present form. A Complete Response Letter usually describes all the specific deficiencies in the NDA identified by the FDA. The Complete Response Letter may require additional clinical data and/or an additional pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial(s), and/or other significant and time-consuming requirements related to clinical trials, nonclinical studies or manufacturing. If a Complete Response Letter is issued, the applicant may either resubmit the NDA, addressing all the deficiencies identified in the letter, or withdraw the application. Even if such data and information are submitted, the FDA may ultimately decide that the NDA does not satisfy the criteria for approval. Data obtained from clinical trials are not always conclusive, and the FDA may interpret data differently than we interpret the same data.

 

There is no assurance that the FDA will ultimately approve a product for marketing in the United States, and we may encounter significant difficulties or costs during the review process. If a product receives marketing approval, the approval may be significantly limited to specific diseases and dosages or the indications for use may otherwise be limited, which could restrict the commercial value of the product. Further, the FDA may require that certain contraindications, warnings or precautions be included in the product labeling or may condition the approval of the NDA on other changes to the proposed labeling, development of adequate controls and specifications, or a commitment to conduct post-market testing or clinical trials and surveillance to monitor the effects of approved products. For example, the FDA may require Phase 4 clinical trials to further assess drug safety and effectiveness and may require testing and surveillance programs to monitor the safety of approved products that have been commercialized. The FDA may also place other conditions on approvals, including the requirement for a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (“REMS”), to assure the safe use of the drug. If the FDA concludes a REMS is needed, the sponsor of the NDA must submit a proposed REMS; the FDA will not approve the NDA without an approved REMS, if required. A REMS could include medication guides, physician communication plans, or elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries and other risk minimization tools. Any of these limitations on approval or marketing could restrict the commercial promotion, distribution, prescription or dispensing of products. Product approvals may be withdrawn for non-compliance with regulatory requirements or if problems occur following initial marketing.

 

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Reimbursement

 

Potential sales of any of our product candidates, if approved, will depend, at least in part, on the extent to which such products will be covered by third-party payors, such as government health care programs, commercial insurance and managed healthcare organizations. These third-party payors are increasingly limiting coverage and/or reducing reimbursements for medical products and services. A third-party payor’s decision to provide coverage for a drug product does not imply that an adequate reimbursement rate will be approved. Further, one payor’s determination to provide coverage for a drug product does not assure that other payors will also provide coverage for the drug product. In addition, the U.S. government, state legislatures and foreign governments have continued implementing cost-containment programs, including price controls, restrictions on reimbursement and requirements for substitution of generic products. Adoption of price controls and cost-containment measures, and adoption of more restrictive policies in jurisdictions with existing controls and measures, could further limit our future revenues and results of operations. Decreases in third-party reimbursement or a decision by a third-party payor to not cover a product candidate, if approved, or any future approved products could reduce physician usage of our products, and have a material adverse effect on our sales, results of operations and financial condition.

 

In the United States, the Medicare Part D program provides a voluntary outpatient drug benefit to Medicare beneficiaries for certain products. We do not know whether our product candidates, if approved, will be eligible for coverage under Medicare Part D, but individual Medicare Part D plans offer coverage subject to various factors such as those described above. Furthermore, private payors often follow Medicare coverage policies and payment limitations in setting their own coverage policies.

 

Pediatric Exclusivity and Pediatric Use

 

The Pediatric Research Equity Act, or PREA, requires a sponsor to conduct pediatric studies for most drugs and biologics, for a new active ingredient, new indication, new dosage form, new dosing regimen or new route of administration. Under PREA, original NDAs, biologics license applications and supplements thereto, must contain a pediatric assessment unless the sponsor has received a deferral or waiver. Unless otherwise required by regulation, PREA does not apply to any drug for an indication for which an orphan drug designation has been granted. The required assessment must assess the safety and effectiveness of the product for the claimed indications in all relevant pediatric subpopulations and support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation for which the product is safe and effective. The sponsor or FDA may request a deferral of pediatric studies for some or all of the pediatric subpopulations. A deferral may be granted for several reasons, including a finding that the drug or biologic is ready for approval for use in adults before pediatric studies are complete or that additional safety or effectiveness data needs to be collected before the pediatric studies begin.

 

Pediatric exclusivity is another type of non-patent marketing exclusivity in the United States and, if granted, provides for the attachment of an additional six months of marketing protection to the term of any existing regulatory exclusivity, including the non-patent and orphan exclusivity. This six-month exclusivity may be granted if an NDA sponsor submits pediatric data that fairly respond to a written request from the FDA for such data. The data does not need to show the product to be effective in the pediatric population studied; rather, if the clinical trial is deemed to fairly respond to the FDA’s request, the additional protection is granted. If reports of requested pediatric studies are submitted to and accepted by the FDA within the statutory time limits, whatever statutory or regulatory periods of exclusivity or patent protection cover the product are extended by six months.

 

Healthcare Laws and Regulations

 

Sales of our product candidates, if approved, or any other future product candidate will be subject to healthcare regulation and enforcement by the federal government and the states and foreign governments in which we might conduct our business. The healthcare laws and regulations that may affect our ability to operate include the following:

 

  The federal Anti-Kickback Statute makes it illegal for any person or entity to knowingly and willfully, directly or indirectly, solicit, receive, offer, or pay any remuneration that is in exchange for or to induce the referral of business, including the purchase, order, lease of any good, facility, item or service for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program, such as Medicare or Medicaid. The term “remuneration” has been broadly interpreted to include anything of value.
     
  Federal false claims and false statement laws, including the federal civil False Claims Act, prohibits, among other things, any person or entity from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, for payment to, or approval by, federal programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, claims for items or services, including drugs, that are false or fraudulent.
     
  Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) created additional federal criminal statutes that prohibit among other actions, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payors or making any false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services.

 

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  HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 and their implementing regulations, impose obligations on certain types of individuals and entities regarding the electronic exchange of information in common healthcare transactions, as well as standards relating to the privacy and security of individually identifiable health information.
     
  The federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to report annually to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services information related to payments or other transfers of value made to physicians and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members.

 

Also, many states have similar laws and regulations, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws that may be broader in scope and may apply regardless of payor, in addition to items and services reimbursed under Medicaid and other state programs. Additionally, we may be subject to state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the federal government’s and/or pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines, state laws that require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures, as well as state and foreign laws governing the privacy and security of health information, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA.

 

Additionally, to the extent that our product is sold in a foreign country, we may be subject to similar foreign laws.

 

Risks Associated with Our Business

 

Our business is subject to many significant risks, as more fully described in the section entitled “Risk Factors” immediately following this prospectus summary. You should read and carefully consider these risks, together with the risks set forth under the section entitled “Risk Factors” and all of the other information in this prospectus, including the financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus, before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. If any of the risks discussed in this prospectus actually occur, our business, financial condition or operating results could be materially and adversely affected. In particular, our risks include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

failure to obtain FDA approval to commercially sell our product candidates in a timely manner or at all;

 

whether surgeons and patients in our target markets accept our product candidates, if approved;

 

our ability to retain and recruit key personnel;

 

reliance on third party suppliers for certain components of our product candidates;

 

unanticipated working capital or other cash requirements;

 

changes in FDA regulations, including testing procedures, of medical devices;

 

our estimates of our expenses, ongoing losses, future revenue, capital requirements and our needs for, or ability to obtain, additional financing;

 

our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our product candidates; and

 

changes in our business strategy or an inability to execute our strategy due to unanticipated changes in the medical device industry.

 

Corporate Information

 

We were incorporated in Delaware on May 1, 1992. Our principal executive offices are located at One Rockefeller Plaza, 11th Floor, New York, New York 10020, and our telephone number is (703) 992-9325. Our corporate website address is www.aikidopharma.com. The information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.

 

Our common stock trades on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “AIKI”.

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk.  Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should carefully consider the following risk factors, together with the other risk factors we describe in any prospectus supplement and in any related free writing prospectus for a specific offering of securities, as well as those incorporated by reference into this prospectus or such prospectus supplement.  You should also carefully consider other information contained and incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, including our financial statements and the related notes thereto incorporated by reference in this prospectus. The risks and uncertainties described in the applicable prospectus supplement and our other filings with the SEC incorporated by reference herein are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently consider immaterial may also adversely affect us. If any of the described risks occur, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially harmed. In such case, the value of our securities could decline and you may lose all or part of your investment.

 

Risks Related to Our Business

 

Because we have a limited operating history to evaluate our company, the likelihood of our success must be considered in light of the problems, expenses, difficulties, complications and delays frequently encountered by an early-stage company.

 

Since we have a limited operating history in our current business of technology and biotechnology development, it will make it difficult for investors and securities analysts to evaluate our business and prospects.  You must consider our prospects in light of the risks, expenses and difficulties we face as an early stage company with a limited operating history.  Investors should evaluate an investment in our securities in light of the uncertainties encountered by early stage companies in an intensely competitive industry.  There can be no assurance that our efforts will be successful or that we will be able to become profitable.

 

Our cancer treatment business is pre-revenue, pre-development and subject to the risks of an early stage biotechnology company.

 

Since the Company’s primary focus for the foreseeable future will likely be our cancer treatment business, shareholders should understand that we are primarily an early stage biotechnology company with no history of revenue-generating operations, and our only assets consist of our proprietary drug and the know-how of our officers. Therefore we are subject to all the risks and uncertainties inherent in a new business, in particular new businesses engaged in the early detection of certain cancers. DHA-dFdC is in its early stages of development, and we still must establish and implement many important functions necessary to commercialize the biotechnology.

 

Accordingly, you should consider the Company’s prospects in light of the costs, uncertainties, delays and difficulties frequently encountered by companies in their pre-revenue and pre-development generating stages, particularly those in the biotechnology field. Shareholders should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties that a business with no operating history will face. In particular, shareholders should consider that there is a significant risk that we will not be able to:

 

demonstrate the effectiveness of DHA-dFdC;

 

implement or execute our current business plan, or that our current business plan is sound;

 

raise sufficient funds in the capital markets or otherwise to fully effectuate our business plan;

 

maintain our management team;

 

conduct the required clinical studies;

 

determine that the processes and technologies that we have developed or will develop are commercially viable; and/or

 

attract, enter into or maintain contracts with potential commercial partners such as licensors of technology and suppliers.

 

Any of the foregoing risks may adversely affect the Company and result in the failure of our business. In addition, we expect to encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other known and unknown factors. At some point, we will need to transition from a company with a research and development focus to a company capable of supporting commercial activities. We may not be able to reach such achievements, which would have a material adverse effect on our Company.

 

We continue to incur operating losses and may not achieve profitability.

 

Our loss from operations for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 was $2.4 million and $0.7 million, respectively. Our net loss for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 was $8.3 million and $1.1 million, respectively. Our accumulated deficit was $152.6 million at March 31, 2020. Our ability to become profitable depends upon our ability to generate revenue from biotechnology products. We do not know when, or if, we will generate any revenue from such biotechnology products. Even though our revenue may increase, we expect to incur significant additional losses while we grow and expand our business. We cannot predict if and when we will achieve profitability. Our failure to achieve and sustain profitability could negatively impact the market price of our common stock.

 

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We expect to need additional capital to fund our growing operations and if we are unable to obtain sufficient capital, we may be forced to limit the scope of our operations.

 

We expect that for our business to grow we will need additional working capital.  If adequate additional debt and/or equity financing is not available on reasonable terms or at all, we may not be able to continue to expand our business or pay our outstanding obligations, and we will have to modify our business plans accordingly.  These factors would have a material adverse effect on our future operating results and our financial condition. 

 

If we reach a point where we are unable to raise needed additional funds to continue as a going concern, we will be forced to cease our activities and dissolve the Company.  In such an event, we will need to satisfy various creditors and other claimants, severance, lease termination and other dissolution-related obligations and we may not have sufficient funds to pay to our stockholders.

 

If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud and our business may be harmed and our stock price may be adversely impacted.

 

Effective internal controls over financial reporting are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and to effectively prevent fraud. Any inability to provide reliable financial reports or to prevent fraud could harm our business. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires management to evaluate and assess the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. In order to continue to comply with the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we are required to continuously evaluate and, where appropriate, enhance our policies, procedures and internal controls. If we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal controls over financial reporting, we could be subject to litigation or regulatory scrutiny and investors could lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports. We cannot assure you that in the future we will be able to fully comply with the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act or that management will conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective. If we fail to fully comply with the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, our business may be harmed and our stock price may decline.

 

Our assessment, testing and evaluation of the design and operating effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting resulted in our conclusion that, as of March 31, 2020, our internal control over financial reporting was not effective, due to our lack of segregation of duties, and lack of controls in place to ensure that all material transactions and developments impacting the financial statements are reflected. We can provide no assurance as to conclusions of management with respect to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in the future.

 

Our independent auditors have expressed substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

 

Due to our net losses, negative cash flow and negative working capital, in their report on our audited financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, our independent auditors included an explanatory paragraph regarding substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. 

 

We may seek to internally develop additional new inventions and intellectual property, which would take time and be costly.  Moreover, the failure to obtain or maintain intellectual property rights for such inventions would lead to the loss of our investments in such activities.

 

Part of our business may include the internal development of new inventions or intellectual property that we will seek to monetize. For example, in December 2019, we acquired substantially all of the assets of CBM, including the acquisition of certain licensing rights with respect to patents and other intellectual property related to pioneering drug compounds that were developed at the University of Wake Forest and the University of Texas at Austin, in the areas of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acral lentiginous melanoma and pancreatic cancer (collectively, the “University Developments”). Should we choose to assist in the development of the University Developments and/or internally develop any other inventions or intellectual property, such aspect of our business will require significant capital and will take time to achieve.  Such activities may also distract our management team from its present business initiatives, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business. There is also the risk that our initiatives in this regard would not yield any viable new inventions or technology, which would lead to a loss of our investments in time and resources in such activities.

 

Our ability to raise additional capital may be adversely affected by certain of our agreements.

 

Our ability to raise additional capital for use in our operating activities may be adversely impacted by the terms of a securities purchase agreement, dated as of July 15, 2015 (the “Securities Purchase Agreement”), between us and the investors who purchased securities in our July 2015 offering of our common stock and warrants for the purchase of our common stock. The Securities Purchase Agreement provides that, until the warrants issued thereunder are no longer outstanding, we will not effect or enter into a variable rate transaction, which includes issuances of securities whose prices or conversion prices may vary with the trading prices of or quotations for the shares of our common Stock at any time after the initial issuance of such securities, as well as the entry into agreements where our stock would be issued at a future-determined price. These warrants may remain outstanding as late as January 22, 2021, when the warrants expire in accordance with their terms. These restrictions may have an adverse impact on our ability to raise additional capital, or to use our cash to make certain payments that we are contractually obligated to make.

 

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We may also identify targets with patent or other intellectual property assets that cost more than we are prepared to spend with our own capital resources.  We may incur significant costs to organize and negotiate a structured acquisition that does not ultimately result in an acquisition of any patent assets or, if consummated, proves to be unprofitable for us.  Acquisitions involving issuance of our securities could be dilutive to existing stockholders and could be at prices lower than those prices reflected in the trading markets.  These higher costs could adversely affect our operating results and, if we incur losses, the value of our securities will decline.  The integration of acquired assets may place a significant burden on management and our internal resources.  The diversion of management attention and any difficulties encountered in the integration process could harm our business.

 

As we are targeting technology companies in the development stage, their patents and technologies are in the early stages of adoption.  Demand for some of these technologies will likely be untested and may be subject to fluctuation based upon the rate at which our licensees or others adopt our patents and technologies in their products and services.  As a result, there can be no assurance as to whether technologies we acquire or develop will have value that can be realized through licensing or other activities.

 

We are exploring and evaluating strategic alternatives and there can be no assurance that we will be successful in identifying, or completing any strategic alternative or that any such strategic alternative will yield additional value for shareholders.

 

Our management and board of directors (“Board of Directors”) has commenced a review of strategic alternatives which could result in, among other things, a sale, a merger, consolidation or business combination, asset divestiture, partnering or other collaboration agreements, or potential acquisitions or recapitalizations, in one or more transactions, or continuing to operate with our current business plan and strategy. There can be no assurance that the exploration of strategic alternatives will result in the identification or consummation of any transaction. In addition, we may incur substantial expenses associated with identifying and evaluating potential strategic alternatives. The process of exploring strategic alternatives may be time consuming and disruptive to our business operations and if we are unable to effectively manage the process, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. We also cannot assure you that any potential transaction or other strategic alternative, if identified, evaluated and consummated, will provide greater value to our shareholders than that reflected in the current stock price. Any potential transaction would be dependent upon a number of factors that may be beyond our control, including, among other factors, market conditions, industry trends, the interest of third parties in our business and the availability of financing to potential buyers on reasonable terms.

 

We may be unsuccessful at integrating future acquisitions.

 

If we find appropriate opportunities in the future, we may acquire businesses to strategically increase the number of patents in our portfolio and pursue monetization. For example, in December 2019, we acquired substantially all of the assets of CBM, including the acquisition of certain licensing rights with respect to patents and other intellectual property related to pioneering drug compounds that were developed at the University of Wake Forest and the University of Texas at Austin, in the areas of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acral lentiginous melanoma and pancreatic cancer. There can be no guarantee that we will be able to successfully integrate the business or assets of CBM into the Company.

 

As we acquire businesses or substantial stakes in certain businesses, the process of integration may produce unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures, fail to result in expected synergies or other benefits and absorb significant attention of our management that would otherwise be available for the ongoing development of our business. In addition, in the event of any future acquisitions, we may record a portion of the assets we acquire as goodwill, other indefinite-lived intangible assets or finite-lived intangible assets. We do not amortize goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets, but rather review them for impairment on an annual basis or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying value may not be recoverable. The recoverability of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets is dependent on our ability to generate sufficient future earnings and cash flows. Changes in estimates, circumstances or conditions, resulting from both internal and external factors, could have a significant impact on our fair valuation determination, which could then have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to identify suitable acquisition opportunities, consummate any pending or future acquisitions or that we will realize any anticipated benefits from any such acquisitions.

 

Our pre-CBM acquisition stockholders have a reduced ownership and voting interest after the acquisition of CBM’s assets and exercise less influence over our management and policies than they did prior to the acquisition.

 

Our pre-acquisition stockholders had the right to vote in the election of our Board of Directors on other matters affecting us. As a result of the CBM Purchase Agreement, because of the issuance of shares of common stock to the CBM shareholders, our pre-acquisition stockholders hold a percentage ownership of the Company that is much smaller than the pre-acquisition stockholder’s previous percentage ownership. Because of this, our pre-acquisition stockholders have less influence over the management and policies of the Company than they now have after the consummation of the acquisition of CBM’s assets.

 

Any failure to maintain or protect our patent assets or other intellectual property rights could significantly impair our return on investment from such assets and harm our brand, our business and our operating results.

 

Our ability to operate our new line of business and compete in the intellectual property market largely depends on the superiority, uniqueness and value of our acquired patent assets and other intellectual property.  To protect our proprietary rights, we will rely on a combination of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws, confidentiality agreements with our employees and third parties, and protective contractual provisions.  No assurances can be given that any of the measures we undertake to protect and maintain our assets will have any measure of success.

 

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We are required to spend significant time and resources to maintain the effectiveness of our assets by paying maintenance fees and making filings with the USPTO.  We may acquire patent assets, including patent applications, which require us to spend resources to prosecute the applications with the USPTO prior to issuance of patents.  Further, there is a material risk that patent related claims (such as, for example, infringement claims (and/or claims for indemnification resulting therefrom), unenforceability claims, or invalidity claims) will be asserted or prosecuted against us, and such assertions or prosecutions could materially and adversely affect our business. 

 

Despite our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights, any of the following or similar occurrences may reduce the value of our intellectual property:

 

  our applications for patents, trademarks and copyrights may not be granted and, if granted, may be challenged or invalidated;
     
  issued trademarks, copyrights, or patents may not provide us with any competitive advantages when compared to potentially infringing other properties;
     
  our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights may not be effective in preventing misappropriation of our technology; or
     
  our efforts may not prevent the development and design by others of products or technologies similar to or competitive with, or superior to those we acquire and/or prosecute.

 

Moreover, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights in certain foreign countries where we may do business or enforce our patents against infringers in foreign countries. If we fail to maintain, defend or prosecute our patent assets properly, the value of those assets would be reduced or eliminated, and our business would be harmed.

 

We may be at risk for delay in technology development and other economic repercussions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

We may be at risk as a result of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Risks that could affect our business include the duration and scope of the COVID-19 pandemic and the impact on the demand for our products; actions by governments, businesses and individuals taken in response to the pandemic; the length of time of the COVID-19 pandemic and the possibility of its reoccurrence; the timing required to develop effective treatments and a vaccine in the event of future outbreaks; the eventual impact of the pandemic and actions taken in response to the pandemic on global and regional economies; and the pace of recovery when the COVID-19 pandemic subsides.

 

Additionally, New York, where our U.S. operations are based, is currently significantly affected by COVID-19, which led to measures taken by the New York government trying to contain the spread of COVID-19, such as shelter in place, closure of schools and travel restrictions. Additional travel and other restrictions may be put in place to further control the outbreak in U.S. Accordingly, our operation and business have been and will continue to be adversely affected as the results of the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

The extent to which COVID-19 negatively impacts our business is highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted. We believe that the coronavirus outbreak and the measures taken to control it may have a significant negative impact on not only our business, but economic activities globally. The magnitude of this negative effect on the continuity of our business operations in the U.S. remains uncertain. These uncertainties impede our ability to conduct our daily operations and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, and as a result affect our stock price and create more volatility.

 

Risks Related to the Product Development, Regulatory Approval, Manufacturing and Commercialization

 

We are early in our development efforts and currently have no clinical-stage product candidates. If we are unable to clinically develop and ultimately commercialize DHA-dFdC or other product candidates, or experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.

 

We are early in our development efforts and have no clinical-stage product candidates as of the date of this prospectus. We have the exclusive U.S. rights to develop DHA-dFdC for the treatment of cancer in the licensed field. We are presently planning on filing an IND for DHA-dFdC, and we hope to begin human testing for this indication in 2021, although no assurance can be given that we will be able to achieve this goal.

 

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Therefore, our ability to generate product or royalty revenues, which we do not expect will occur for several years, if ever, will depend heavily on our ability to develop and eventually commercialize our product candidate. The positive development of our product candidate will depend on several factors, including the following:

 

  positive commencement and completion of clinical trials;
     
  successful preparation of regulatory filings and receipt of marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;
     
  obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection and potential regulatory exclusivity for our product candidate and protecting our rights in our intellectual property portfolio;
     
  launching commercial sales of our product, if and when approved for one or more indications, whether alone or in collaboration with others;
     
  acceptance of the product for one or more indications, if and when approved, by patients, the medical community and third-party payors;
     
  protection from generic substitution based upon our own or licensed intellectual property rights;
     
  effectively competing with other therapies;
     
  obtaining and maintaining adequate reimbursement from healthcare payors; and
     
  maintaining a continued acceptable safety profile of our product following approval, if any.

 

If we do not achieve one or more of these factors in a timely manner or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to clinically develop and commercialize DHA-dFdC as a therapy for cancer, which would materially harm our business.

 

If we are unable to convince physicians as to the benefits of DHA-dFdC as a therapy for cancer, if and when it is approved, we may incur delays or additional expense in our attempt to establish market acceptance.

 

Use of DHA-dFdC as a cancer therapy will require physicians to be informed regarding the intended benefits of the product for a new indication. The time and cost of such an educational process may be substantial. Inability to carry out this physician education process may adversely affect market acceptance of DHA-dFdC as a therapy for cancer. We may be unable to timely educate physicians in sufficient numbers regarding our intended application of DHA-dFdC to achieve our marketing plans or to achieve product acceptance. Any delay in physician education or acceptance may materially delay or reduce demand for our product candidate. In addition, we may expend significant funds toward physician education before any acceptance or demand for DHA-dFdC as a therapy for cancer is created, if at all.

 

Clinical drug development involves a lengthy and expensive process, with an uncertain outcome. We may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of our product candidate.

 

The risk of failure for product candidates in clinical development is high. It is impossible to predict when our sole product candidate, DHA-dFdC for the treatment of cancer, will prove effective and safe in humans or will receive regulatory approval for the treatment of any disease, the indication for which is licensed to us. Before obtaining marketing approval from regulatory authorities for the sale of DHA-dFdC as a cancer therapy, we must conduct one or more clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our product candidate in humans. Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete and is uncertain as to outcome. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of testing. Moreover, the outcome of early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results. In addition, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval of their products.

 

We may experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, clinical trials that could delay or prevent our ability to receive marketing approval or commercialize our product candidate, including:

 

  regulators or institutional review boards may not authorize us or our investigators to commence a clinical trial or conduct a clinical trial at a prospective trial site;
     
  we may experience delays in reaching, or fail to reach, agreement on acceptable clinical trial contracts or clinical trial protocols with prospective trial sites;
     
  clinical trials of our product candidate may produce negative or inconclusive results, and we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon product development programs, which would be time consuming and costly;
     
  the number of patients required for clinical trials of our product candidates may be larger than we anticipate, enrollment in these clinical trials may be slower than we anticipate or participants may drop out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than we anticipate;

 

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  we may have to suspend or terminate clinical trials of our product candidates for various reasons, including a finding that the participants are being exposed to unacceptable health risks;
     
  regulators or institutional review boards may require that we or our investigators suspend or terminate clinical research for various reasons, including noncompliance with regulatory requirements or a finding that the participants are being exposed to unacceptable health risks;
     
  the cost of clinical trials may be greater than we anticipate;
     
  the supply or quality of materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our product candidate may be insufficient or inadequate;
     
  our product candidate may have undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics, causing us or our investigators, regulators or institutional review boards to suspend or terminate the trials; and
     
  interactions with other drugs.

 

If we are required to conduct additional clinical trials or other testing of our product candidate beyond those that we currently contemplate, if we are unable to complete clinical trials of our product candidates or other testing, if the results of these trials or tests are not positive or are only modestly positive or if there are safety concerns, we may:

 

  be delayed in obtaining marketing approval for our product candidate for one or more indications;
     
  not obtain marketing approval at all for one or more indications;
     
  obtain approval for indications or patient populations that are not as broad as intended or desired (particularly, in our case, for different types of cancer);
     
  obtain approval with labeling that includes significant use or distribution restrictions or safety warnings;
     
  be subject to additional post-marketing testing requirements; or
     
  have the product removed from the market after obtaining marketing approval.

 

Our product development costs will also increase if we experience delays in testing or marketing approvals. We do not know which, if any, of our clinical trials will need to be restructured or will be completed on schedule, or at all. Significant preclinical or clinical trial delays also could shorten any periods during which we may have the right to commercialize our product candidate or allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do and impair our ability to commercialize our product candidate and may harm our business and results of operations.

 

If we experience delays or difficulties in the enrollment of patients in any future clinical trials, our receipt of necessary regulatory approvals could be delayed or prevented.

 

We may not be able to initiate or continue future clinical trials for DHA-dFdC or our present or future product candidates if we are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in these trials as required by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside the United States. In addition, some of our competitors have ongoing clinical trials for product candidates that treat the same indications as our product candidate, and patients who would otherwise be eligible for our future clinical trials may instead enroll in clinical trials of our competitors’ product candidates.

 

Patient enrollment is affected by other factors including:

 

  the severity of the disease under investigation;
     
  the eligibility criteria for the study in question;
     
  the perceived risks and benefits of the product candidate under study;
     
  the patient referral practices of physicians;
     
  the ability to monitor patients adequately during and after treatment; and
     
  the proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients.

 

Our inability to enroll a sufficient number of patients for any future clinical trials would result in significant delays and could require us to abandon one or more clinical trials altogether. Enrollment delays in our clinical trials may result in increased development costs for our product candidate, which would cause the value of our company to decline and otherwise materially and adversely affect our company.

 

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If serious adverse or unacceptable side effects are identified during the development of our product candidate, we may need to abandon or limit such development, which would adversely affect our company.

 

If clinical testing of our product candidates results in undesirable side effects or demonstrates characteristics that are unexpected, we may need to abandon such development or limit such development to more narrow uses or subpopulations in which the undesirable side effects or other characteristics are less prevalent, less severe or more acceptable from a risk-benefit perspective. Many compounds that initially showed promise in early stage testing for treating cancer have later been found to cause side effects that prevented further development of the compound.

 

For the foreseeable future, we expect to expend our limited resources primarily to pursue a particular product candidate, leaving us unable to capitalize on other product candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of clinical and commercial development.

 

Because we have limited financial and managerial resources, we will focus for the foreseeable future primarily on the clinical development of DHA-dFdC for the treatment of prostate cancer. As a result, we may forego or be unable to pursue opportunities with other product candidates or for indications other than those we intend to pursue that later prove to have greater commercial potential. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on research and development programs related to DHA-dFdC for the treatment of cancer may not yield any commercially viable therapies. Because of this concentration of our efforts, our business will be particularly subject to significant risk of failure of our one current product candidate.

 

We expect to rely on collaborations with third parties for key aspects of our business. If we are unable to secure or maintain any of these collaborations, or if these collaborations do not achieve their goals, our business would be adversely affected.

 

We presently have very limited capabilities for drug development and do not yet have any capability for manufacturing, sales, marketing or distribution. Accordingly, we expect to enter into collaborations with other companies that we believe can provide such capabilities. These collaborations may also provide us with important funding for our development programs.

 

There is a risk that we may not be able to maintain our current collaboration or to enter into additional collaborations on acceptable terms or at all, which would leave us unable to progress our business plan. We will face significant competition in seeking appropriate collaborators. Our ability to reach a definitive agreement for a collaboration will depend, among other things, upon our assessment of the collaborator’s resources and expertise, the terms and conditions of the proposed collaboration and the proposed collaborator’s evaluation of a number of factors. If we are unable to maintain or reach agreements with suitable collaborators on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all, we may have to curtail the development of our product candidate, reduce or delay its development program, delay its potential commercialization or reduce the scope of any sales or marketing activities, or increase our expenditures and undertake development or commercialization activities at our own expense.

 

Moreover, even if we are able to maintain and/or enter into such collaborations, such collaborations may pose a number of risks, including the following:

 

  collaborators may not perform their obligations as expected;
     
  disagreements with collaborators, including disagreements over proprietary rights, contract interpretation or the preferred course of development, might cause delays or termination of the research, development or commercialization of our product candidate, might lead to additional responsibilities for us with respect to such product candidate, or might result in litigation or arbitration, any of which would be time-consuming and expensive;
     
  collaborators could independently develop or be associated with products that compete directly or indirectly with our product candidate;
     
  collaborators could have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to our arrangements with them;
     
  should our product candidate achieve regulatory approval, a collaborator with marketing and distribution rights to our product candidate may not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of such product;
     
  collaborators may not properly maintain or defend our intellectual property rights or may use our proprietary information in such a way as to invite litigation that could jeopardize or invalidate our intellectual property or proprietary information or expose us to potential litigation;
     
  collaborators may infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties, which may expose us to litigation and potential liability; and
     
  collaborations may be terminated for the convenience of the collaborator and, if terminated, we could be required to either find alternative collaborators (which we may be unable to do) or raise additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of our product candidate on our own.

 

Our business could be materially harmed if any of the foregoing or similar risks comes to pass with respect to our key collaborations.

 

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Even if any of our product candidates receive marketing approval for any indication, they may fail to achieve the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community necessary for commercial success.

 

Even if DHA-dFdC for the treatment of cancer receives marketing approval for any indication, it may nonetheless fail to gain sufficient market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community. For example, current cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy and radiation therapy are well established in the medical community, and doctors may continue to rely on these treatments. If our product candidate does not achieve an adequate level of acceptance, we may not generate significant product revenues and we may not become profitable. The degree of market acceptance of DHA-dFdC for the treatment of cancer, if approved for commercial sale, will depend on a number of factors, including:

 

  the efficacy and potential advantages compared to alternative treatments;
     
  our ability to offer our products for sale at competitive prices;
     
  the convenience and ease of administration compared to alternative treatments;
     
  the willingness of the target patient population to try new therapies and of physicians to prescribe these therapies;
     
  the strength of marketing and distribution support;
     
  the availability of third-party coverage and adequate reimbursement;
     
  the prevalence and severity of any side effects; and
     
  any restrictions on the use of our product together with other medications.

 

If we are unable to establish sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, we may not be able to commercialize our product candidate if and when it is approved.

 

We currently do not have a sales or marketing infrastructure. To achieve any level of commercial success for any product for which we have obtained marketing approval, we will need to establish a sales and marketing organization or outsource sales and marketing functions to third parties, and achieve the following:

 

  successful preparation of regulatory filings and receipt of marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;
     
  obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection and potential regulatory exclusivity for our product candidate and protecting our rights in our intellectual property portfolio;
     
  launching commercial sales of our product, if and when approved for one or more indications, whether alone or in collaboration with others;
     
  acceptance of the product for one or more indications, if and when approved, by patients, the medical community and third-party payors;
     
  protection from generic substitution based upon our own or licensed intellectual property rights;
     
  effectively competing with other therapies;
     
  obtaining and maintaining adequate reimbursement from healthcare payors; and
     
  maintaining a continued acceptable safety profile of our product following approval, if any.

 

If we do not achieve one or more of these factors in a timely manner or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to clinically develop and commercialize DHA-dFdC as a therapy for cancer, which would materially harm our business.

 

In addition, given our current limited financial resources, we are currently focusing our efforts on one key cancer indication, namely prostate cancer. We are thus faced with the risk that DHA-dFdC could be ineffective in addressing this particular cancer indication, and if our efforts to demonstrate the efficacy of DHA-dFdC in prostate cancer are not positive, we may lack the resources to expand our efforts into other cancer indications.

 

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We face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than we do.

 

The development and commercialization of new drug products is highly competitive. We face competition with respect to our current product candidate and will face competition with respect to any product candidates that we may seek to develop or commercialize in the future, from major pharmaceutical companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies worldwide. There are a number of large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies that currently market and sell products or are pursuing the development of products for the treatment of cancer. Potential competitors also include academic institutions, government agencies and other public and private research organizations that conduct research, seek patent protection and establish collaborative arrangements for research, development, manufacturing and commercialization.

 

Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient or are less expensive than any products that we may develop. Our competitors also may obtain FDA or other regulatory approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market.

 

Many of the companies against which we are competing or against which we may compete in the future have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals and marketing approved products than we do. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Smaller and other early stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These third parties compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs, and we may be unable to effectively compete with these companies for these or other reasons.

 

Even if we are able to commercialize any product candidates, the products may become subject to unfavorable pricing regulations, third-party reimbursement practices or healthcare reform initiatives, which would harm our business.

 

The regulations that govern marketing approvals, pricing, coverage and reimbursement for new drug products vary widely from country to country. Current and future legislation may significantly change the approval requirements in ways that could involve additional costs and cause delays in obtaining approvals.

 

Our ability to commercialize any product candidate also will depend in part on the extent to which coverage and adequate reimbursement for our product candidate will be available from government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations. Government authorities and third party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, decide which medications they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. A primary trend in the U.S. healthcare industry and elsewhere is cost containment. Government authorities and third party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications. Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that drug companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for medical products. Coverage and reimbursement may not be available for any product that we commercialize and, even if these are available, the level of reimbursement may not be satisfactory. Reimbursement may affect the demand for, or the price of, any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. Obtaining and maintaining adequate reimbursement for our products may be difficult. We may be required to conduct expensive pharmacoeconomic studies to justify coverage and reimbursement or the level of reimbursement relative to other therapies. If coverage and adequate reimbursement are not available or reimbursement is available only to limited levels, we may not be able to commercialize any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval.

 

In addition, there may be significant delays in obtaining reimbursement for newly approved drugs, and coverage may be more limited than the purposes for which the drug is approved by the FDA. Moreover, eligibility for reimbursement does not imply that a drug will be paid for in all cases or at a rate that covers our costs, including research, development, manufacture, sale and distribution. Interim reimbursement levels for new drugs, if applicable, may also not be sufficient to cover our costs and may not be made permanent. Reimbursement rates may vary according to the use of the drug and the clinical setting in which it is used, may be based on reimbursement levels already set for lower cost drugs and may be incorporated into existing payments for other services. Net prices for drugs may be reduced by mandatory discounts or rebates required by government healthcare programs or private payors. Third-party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement policies. Our inability to promptly obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement rates from both government-funded and private payors for any approved products that we develop could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, our ability to raise capital needed to commercialize products and our overall financial condition.

 

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Product liability lawsuits against us could cause us to incur substantial liabilities and to limit commercialization of any products that we may develop.

 

We face an inherent risk of product liability exposure related to the testing of DHA-dFdC in human clinical trials and will face an even greater risk if we commercially sell any products that we may develop. If we cannot defend ourselves against claims that our product candidate or products caused injuries, we will incur substantial liabilities. Regardless of merit or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

 

  decreased demand for any product candidates or products that we may develop;
     
  damage to our reputation and significant negative media attention;
     
  withdrawal of clinical trial participants;
     
  significant costs to defend the related litigation;
     
  substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients;
     
  loss of revenue;
     
  reduced resources of our management to pursue our business strategy; and
     
  the inability to commercialize any products that we may develop.

 

We currently do not have product liability insurance coverage, which leaves us exposed to any product-related liabilities that we may incur. We may be unable to obtain insurance on reasonable terms or at all. Insurance coverage is increasingly expensive. We may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in an amount adequate to satisfy any liability that may arise.

 

If we fail to comply with healthcare regulations, we could face substantial enforcement actions, including civil and criminal penalties and our business, operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

 

We could be subject to healthcare fraud and abuse laws and patient privacy laws of both the federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. The laws include:

 

  the federal healthcare program anti-kickback law, which prohibits, among other things, persons from soliciting, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, to induce either the referral of an individual, for an item or service or the purchasing or ordering of a good or service, for which payment may be made under federal healthcare programs such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs;
     
  federal false claims laws which prohibit, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment from Medicare, Medicaid, or other third-party payers that are false or fraudulent, and which may apply to entities like us which provide coding and billing information to customers;
     
  the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, which prohibits executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters and which also imposes certain requirements relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;
     
 

the FDCA which among other things, strictly regulates drug manufacturing and product marketing, prohibits manufacturers from marketing drug products for off-label use and regulates the distribution of drug sample; and

 

state law equivalents of each of the above federal laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws which may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third-party payer, including commercial insurers, and state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by federal laws, thus complicating compliance efforts.

 

If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. Any penalties, damages, fines, curtailment or restructuring of our operations could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results. Although compliance programs can mitigate the risk of investigation and prosecution for violations of these laws, the risks cannot be entirely eliminated. Any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert management’s attention from the operation of our business. Moreover, achieving and sustaining compliance with applicable federal and state privacy, security and fraud laws may prove costly.

 

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Members of our management team lack experience in the pharmaceutical field.

 

Members of our management team lack experience in the pharmaceutical field. This lack of experience may impair our ability to commercialize our pharmaceutical products and attain profitability. We will need to hire or engage managerial personnel with relevant experience in the pharmaceutical field; however, there can be no assurance that such personnel will be available to us or, that once engaged, will be retained by us. Failure to establish and maintain an effective management team with experience in the pharmaceutical field and commercialization of pharmaceuticals products would have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

 

The marketing approval process of the FDA is lengthy, time consuming and inherently unpredictable, and if were ultimately are unable to obtain marketing approval for the product candidates we intend to develop, our business will be substantially harmed.

 

None of the product candidates we intend to develop have gained marketing approval in the U.S. and we cannot guarantee that we will ever have marketable products. Our business is substantially dependent on our ability to complete the development of, obtain marketing approval for, and successfully commercialize our product candidates in a timely manner. We cannot commercialize our product candidates in the United States without first obtaining approval from the FDA to market each product candidate. Our product candidates could fail to receive marketing approval for many reasons.

 

In addition, the process of seeking regulatory clearance or approval to market the product candidates we intend to develop is expensive and time consuming and, notwithstanding the effort and expense incurred, clearance or approval is never guaranteed. If we are not successful in obtaining timely clearance or approval of our product candidates from the FDA, we may never be able to generate significant revenue and may be forced to cease operations. The FDA process is costly, lengthy and uncertain. Any FDA application filed by the Company will have to be supported by extensive data, including, but not limited to, technical, preclinical, clinical trial, manufacturing and labeling data, to demonstrate to the FDA’s satisfaction the safety and efficacy of the product for its intended use.

 

Obtaining clearances or approvals from the FDA and from the regulatory agencies in other countries is an expensive and time consuming process and is uncertain as to outcome. The FDA and other agencies could ask us to supplement our submissions, collect non-clinical data, conduct additional clinical trials or engage in other time-consuming actions, or it could simply deny our applications. In addition, even if we obtain an FDA approval or pre-market approvals in other countries, the approval could be revoked or other restrictions imposed if post-market data demonstrates safety issues or lack of effectiveness. We cannot predict with certainty how, or when, the FDA will act. If we are unable to obtain the necessary regulatory approvals, our financial condition and cash flow may be adversely affected, and our ability to grow domestically and internationally may be limited. Additionally, even if cleared or approved, the Company’s products may not be approved for the specific indications that are most necessary or desirable for successful commercialization or profitability.

 

Modifications to our products may require new FDA approvals.

 

Once a particular product receives FDA approval or clearance, expanded uses or uses in new indications of our products may require additional human clinical trials and new regulatory approvals or clearances, including additional IND and FDA submissions and premarket approvals before we can begin clinical development, and/or prior to marketing and sales. If the FDA requires new clearances or approvals for a particular use or indication, we may be required to conduct additional clinical studies, which would require additional expenditures and harm our operating results. If the products are already being used for these new indications, we may also be subject to significant enforcement actions. Conducting clinical trials and obtaining clearances and approvals can be a time consuming process, and delays in obtaining required future clearances or approvals could adversely affect our ability to introduce new or enhanced products in a timely manner, which in turn would harm our future growth.

 

Additional delays to the completion of clinical studies may result from modifications being made to the protocol during the clinical trial, if such modifications are warranted and/or required by the occurrences in the given trial.

 

Each modification to the protocol during a clinical trial has to be submitted to the FDA. This could result in the delay or halt of a clinical trial while the modification is evaluated. In addition, depending on the quantity and nature of the changes made, the FDA could take the position that the data generated by the clinical trial is not poolable because the same protocol was not used throughout the trial. This might require the enrollment of additional subjects, which could result in the extension of the clinical trial and the FDA delaying clearance or approval of a product. Any such delay could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

 

There can be no assurance that the data generated from our clinical trials using modified protocols will be acceptable to FDA.

 

There can be no assurance that the data generated using modified protocols will be acceptable to the FDA or that if future modifications during the trial are necessary, that any such modifications will be acceptable to the FDA. If the FDA believes that its prior approval is required for a particular modification, it can delay or halt a clinical trial while it evaluates additional information regarding the change.

 

Serious injury or death resulting from a failure of one of our drug candidates during current or future clinical trials could also result in the FDA delaying our clinical trials or denying or delaying clearance or approval of a product.

 

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Even though an adverse event may not be the result of the failure of our drug candidate, the FDA or an Internal Review Board (“IRB”) could delay or halt a clinical trial for an indefinite period of time while an adverse event is reviewed, and likely would do so in the event of multiple such events.

 

Any delay or termination of our current or future clinical trials as a result of the risks summarized above, including delays in obtaining or maintaining required approvals from IRBs, delays in patient enrollment, the failure of patients to continue to participate in a clinical trial, and delays or termination of clinical trials as a result of protocol modifications or adverse events during the trials, may cause an increase in costs and delays in the filing of any product submissions with the FDA, delay the approval and commercialization of our products or result in the failure of the clinical trial, which could adversely affect our business, operating results and prospects.

 

The future results of our current or future clinical trials may not support our product candidate claims or may result in the discovery of unexpected adverse side effects.

 

Even if our clinical trials are completed as planned, we cannot be certain that their results will support our drug candidate claims or that the FDA or foreign authorities will agree with our conclusions regarding them. Success in preclinical studies and early clinical trials does not ensure that later clinical trials will be successful, and we cannot be sure that the later trials will replicate the results of prior trials and preclinical studies. The clinical trial process may fail to demonstrate that our drug candidates are safe and effective for the proposed indicated uses. If the FDA concludes that the clinical trials for DHA-dFdC, or any other product for which we might seek clearance, has failed to demonstrate safety and effectiveness, we would not receive FDA clearance to market that product in the United States for the indications sought.

 

In addition, such an outcome could cause us to abandon the product candidate and might delay development of others. Any delay or termination of our clinical trials will delay the filing of any product submissions with the FDA and, ultimately, our ability to commercialize our product candidates and generate revenues. It is also possible that patients enrolled in clinical trials will experience adverse side effects that are not currently part of the product candidate’s profile.

 

Current and future legislation may increase the difficulty and cost for us to obtain marketing approval of and commercialize our product candidates and affect the prices we may obtain for such product candidates.

 

In the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding the healthcare system that could prevent or delay marketing approval for our product candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities and affect our ability to profitably sell our product candidates. Legislative and regulatory proposals have been made to expand post-approval requirements and restrict sales and promotional activities for pharmaceutical products. We do not know whether additional legislative changes will be enacted, or whether the FDA regulations, guidance or interpretations will be changed, or what the impact of such changes on the marketing approvals of our product candidates, if any, may be. In addition, increased scrutiny by the U.S. Congress of the FDA’s approval process may significantly delay or prevent marketing approval, as well as subject us to more stringent product labeling and post-marketing testing and other requirements.

 

In the United States, the Medicare Modernization Act (“MMA”) changed the way Medicare covers and pays for pharmaceutical products. As a result of this legislation and the expansion of federal coverage of drug products, we expect that there will be additional pressure to contain and reduce costs. These cost reduction initiatives and other provisions of this legislation could decrease the coverage and price that we receive for our product candidates and could seriously harm our business.

 

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively, the “Health Care Reform Law”) is a sweeping law intended to broaden access to health insurance, reduce or constrain the growth of healthcare spending, enhance remedies against fraud and abuse, add new transparency requirements for healthcare and health insurance industries, impose new taxes and fees on the health industry and impose additional health policy reforms. The Health Care Reform Law remains subject to legislative efforts to repeal, modify or delay the implementation of the law. However, if the Health Care Reform Law is repealed or modified, or if implementation of certain aspects of the Health Care Reform Law are delayed, such repeal, modification or delay may materially adversely impact our business, strategies, prospects, operating results or financial condition.

 

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the Health Care Reform Law was enacted. We expect that additional federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, and in turn could significantly reduce the projected value of certain development projects and reduce or eliminate our profitability.

 

Upon commercialization of our products, we may be dependent on third parties to market, distribute and sell our products.

 

Our ability to receive revenues may be dependent upon the sales and marketing efforts of any future co-marketing partners and third-party distributors. At this time, we have not entered into an agreement with any commercialization partner and only plan to do so after the successful completion of Phase 1 clinical trials and prior to commercialization. If we fail to reach an agreement with any commercialization partner, or upon reaching such an agreement that partner fails to sell a large volume of our products, it may have a negative impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Adverse events involving our products may lead the FDA to delay or deny clearance for our products or result in product recalls that could harm our reputation, business and financial results.

 

Once a product receives FDA clearance or approval, the agency has the authority to require the recall of commercialized products in the event of adverse side effects, material deficiencies or defects in design or manufacture. The authority to require a recall must be based on an FDA finding that there is a reasonable probability that the product would cause serious injury or death. Manufacturers may, under their own initiative, recall a product if any material deficiency in a product is found. A government-mandated or voluntary recall by us or one of our distributors could occur as a result of adverse side effects, impurities or other product contamination, manufacturing errors, design or labeling defects or other deficiencies and issues. Recalls of any of our products would divert managerial and financial resources and have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. The FDA requires that certain classifications of recalls be reported to FDA within ten working days after the recall is initiated. Companies are required to maintain certain records of recalls, even if they are not reportable to the FDA. We may initiate voluntary recalls involving our products in the future that we determine do not require notification of the FDA. If the FDA disagrees with our determinations, they could require us to report those actions as recalls. A future recall announcement could harm our reputation with customers and negatively affect our sales. In addition, the FDA could take enforcement action for failing to report the recalls when they were conducted.

 

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Securities

 

We face evolving regulation of corporate governance and public disclosure that may result in additional expenses and continuing uncertainty.

 

As a public company, we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or SOX, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the listing requirements of The Nasdaq Global Market and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies, including establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and corporate governance practices.  Our management and other personnel devote a substantial amount of time towards maintaining compliance with these requirements. These rules, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies.  This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices.  We intend to invest the resources necessary to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities.  If our efforts to comply with new or changed laws, regulations and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us, which could be costly and time-consuming, and our reputation and business may be harmed.

 

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Our common stock may be delisted from The Nasdaq Capital Market if we fail to comply with continued listing standards.

 

Our common stock is currently traded on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “AIKI”.  If we fail to meet any of the continued listing standards of The Nasdaq Capital Market, our common stock could be delisted from The Nasdaq Capital Market.  These continued listing standards include specifically enumerated criteria, such as:

 

  a $1.00 minimum closing bid price;

 

  stockholders’ equity of $2.5 million;

 

  500,000 shares of publicly-held common stock with a market value of at least $1 million;

 

  300 round-lot stockholders; and

 

  compliance with Nasdaq’s  corporate governance requirements, as well as additional or more stringent criteria that may be applied in the exercise of Nasdaq’s  discretionary authority.

 

On April 28, 2020, we received a staff deficiency notice from Nasdaq informing the Company that its common stock failed to comply with the $1.00 minimum bid price required for continued listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market under Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2). Nasdaq’s letter advised the Company that, based upon the closing bid price during the period from March 16, 2020 to April 27, 2020, the Company no longer meets this test.

 

Given the current extraordinary market conditions, Nasdaq has determined to toll the compliance periods for the bid price and market value of publicly held shares requirements through June 30, 2020. Pursuant to Nasdaq Marketplace Rule 5810(c)(3)(A), the Company has been provided with a compliance period of 180 calendar days, or until December 28, 2020, to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement. To regain compliance, the closing bid price of the Company’s common stock must meet or exceed $1.00 per share for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days prior to December 28, 2020.

 

There can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain compliance and remain in compliance in the future. In particular, our share price may continue to decline for a number of reasons, including many that are beyond our control. If we fail to comply with Nasdaq’s continued listing standards, we may be delisted and our common stock will trade, if at all, only on the over-the-counter market, such as the OTC Bulletin Board or OTCQX market, and then only if one or more registered broker-dealer market makers comply with quotation requirements.  In addition, delisting of our common stock could depress our stock price, substantially limit liquidity of our common stock and materially adversely affect our ability to raise capital on terms acceptable to us, or at all. Further, delisting of our common stock would likely result in our common stock becoming a “penny stock” under the Exchange Act.   

 

Our share price may be volatile and there may not be an active trading market for our common stock.

 

There can be no assurance that the market price of our common stock will not decline below its present market price or that there will be an active trading market for our common stock. The market prices of technology or technology related companies have been and are likely to continue to be highly volatile. Fluctuations in our operating results and general market conditions for technology or technology related stocks could have a significant impact on the volatility of our common stock price. We have experienced significant volatility in the price of our common stock. From January 1, 2019 through December 31, 2019, the share price of our common stock (on a split-adjusted basis) ranged from a high of $3.92 to a low of $1.05. The reason for the volatility in our stock is not well understood and may continue.  Factors that may have contributed to such volatility include, but are not limited to:

 

  developments regarding regulatory filings;

 

  our funding requirements and the terms of our financing arrangements;

 

  technological innovations;

 

  introduction of new technologies by us or our competitors;

 

  material changes in existing litigation;

 

  changes in the enforceability or other matters surrounding our patent portfolios;

  

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  government regulations and laws;

 

  public sentiment relating to our industry;

 

  developments in patent or other proprietary rights;

 

  the number of shares issued and outstanding;

 

  the number of shares trading on an average trading day;

 

  performance of companies in the non-performing entity space generally;

 

  announcements regarding other participants in the technology and technology related industries, including our competitors;

 

  block sales of our shares by stockholders to whom we have sold stock in private placements, or the cessation of transfer restrictions with respect to those shares; and

 

  market speculation regarding any of the foregoing.

 

We could fail in future financing efforts or be delisted from The Nasdaq Capital Market if we fail to receive stockholder approval when needed.

 

We are required under the Nasdaq rules to obtain stockholder approval for any issuance of additional equity securities that would comprise more than 20% of the total shares of our common stock outstanding before the issuance of such securities sold in an offering that is not deemed to be a “public offering” by Nasdaq. Funding of our operations and acquisitions of assets may require issuance of additional equity securities that would comprise more than 20% of the total shares of our common stock outstanding, but we might not be successful in obtaining the required stockholder approval for such an issuance. If we are unable to obtain financing due to stockholder approval difficulties, such failure may have a material adverse effect on our ability to continue operations.

 

Our shares of common stock are thinly traded and, as a result, stockholders may be unable to sell at or near ask prices, or at all, if they need to sell shares to raise money or otherwise desire to liquidate their shares.

 

Our common stock has been “thinly-traded” meaning that the number of persons interested in purchasing our common stock at or near ask prices at any given time may be relatively small or non-existent. This situation is attributable to a number of factors, including the fact that we are a small company that is relatively unknown to stock analysts, stock brokers, institutional investors and others in the investment community that generate or influence sales volume, and that even if we came to the attention of such persons, they tend to be risk-averse and would be reluctant to follow an unproven company such as ours or purchase or recommend the purchase of our shares until such time as we become more seasoned and viable. Our trading volumes are further adversely affected by the 1-for-19 reverse stock split that was effective as of March 4, 2016. In addition, we believe that due to the limited number of shares of our common stock outstanding, an options market has not been established for our common stock, limiting the ability of market participants to hedge or otherwise undertake trading strategies available for larger companies with broader shareholder bases which prevents institutions and others from acquiring or trading in our securities. Consequently, there may be periods of several days or more when trading activity in our shares is minimal or non-existent, as compared to a seasoned issuer which has a large and steady volume of trading activity that will generally support continuous sales without an adverse effect on share price. We cannot give stockholders any assurance that a broader or more active public trading market for our common shares will develop or be sustained, or that current trading levels will be sustained.

    

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Because of the Shareholder Rights Plan and “anti-takeover” provisions in our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws, a third party may be discouraged from making a takeover offer that could be beneficial to our stockholders.

 

Effective as of January 24, 2013, we adopted a shareholder rights plan which was amended and restated as of June 9, 2017. The effect of this rights plan and of certain provisions of our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, Amended and Restated Bylaws and the anti-takeover provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law, could delay or prevent a third party from acquiring us or replacing members of our Board of Directors, or make more costly any attempt to acquire control of the Company, even if the acquisition or the Board designees would be beneficial to our stockholders. These factors could also reduce the price that certain investors might be willing to pay for shares of the common stock and result in the market price being lower than it would be without these provisions.

  

Dividends on our common stock are not likely.

 

During the last five years, we have not paid cash dividends on our common stock, and we do not anticipate paying cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future.  Investors must look solely to the potential for appreciation in the market price of the shares of our common stock to obtain a return on their investment.

 

It may be difficult to predict our financial performance because our quarterly operating results may fluctuate.

 

Our revenues, operating results and valuations of certain assets and liabilities may vary significantly from quarter to quarter due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. You should not rely on period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations as an indication of our future performance. Our results of operations may fall below the expectations of market analysts and our own forecasts. If this happens, the market price of our common stock may fall significantly. The factors that may affect our quarterly operating results include the following:

 

  fluctuations in results of our enforcement and licensing activities or outcome of cases;

 

  fluctuations in duration of judicial processes and time to completion of cases;

 

  the timing and amount of expenses incurred to negotiate with licensees and obtain settlements from infringers;

 

  the impact of our anticipated need for personnel and expected substantial increase in headcount;

 

  fluctuations in the receptiveness of courts and juries to significant damages awards in patent infringement cases and speed to trial in the jurisdictions in which our cases may be brought and the accepted royalty rates attributable to damages analysis for patent cases generally, including the royalty rates for industry standard patents which we may own or acquire;

 

  worsening economic conditions which cause revenues or profits attributable to infringer sales of products or services to decline;

 

  changes in the regulatory environment, including regulation of NPE activities or patenting practices, that may negatively impact our or infringers practices;

 

  the timing and amount of expenses associated with litigation, regulatory investigations or restructuring activities, including settlement costs and regulatory penalties assessed related to government enforcement actions;

 

  Any changes we make in our Critical Accounting Estimates described in the Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations sections of our periodic reports;
     
  the adoption of new accounting pronouncements, or new interpretations of existing accounting pronouncements, that impact the manner in which we account for, measure or disclose our results of operations, financial position or other financial measures; and

 

  costs related to acquisitions of technologies or businesses.

     

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If we fail to retain our key personnel, we may not be able to achieve our anticipated level of growth and our business could suffer.

 

Our future depends, in part, on our ability to attract and retain key personnel and the continued contributions of our executive officers, each of whom may be difficult to replace. In particular, Anthony Hayes, our Chief Executive Officer, is important to the management of our business and operations and the development of our strategic direction. The loss of the services of any such individual and the process to replace any key personnel would involve significant time and expense and may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives.

  

Because an increasing amount of our outstanding shares may become freely tradable, sales of these shares could cause the market price of our common stock to drop significantly, even if our business is performing well.

  

As of June 5, 2020, we had outstanding 34,920,219 shares of common stock, of which our directors and executive officers owned 28,989 shares which are subject to the limitations of Rule 144 under the Securities Act.

 

In general, Rule 144 provides that any non-affiliate of ours, who has held restricted common stock for at least six-months, is entitled to sell their restricted stock freely, provided that we are then current in our filings with the SEC.

 

An affiliate of the Company may sell after six months with the following restrictions:

 

  we are current in our filings;

 

  certain manner of sale provisions;

 

  filing of Form 144; and

 

  volume limitations limiting the sale of shares within any three-month period to a number of shares that does not exceed the greater of 1% of the total number of outstanding shares or, the average weekly trading volume during the four calendar weeks preceding the filing of a notice of sale.

 

Because almost all of our outstanding shares are freely tradable (subject to certain restrictions imposed by lockup agreements executed by the holders thereof) and the shares held by our affiliates may be freely sold (subject to the Rule 144 limitations), sales of these shares could cause the market price of our common stock to drop significantly, even if our business is performing well.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from these sales for general corporate purposes, which includes, without limitation, the continued development of our products to treat pancreatic cancer, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and working capital. The amounts and timing of these expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including the development of our current business initiatives.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell the securities from time to time to or through underwriters or dealers, through agents, or directly to one or more purchasers. A distribution of the securities offered by this prospectus may also be effected through the issuance of derivative securities, including without limitation, warrants, rights to purchase and subscriptions.  In addition, the manner in which we may sell some or all of the securities covered by this prospectus includes, without limitation, through:

 

a block trade in which a broker-dealer will attempt to sell as agent, but may position or resell a portion of the block, as principal, in order to facilitate the transaction;

 

purchases by a broker-dealer, as principal, and resale by the broker-dealer for its account; or

 

ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which a broker solicits purchasers.

 

A prospectus supplement or supplements with respect to each series of securities will describe the terms of the offering, including, to the extent applicable:

 

the terms of the offering;

 

the name or names of the underwriters or agents and the amounts of securities underwritten or purchased by each of them, if any;

 

the public offering price or purchase price of the securities or other consideration therefor, and the proceeds to be received by us from the sale;

 

any delayed delivery requirements;

 

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

any underwriting discounts or agency fees and other items constituting underwriters’ or agents’ compensation;

 

any discounts or concessions allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

 

The offer and sale of the securities described in this prospectus by us, the underwriters or the third parties described above may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions, including privately negotiated transactions, either:

 

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

in an “at the market” offering within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act;

 

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

at negotiated prices.

 

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement will be underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.

 

Underwriters and Agents; Direct Sales

 

If underwriters are used in a sale, they will acquire the offered securities for their own account and may resell the offered securities from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions, at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale.  We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate.

 

Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement.  Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement, other than securities covered by any over-allotment option. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, the nature of any such relationship.

 

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We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities, and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

 

We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future.  We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

 

Dealers

 

We may sell the offered securities to dealers as principals. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public either at varying prices to be determined by the dealer or at a fixed offering price agreed to with us at the time of resale.

 

Institutional Purchasers

 

We may authorize agents, dealers or underwriters to solicit certain institutional investors to purchase offered securities on a delayed delivery basis pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified future date. The applicable prospectus supplement or other offering materials, as the case may be, will provide the details of any such arrangement, including the offering price and commissions payable on the solicitations.

 

We will enter into such delayed contracts only with institutional purchasers that we approve. These institutions may include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies and educational and charitable institutions.

 

Indemnification; Other Relationships

 

We may provide agents, underwriters, dealers and remarketing firms with indemnification against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents, underwriters, dealers and remarketing firms, and their affiliates, may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.  This includes commercial banking and investment banking transactions.

 

Market-Making; Stabilization and Other Transactions

 

There is currently no market for any of the offered securities, other than our common stock, which is quoted on The Nasdaq Capital Market.  If the offered securities are traded after their initial issuance, they may trade at a discount from their initial offering price, depending upon prevailing interest rates, the market for similar securities and other factors. While it is possible that an underwriter could inform us that it intends to make a market in the offered securities, such underwriter would not be obligated to do so, and any such market-making could be discontinued at any time without notice. Therefore, no assurance can be given as to whether an active trading market will develop for the offered securities.  We have no current plans for listing of the debt securities, preferred stock, warrants or subscription rights on any securities exchange or quotation system; any such listing with respect to any particular debt securities, preferred stock, warrants or subscription rights will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement or other offering materials, as the case may be.

 

Any underwriter may engage in over-allotment, stabilizing transactions, short-covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Over-allotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum price. Syndicate-covering or other short-covering transactions involve purchases of the securities, either through exercise of the over-allotment option or in the open market after the distribution is completed, to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time.

 

Any underwriters or agents that are qualified market makers on The Nasdaq Capital Market may engage in passive market making transactions in our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of our common stock. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

 

Fees and Commissions

 

If 5% or more of the net proceeds of any offering of securities made under this prospectus will be received by a FINRA member participating in the offering or affiliates or associated persons of such FINRA member, the offering will be conducted in accordance with FINRA Rule 5121.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

 

General

 

This prospectus describes the general terms of our capital stock. The following description is not complete and may not contain all the information you should consider before investing in our capital stock. For a more detailed description of these securities, you should read the applicable provisions of Delaware law and our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and our Amended and Restated Bylaws. When we offer to sell a particular series of these securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of any series of securities, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement relating to that series and the description of the securities described in this prospectus. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

 

The total number of shares of capital stock we are authorized to issue is 150,000,000 shares, of which (a) 100,000,000 are common stock and (b) 50,000,000 are preferred stock.

 

We, directly or through agents, dealers or underwriters designated from time to time, may offer, issue and sell, together or separately, up to $100,000,000 in the aggregate of:

 

common stock;

 

preferred stock;

 

purchase contracts;

 

warrants to purchase our securities;

 

subscription rights to purchase our securities;

 

depository shares;

 

secured or unsecured debt securities consisting of notes, debentures or other evidences of indebtedness which may be senior debt securities, senior subordinated debt securities or subordinated debt securities, each of which may be convertible into equity securities; or

 

units comprised of, or other combinations of, the foregoing securities.

 

We may issue the debt securities as exchangeable for or convertible into shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities that may be sold by us pursuant to this prospectus or any combination of the foregoing. The preferred stock may also be exchangeable for and/or convertible into shares of common stock, another series of preferred stock or other securities that may be sold by us pursuant to this prospectus or any combination of the foregoing.  When a particular series of securities is offered, a supplement to this prospectus will be delivered with this prospectus, which will set forth the terms of the offering and sale of the offered securities.

 

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation

 

On April 24, 2014, we filed an Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware, which was previously approved by our stockholders at our annual meeting held on February 6, 2014. The Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, among other things, increased our authorized number of shares of common stock to 200,000,000 shares from 50,000,000 shares.

 

Additionally, on April 23, 2014, we filed a Certificate of Elimination with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware eliminating our Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, Series E Convertible Preferred Stock and Series F Convertible Preferred Stock and returning them to authorized but undesignated shares of our preferred stock.

 

On March 4, 2016, the Company implemented a reverse stock split with a ratio of 1-for-19. The par value and other terms of the common stock were not affected by the reverse stock split. In addition, the amendment to the Company’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation that effected the reverse stock split simultaneously reduced the number of authorized shares of common stock from 200,000,000 to 100,000,000.

 

Common Stock

 

As of June 5, 2020, there were 34,920,219 shares of common stock issued and outstanding, held of record by approximately 123 stockholders. Subject to preferential rights with respect to any outstanding preferred stock, all outstanding shares of common stock are of the same class and have equal rights and attributes. Subject to the rights of the preferred stock, holders of common stock are entitled to receive such dividends as are declared by our Board of Directors out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends. We presently intend to retain any earnings to fund the development of our business. Accordingly, we do not anticipate paying any dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future. Any future determination as to declaration and payment of dividends will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors.

 

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In the event of the liquidation, dissolution, or winding up of the Company, each outstanding share of our common stock will be entitled to share equally in any of our assets remaining after payment of or provision for our debts and other liabilities.

 

Holders of common stock are entitled to one vote per share on matters to be voted upon by stockholders. There is no cumulative voting for the election of directors, which means that the holders of shares entitled to exercise more than 50% of the voting rights in the election of directors are able to elect all of the directors.

 

Holders of common stock have no preemptive rights to subscribe for or to purchase any additional shares of common stock or other obligations convertible into shares of common stock which we may issue after the date of this prospectus.

 

All of the outstanding shares of common stock are fully paid and non-assessable. Holders of our common stock are not liable for further calls or assessments.

 

The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate in the future.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is VStock Transfer, LLC, with an address at 18 Lafayette Place, Woodmere, New York 11598.

 

Listing

 

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “AIKI”. We have not applied to list our common stock on any other exchange or quotation system.

 

Limitations on Directors’ Liability

 

Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws contain provisions indemnifying our directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law.

 

In addition, as permitted by Delaware law, our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation provides that no director will be liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for breach of the director’s fiduciary duty as a director. The effect of this provision is to restrict our rights and the rights of our stockholders in derivative suits to recover monetary damages against a director for breach of the director’s fiduciary duty as a director, except that a director will be personally liable for:

 

  any breach of his or her duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;

 

  acts or omissions not in good faith which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

  the payment of dividends or the redemption or purchase of stock in violation of Delaware law; or

 

  any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

 

This provision does not affect a director’s liability under the federal securities laws.

 

To the extent that our directors, officers and controlling persons are indemnified under the provisions contained in our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation or Delaware law against liabilities arising under the Securities Act, we have been advised that in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

Provisions of our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws, our Shareholder Rights Plan and Delaware Law that May Have an Anti-Takeover Effect

 

Certain provisions set forth in our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws, our Amended and Restated Shareholder Rights Plan and Delaware law could have the effect of discouraging potential acquisition proposals or making a tender offer or delaying or preventing a change in control, including changes a stockholder might consider favorable. Such provisions may also prevent or frustrate attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our management.

 

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws

 

In particular, our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws, among other things:

 

  authorize our Board of Directors to issue, without further action by the stockholders, up to 50,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock;
     
  provide that stockholders must provide advance notice to nominate persons for election to our Board of Directors or submit proposals for consideration at stockholder meetings;

 

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  specify that special meetings of our stockholders can be called only by our Board of Directors or by any officer instructed by the Board of Directors to a call a special meeting;
     
  provide that vacancies on the Board of Directors may be filled by a majority of directors in office, although less than a quorum, or by the sole remaining director; and
     
  provide the Board of Directors with the ability to alter the Amended and Restated Bylaws without stockholder approval.

 

Shareholder Rights Plan

 

On January 1, 2013, and as amended and restated on June 9, 2017, we adopted a stockholder rights plan in which rights to purchase shares of Series A Preferred Stock were distributed as a dividend at the rate of one right for each share of common stock. The rights are designed to guard against partial tender offers and other abusive and coercive tactics that might be used in an attempt to gain control of AIkido or to deprive our stockholders of their interest in the long-term value of AIkido. These rights seek to achieve these goals by forcing a potential acquirer to negotiate with our Board of Directors (or go to court to try to force the Board of Directors to redeem the rights), because only the Board of Directors can redeem the rights and allow the potential acquirer to acquire our shares without suffering very significant dilution. However, these rights also could deter or prevent transactions that stockholders deem to be in their interests, and could reduce the price that investors or an acquirer might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock.

 

Each right entitles the registered holder to purchase one nineteen-hundredth of a share (a “Unit”) of our Series A Preferred Stock. Each Unit of Series A Preferred Stock will be entitled to an aggregate dividend of 100 times the dividend declared per share of common stock. In the event of liquidation, the holders of the Units of Series A Preferred Stock will be entitled to an aggregate payment of 100 times the payment made per share of common stock. Each Unit of Series A Preferred Stock will have 100 votes, voting together with the common stock. Finally, in the event of any merger, consolidation or other transaction in which shares of common stock are exchanged, each Unit of Series A Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive 100 times the amount received per share of common stock. These rights are protected by customary anti-dilution provisions.

 

The rights will be exercisable only if a person or group acquires ten percent (10%) or more of our common stock (subject to certain exceptions stated in the plan) or announces a tender offer the consummation of which would result in ownership by a person or group of ten percent (10%) or more of our common stock. Our Board of Directors may redeem the rights at a price of $0.001 per right. The stockholder rights plan provides that the rights will expire at the close of business on December 31, 2020 unless the expiration date is extended or unless the rights are earlier redeemed or exchanged by the Company.

 

Delaware Takeover Statute

 

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”) prohibits a Delaware corporation that is a public company from engaging in any “business combination” (as defined below) with any “interested stockholder” (defined generally as an entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with such entity or person) for a period of three years following the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, unless:

 

  before such date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;
     
  upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the number of shares outstanding those shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or
     
  on or subsequent to such date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66-2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

 

Section 203 of the DCGL defines “business combination” to include:

 

  any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;
     
  any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;
     
  subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;
     
  any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or
     
  the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.

 

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Preferred Stock

 

Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation authorizes 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock. Our Board of Directors is authorized, without further stockholder action, to establish various series of such preferred stock from time to time and to determine the rights, preferences and privileges of any unissued series including, among other matters, any dividend rights, dividend rates, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms, the number of shares constituting any such series, and the description thereof and to issue any such shares. Although there is no current intent to do so, our Board of Directors may, without stockholder approval, issue shares of an additional class or series of preferred stock with voting and conversion rights which could adversely affect the voting power of the holders of the common stock. 

 

One of the effects of the preferred stock may be to enable the Board of Directors to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of the Company by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise, and thereby to protect the continuity of the management.

 

The DGCL provides that the holders of preferred stock will have the right to vote separately as a class on any proposal involving certain fundamental changes in the rights of holders of that series of preferred stock. This right is in addition to any voting rights provided for in the applicable certificate of designation.

 

Our Board of Directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our common stock. Preferred stock could be issued quickly with terms designed to delay or prevent a change in control of our Company or make removal of management more difficult. Additionally, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of decreasing the market price of our common stock. 

 

The Company had designated separate series of its capital stock as of June 5, 2020 as summarized below: 

 

    Number of
Shares Issued
and Outstanding
as of June 5,
2020
  Par Value     Conversio
Ratio
Series “A”       $ 0.0001     N/A
Series “C”         0.0001     0.05:1
Series “D”     4,725     0.0001     0.53:1
Series “D-1”     834     0.0001     0.53:1
Series “F-1”         0.0001     0.05:1
Series “H”         0.0001     0.53:1
Series “I”         0.0001     1.05:1
Series “J”         0.0001     0.05:1
Series “K”         0.0001     263.16:1
Series “L”         0.0001     1,000:1

 

On April 23, 2014, the Company filed a Certificate of Elimination with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware eliminating its Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, Series E Convertible Preferred Stock and Series F Convertible Preferred Stock and returning them to authorized but undesignated shares of preferred stock. No shares of the foregoing series of preferred stock were outstanding.

 

On March 24, 2020, the Company filed a Certificate of Designation of Series L Preferred Stock with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware to designate a new Series L Convertible Preferred Stock of the Company.

 

Series D Convertible Preferred Stock  

 

In connection with the acquisition of North South’s patent portfolio in September 2013, the Company issued 1,379,685 shares of its Series D Convertible Preferred Stock (“Series D Preferred Stock”) to the stockholders of North South.  Each share of Series D Preferred Stock has a stated value of $0.0001 per share and is convertible into ten-nineteenths of a share of common stock.  Upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company’s business, each holder of Series D Preferred Stock shall be entitled to receive, for each share of Series D Preferred Stock held, a preferential amount in cash equal to the greater of (i) the stated value or (ii) the amount the holder would receive as a holder of common stock on an “as converted” basis.  Each holder of Series D Preferred Stock shall be entitled to vote on all matters submitted to its stockholders and shall be entitled to such number of votes equal to the number of shares of common stock such shares of Series D Preferred Stock are convertible into at such time, taking into account the beneficial ownership limitations set forth in the governing Certificate of Designation and the conversion limitations described below.  At no time may shares of Series D Preferred Stock be converted if such conversion would cause the holder to hold in excess of 4.99% of issued and outstanding common stock, subject to an increase in such limitation up to 9.99% of the issued and outstanding common stock on 61 days’ written notice to the Company.  The conversion ratio of the Series D Preferred Stock is subject to adjustment in the event of stock splits, stock dividends, combination of shares and similar recapitalization transactions.

 

As of June 5, 2020, 4,725 shares of Series D Preferred Stock remained issued and outstanding.

 

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Series D-1 Convertible Preferred Stock  

 

The Company’s Series D-1 Convertible Preferred Stock (“Series D-1 Preferred Stock”) was established on November 22, 2013. Each share of Series D-1 Preferred Stock has a stated value of $0.0001 per share and is convertible into ten- nineteenths of a share of common stock.  Upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company’s business, each holder of Series D-1 Preferred Stock shall be entitled to receive, for each share of Series D-1 Preferred Stock held, a preferential amount in cash equal to the greater of (i) the stated value or (ii) the amount the holder would receive as a holder of common stock on an “as converted” basis.  Each holder of Series D-1 Preferred Stock shall be entitled to vote on all matters submitted to the Company’s stockholders and shall be entitled to such number of votes equal to the number of shares of common stock such shares of Series D-1 Preferred Stock are convertible into at such time, taking into account the beneficial ownership limitations set forth in the governing Certificate of Designation.  At no time may shares of Series D-1 Preferred Stock be converted if such conversion would cause the holder to hold in excess of 9.99% of issued and outstanding common stock. The conversion ratio of the Series D-1 Preferred Stock is subject to adjustment in the event of stock splits, stock dividends, combination of shares and similar recapitalization transactions.  The Company commenced an exchange with holders of Series D Convertible Preferred Stock pursuant to which the holders of the Company’s outstanding shares of Series D Preferred Stock acquired in the Merger could exchange such shares for shares of the Company’s Series D-1 Preferred Stock on a one-for-one basis. 

 

As of June 5, 2020, 834 shares of Series D-1 Preferred Stock remained issued and outstanding. 

 

Purchase Contracts

 

We may issue purchase contracts, representing contracts obligating holders to purchase from us, and us to sell to the holders, a specific or varying number of common stock, preferred stock, warrants, depositary shares, debt securities, warrants or any combination of the above, at a future date or dates. Alternatively, the purchase contracts may obligate us to purchase from holders, and obligate holders to sell to us, a specific or varying number of common stock, preferred stock, warrants, depositary shares, debt securities, or any combination of the above. The price of the securities and other property subject to the purchase contracts may be fixed at the time the purchase contracts are issued or may be determined by reference to a specific formula set forth in the purchase contracts. The purchase contracts may be issued separately or as a part of a unit that consists of (a) a purchase contract and (b) one or more of the other securities that may be sold by us pursuant to this prospectus or any combination of the foregoing, which may secure the holders’ obligations to purchase the securities under the purchase contract. The purchase contracts may require us to make periodic payments to the holders or require the holders to make periodic payments to us. These payments may be unsecured or prefunded and may be paid on a current or on a deferred basis. The purchase contracts may require holders to secure their obligations under the contracts in a manner specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from a current report on Form 8-K that we file with the SEC, forms of the purchase contracts and purchase contract agreement, if any. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any purchase contracts in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, including, to the extent applicable, the following:

 

  whether the purchase contracts obligate the holder or us to purchase or sell, or both purchase and sell, the securities subject to purchase under the purchase contract, and the nature and amount of each of those securities, or the method of determining those amounts;

 

  whether the purchase contracts are to be prepaid or not;

 

  whether the purchase contracts are to be settled by delivery, or by reference or linkage to the value, performance or level of the securities subject to purchase under the purchase contract;

 

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  any acceleration, cancellation, termination or other provisions relating to the settlement of the purchase contracts; and

 

  whether the purchase contracts will be issued in fully registered or global form.

 

Warrants

 

We may issue warrants to purchase our securities or other rights, including rights to receive payment in cash or securities based on the value, rate or price of one or more specified commodities, currencies, securities or indices, or any combination of the foregoing. Warrants may be issued independently or together with any other securities that may be sold by us pursuant to this prospectus or any combination of the foregoing and may be attached to, or separate from, such securities. To the extent warrants that we issue are to be publicly-traded, each series of such warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a warrant agent.

 

We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from a current report on Form 8-K that we file with the SEC, forms of the warrant and warrant agreement, if any. The prospectus supplement relating to any warrants that we may offer will contain the specific terms of the warrants and a description of the material provisions of the applicable warrant agreement, if any. These terms may include the following:

 

the title of the warrants;

 

the price or prices at which the warrants will be issued;

 

the designation, amount and terms of the securities or other rights for which the warrants are exercisable;

 

the designation and terms of the other securities, if any, with which the warrants are to be issued and the number of warrants issued with each other security;

 

the aggregate number of warrants;

 

any provisions for adjustment of the number or amount of securities receivable upon exercise of the warrants or the exercise price of the warrants;

 

the price or prices at which the securities or other rights purchasable upon exercise of the warrants may be purchased;

 

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the securities or other rights purchasable upon exercise of the warrants will be separately transferable;

 

a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the exercise of the warrants;

 

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence, and the date on which the right will expire;

 

the maximum or minimum number of warrants that may be exercised at any time;

 

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any; and

 

any other terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants. 

 

Each warrant will entitle the holder of warrants to purchase the amount of securities or other rights, at the exercise price stated or determinable in the prospectus supplement for the warrants. Warrants may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date shown in the applicable prospectus supplement, unless otherwise specified in such prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, if applicable, unexercised warrants will become void. Warrants may be exercised in the manner described in the applicable prospectus supplement. When the warrant holder makes the payment and properly completes and signs the warrant certificate at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent, if any, or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as possible, forward the securities or other rights that the warrant holder has purchased. If the warrant holder exercises less than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate, we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining warrants.

 

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A summary of warrant activity for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and the year ended December 31, 2019 is presented below:

 

    Warrants     Weighted Average
Exercise Price
   

Total

Intrinsic

Value

   

Weighted

Average
Remaining

Contractual
Life
(in years)

 
Outstanding as of December 31, 2019     351,939     $ 19.96     $ 111,332       0.94  
Issued     11,207,244       0.72       -       0.15  
Exercised     (10,695,706 )     0.67       -       -  
Outstanding as of March 31, 2020     863,477     $ 19.96       33,126       0.70  

 

On May 29, 2019, the Company entered into the Master Service Agreement (“MSA”) with a consultant, World Wide Holdings, LLC (“Consultant”). In consideration for services provided by Consultant, the Company paid to Consultant three warrants (the “Consultant Warrant”), with each warrant immediately exercisable for 33,333 shares of common stock with a $0.01 strike price. The Company issued each of the three warrants on June 28, July 28 and August 27, 2019, respectively. The Company recorded $0.3 million in stock-based compensation during the year ended December 31, 2019 related to this arrangement. On July 12, 2019, the Company issued 33,333 shares of common stock upon exercise of one Consultant Warrant which resulted in gross proceeds of approximately $333.

 

Subscription Rights

 

We may issue rights to purchase our securities. The rights may or may not be transferable by the persons purchasing or receiving the rights. In connection with any rights offering, we may enter into a standby underwriting or other arrangement with one or more underwriters or other persons pursuant to which such underwriters or other persons would purchase any offered securities remaining unsubscribed for after such rights offering. In connection with a rights offering to holders of our capital stock a prospectus supplement will be distributed to such holders on the record date for receiving rights in the rights offering set by us.

 

We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from a current report on Form 8-K that we file with the SEC, forms of the subscription rights, standby underwriting agreement or other agreements, if any. The prospectus supplement relating to any rights that we offer will include specific terms relating to the offering, including, among other matters:

 

the date of determining the security holders entitled to the rights distribution;

 

the aggregate number of rights issued and the aggregate amount of securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights;

 

the exercise price;

 

the conditions to completion of the rights offering;

 

the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence and the date on which the rights will expire; and

 

any applicable federal income tax considerations.

 

Each right would entitle the holder of the rights to purchase the principal amount of securities at the exercise price set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for the rights provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, all unexercised rights will become void.

 

Holders may exercise rights as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Upon receipt of payment and the rights certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the rights agent, if any, or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights. If less than all of the rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any unsubscribed securities directly to persons other than stockholders, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby underwriting arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Depositary Shares

 

General.   We may offer fractional shares of preferred stock, rather than full shares of preferred stock. If we decide to offer fractional shares of our preferred stock, we will issue receipts for depositary shares. Each depositary share will represent a fraction of a share of a particular series of our preferred stock, and the applicable prospectus supplement will indicate that fraction. The shares of preferred stock represented by depositary shares will be deposited under a deposit agreement between us and a depositary that is a bank or trust company that meets certain requirements and is selected by us. The depositary will be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Each owner of a depositary share will be entitled to all of the rights and preferences of the preferred stock represented by the depositary share. The depositary shares will be evidenced by depositary receipts issued pursuant to the deposit agreement. Depositary receipts will be distributed to those persons purchasing the fractional shares of our preferred stock in accordance with the terms of the offering. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from a current report on Form 8-K that we file with the SEC, forms of the deposit agreement, form of certificate of designation of underlying preferred stock, form of depositary receipts and any other related agreements.

 

Dividends and Other Distributions.   The depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions received by it in respect of the preferred stock to the record holders of depositary shares relating to such preferred shares in proportion to the numbers of depositary shares held on the relevant record date.

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In the event of a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute securities or property received by it to the record holders of depositary shares in proportion to the numbers of depositary shares held on the relevant record date, unless the depositary determines that it is not feasible to make such distribution. In that case, the depositary may make the distribution by such method as it deems equitable and practicable. One such possible method is for the depositary to sell the securities or property and then distribute the net proceeds from the sale as provided in the case of a cash distribution.

 

Redemption of Depositary Shares.   Whenever we redeem the preferred stock, the depositary will redeem a number of depositary shares representing the same number of shares of preferred stock so redeemed. If fewer than all of the depositary shares are to be redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected by lot, pro rata or by any other equitable method as the depositary may determine.

 

Voting of Underlying Shares.  Upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of our preferred stock of any series are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained in the notice of the meeting to the record holders of the depositary shares relating to that series of preferred stock. Each record holder of the depositary shares on the record date will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights represented by the number of shares of preferred stock underlying the holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will endeavor, to the extent it is practical to do so, to vote the number of whole shares of preferred stock underlying such depositary shares in accordance with such instructions. We will agree to take all action that the depositary may deem reasonably necessary in order to enable the depositary to do so. To the extent the depositary does not receive specific instructions from the holders of depositary shares relating to such preferred shares, it will abstain from voting such shares of preferred stock.

 

Withdrawal of Shares. Upon surrender of depositary receipts representing any number of whole shares at the depositary’s office, unless the related depositary shares previously have been called for redemption, the holder of the depositary shares evidenced by the depositary receipts will be entitled to delivery of the number of whole shares of the related series of preferred stock and all money and other property, if any, underlying such depositary shares. However, once such an exchange is made, the preferred stock cannot thereafter be re-deposited in exchange for depositary shares. Holders of depositary shares will be entitled to receive whole shares of the related series of preferred stock on the basis set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. If the depositary receipts delivered by the holder evidence a number of depositary shares representing more than the number of whole shares of preferred stock of the related series to be withdrawn, the depositary will deliver to the holder at the same time a new depositary receipt evidencing the excess number of depositary shares.

 

Amendment and Termination of Depositary Agreement.   The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the applicable depositary agreement may at any time be amended by agreement between us and the depositary. We may, with the consent of the depositary, amend the depositary agreement from time to time in any manner that we desire. However, if the amendment would materially and adversely alter the rights of the existing holders of depositary shares, the amendment would need to be approved by the holders of at least a majority of the depositary shares then outstanding.

 

The depositary agreement may be terminated by us or the depositary if:

 

  all outstanding depositary shares have been redeemed; or

 

  there has been a final distribution in respect of the shares of preferred stock of the applicable series in connection with our liquidation, dissolution or winding up and such distribution has been made to the holders of depositary receipts.

 

Resignation and Removal of Depositary.   The depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so. We may remove a depositary at any time. Any resignation or removal will take effect upon the appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of appointment.

 

Charges of Depositary.   We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of any depositary arrangements. We will pay all charges of each depositary in connection with the initial deposit of the preferred shares of any series, the initial issuance of the depositary shares, any redemption of such preferred shares and any withdrawals of such preferred shares by holders of depositary shares. Holders of depositary shares will be required to pay any other transfer taxes.

 

Notices.   Each depositary will forward to the holders of the applicable depositary shares all notices, reports and communications from us which are delivered to such depositary and which we are required to furnish the holders of the preferred stock represented by such depositary shares.

 

Miscellaneous. The depositary agreement may contain provisions that limit our liability and the liability of the depositary to the holders of depositary shares. Both the depositary and we are also entitled to an indemnity from the holders of the depositary shares prior to bringing, or defending against, any legal proceeding. We or any depositary may rely upon written advice of counsel or accountants, or information provided by persons presenting preferred shares for deposit, holders of depositary shares or other persons believed by us to be competent and on documents believed by us or them to be genuine.

 

Debt Securities

 

As used in this prospectus, the term “debt securities” means the debentures, notes, bonds and other evidences of indebtedness that we may issue from time to time. The debt securities will either be senior debt securities, senior subordinated debt or subordinated debt securities. We may also issue convertible debt securities. Debt securities may be issued under an indenture (which we refer to herein as an Indenture), which are contracts entered into between us and a trustee to be named therein. The Indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. We may issue debt securities and incur additional indebtedness other than through the offering of debt securities pursuant to this prospectus. It is likely that convertible debt securities will not be issued under an Indenture.

 

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The debt securities may be fully and unconditionally guaranteed on a secured or unsecured senior or subordinated basis by one or more guarantors, if any. The obligations of any guarantor under its guarantee will be limited as necessary to prevent that guarantee from constituting a fraudulent conveyance under applicable law. In the event that any series of debt securities will be subordinated to other indebtedness that we have outstanding or may incur, the terms of the subordination will be set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the subordinated debt securities.

 

We may issue debt securities from time to time in one or more series, in each case with the same or various maturities, at par or at a discount. Unless indicated in a prospectus supplement, we may issue additional debt securities of a particular series without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of such series outstanding at the time of the issuance. Any such additional debt securities, together with all other outstanding debt securities of that series, will constitute a single series of debt securities under the applicable Indenture and will be equal in ranking.

 

Should an Indenture relate to unsecured indebtedness, in the event of a bankruptcy or other liquidation event involving a distribution of assets to satisfy our outstanding indebtedness or an event of default under a loan agreement relating to secured indebtedness of our company or its subsidiaries, the holders of such secured indebtedness, if any, would be entitled to receive payment of principal and interest prior to payments on the unsecured indebtedness issued under an Indenture.

 

Each prospectus supplement will describe the terms relating to the specific series of debt securities. These terms will include some or all of the following:

 

the title of debt securities and whether the debt securities are senior or subordinated;

 

any limit on the aggregate principal amount of debt securities of such series;

 

the percentage of the principal amount at which the debt securities of any series will be issued;

 

the ability to issue additional debt securities of the same series;

 

the purchase price for the debt securities and the denominations of the debt securities;

 

the specific designation of the series of debt securities being offered;

 

the maturity date or dates of the debt securities and the date or dates upon which the debt securities are payable and the rate or rates at which the debt securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, which may be fixed or variable, or the method by which such rate shall be determined;

 

the basis for calculating interest;

 

the date or dates from which any interest will accrue or the method by which such date or dates will be determined;

 

the duration of any deferral period, including the period during which interest payment periods may be extended;

 

whether the amount of payments of principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the debt securities may be determined with reference to any index, formula or other method, such as one or more currencies, commodities, equity indices or other indices, and the manner of determining the amount of such payments;

 

the dates on which we will pay interest on the debt securities and the regular record date for determining who is entitled to the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

the place or places where the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the debt securities will be payable, where any securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer, exchange or conversion, as applicable, and notices and demands may be delivered to or upon us pursuant to the applicable Indenture;

 

the rate or rates of amortization of the debt securities;

 

any terms for the attachment to the debt securities of warrants, options or other rights to purchase or sell our securities;

 

if the debt securities will be secured by any collateral and, if so, a general description of the collateral and the terms and provisions of such collateral security, pledge or other agreements;

 

if we possess the option to do so, the periods within which and the prices at which we may redeem the debt securities, in whole or in part, pursuant to optional redemption provisions, and the other terms and conditions of any such provisions;

 

39

 

 

our obligation or discretion, if any, to redeem, repay or purchase debt securities by making periodic payments to a sinking fund or through an analogous provision or at the option of holders of the debt securities, and the period or periods within which and the price or prices at which we will redeem, repay or purchase the debt securities, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation, and the other terms and conditions of such obligation;

 

the terms and conditions, if any, regarding the option or mandatory conversion or exchange of debt securities;

 

the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which any debt securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part at our option and, if other than by a board resolution, the manner in which any election by us to redeem the debt securities shall be evidenced;

 

any restriction or condition on the transferability of the debt securities of a particular series;

 

the portion, or methods of determining the portion, of the principal amount of the debt securities which we must pay upon the acceleration of the maturity of the debt securities in connection with any event of default;

 

the currency or currencies in which the debt securities will be denominated and in which principal, any premium and any interest will or may be payable or a description of any units based on or relating to a currency or currencies in which the debt securities will be denominated;

 

provisions, if any, granting special rights to holders of the debt securities upon the occurrence of specified events;

 

any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the events of default or our covenants with respect to the applicable series of debt securities, and whether or not such events of default or covenants are consistent with those contained in the applicable Indenture;

 

any limitation on our ability to incur debt, redeem stock, sell our assets or other restrictions;

 

the application, if any, of the terms of the applicable Indenture relating to defeasance and covenant defeasance (which terms are described below) to the debt securities;

 

what subordination provisions will apply to the debt securities;

 

the terms, if any, upon which the holders may convert or exchange the debt securities into or for our securities or property;

 

whether we are issuing the debt securities in whole or in part in global form;

 

any change in the right of the trustee or the requisite holders of debt securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable because of an event of default;

 

the depositary for global or certificated debt securities, if any;

 

any material federal income tax consequences applicable to the debt securities, including any debt securities denominated and made payable, as described in the prospectus supplements, in foreign currencies, or units based on or related to foreign currencies;

 

any right we may have to satisfy, discharge and defease our obligations under the debt securities, or terminate or eliminate restrictive covenants or events of default in the Indentures, by depositing money or U.S. government obligations with the trustee of the Indentures;

 

the names of any trustees, depositories, authenticating or paying agents, transfer agents or registrars or other agents with respect to the debt securities;

 

to whom any interest on any debt security shall be payable, if other than the person in whose name the security is registered, on the record date for such interest, the extent to which, or the manner in which, any interest payable on a temporary global debt security will be paid;

 

if the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities is to be payable in one or more currencies or currency units other than as stated, the currency, currencies or currency units in which it shall be paid and the periods within and terms and conditions upon which such election is to be made and the amounts payable (or the manner in which such amount shall be determined);

 

40

 

 

the portion of the principal amount of any debt securities which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity of the debt securities pursuant to the applicable Indenture;

 

if the principal amount payable at the stated maturity of any debt security of the series will not be determinable as of any one or more dates prior to the stated maturity, the amount which shall be deemed to be the principal amount of such debt securities as of any such date for any purpose, including the principal amount thereof which shall be due and payable upon any maturity other than the stated maturity or which shall be deemed to be outstanding as of any date prior to the stated maturity (or, in any such case, the manner in which such amount deemed to be the principal amount shall be determined); and

 

any other specific terms of the debt securities, including any modifications to the events of default under the debt securities and any other terms which may be required by or advisable under applicable laws or regulations. 

 

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we do not anticipate the debt securities will be listed on any securities exchange. Holders of the debt securities may present registered debt securities for exchange or transfer in the manner described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as limited by the applicable Indenture, we will provide these services without charge, other than any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with the exchange or transfer.

 

Debt securities may bear interest at a fixed rate or a variable rate as specified in the prospectus supplement. In addition, if specified in the prospectus supplement, we may sell debt securities bearing no interest or interest a t a rate that at the time of issuance is below the prevailing market rate, or at a discount below their stated principal amount. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement any special federal income tax considerations applicable to these discounted debt securities.

 

We may issue debt securities with the principal amount payable on any principal payment date, or the amount of interest payable on any interest payment date, to be determined by referring to one or more currency exchange rates, commodity prices, equity indices or other factors. Holders of such debt securities may receive a principal amount on any principal payment date, or interest payments on any interest payment date, that are greater or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending upon the value on such dates of applicable currency, commodity, equity index or other factors. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information as to how we will determine the amount of principal or interest payable on any date, as well as the currencies, commodities, equity indices or other factors to which the amount payable on that date relates and certain additional tax considerations.

 

Units

 

We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we may issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent, if any, may be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent, if any, in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units. Specific unit agreements, if any, will contain additional important terms and provisions. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from a current report that we file with the SEC, the form of unit and the form of each unit agreement, if any, relating to units offered under this prospectus.

 

If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:

 

the title of the series of units;

 

identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

 

the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

 

the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

 

a discussion of certain United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the units; and

 

any other material terms of the units and their constituent securities.

 

Undesignated Preferred Stock

 

The ability of our Board of Directors to issue up to 50,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences as designated by our Board of Directors could impede the success of any attempt to change control of us. These and other provisions may have the effect of deferring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in control or management of our company.

   

Requirements for Advance Notification of Stockholder Nominations and Proposals

 

Our Amended and Restated Bylaws establish advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals to be brought before a stockholder meeting and the nomination of candidates for election as directors, other than nominations made by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or a committee of the Board of Directors.

 

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FORMS OF SECURITIES

 

Each security may be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Certificated securities in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities, warrants or units represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

 

Registered Global Securities

 

We may issue the securities in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more registered global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by registered global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a registered global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the registered global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

 

The specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a registered global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

 

Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a registered global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in registered global securities.

 

So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a registered global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the registered global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement.

 

Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the registered global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a registered global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that registered global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a registered global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement, the depositary for the registered global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

 

Payments to holders with respect to securities represented by a registered global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the registered global security. None of the Company, the trustees, the warrant agents, the unit agents or any other agent of the Company, agent of the trustees, the warrant agents or unit agents will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the registered global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

 

We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a registered global security, upon receipt of any payment of principal, premium, interest or other payment or distribution to holders of that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that registered global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

 

If the depositary for any of these securities represented by a registered global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the registered global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a registered global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the registered global security that had been held by the depositary.

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LEGAL MATTERS

 

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP, New York, New York.  If legal matters in connection with offerings made by this prospectus are passed on by counsel for the underwriters, dealers or agents, if any, that counsel will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

EXPERTS

 

The financial statements of AIkido Pharma Inc. as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 and for each of the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 have been audited by Marcum LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report appearing herein. Such financial statements are included in this prospectus and registration statement in reliance upon the report (which report includes an explanatory paragraph relating to our ability to continue as a going concern) of Marcum LLP, appearing elsewhere herein, and upon the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.   

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

We file annual, quarter and periodic reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission using the Commission’s EDGAR system. You may inspect these documents and copy information from them at the Commission’s offices at public reference room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the public reference room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The Commission maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the Commission. The address of such site is http//www.sec.gov.

 

INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

 

We are “incorporating by reference” in this prospectus certain documents we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents.  The information in the documents incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus. Statements contained in documents that we file with the SEC and that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus will automatically update and supersede information contained in this prospectus, including information in previously filed documents or reports that have been incorporated by reference in this prospectus, to the extent the new information differs from or is inconsistent with the old information.  We have filed or may file the following documents with the SEC and they are incorporated herein by reference as of their respective dates of filing.

 

  Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on February 24, 2020, March 9, 2020, March 10, 2020, March 25, 2020, March 26, 2020 (with respect to two reports), March 30, 2020, April 15, 2020, April 20, 2020 and May 1, 2020;
     
  Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 14, 2020;
     
  Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on January 31, 2020; and

  

  Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed with the SEC on July 24, 2019.

 

All documents that we filed with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, and 15(d) of the Exchange Act subsequent to the date of this registration statement and prior to the filing of a post-effective amendment to this registration statement that indicates that all securities offered under this prospectus have been sold, or that deregisters all securities then remaining unsold, will be deemed to be incorporated in this registration statement by reference and to be a part hereof from the date of filing of such documents.

 

Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus shall be deemed modified, superseded or replaced for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, or in any subsequently filed document that also is deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus, modifies, supersedes or replaces such statement. Any statement so modified, superseded or replaced shall not be deemed, except as so modified, superseded or replaced, to constitute a part of this prospectus. None of the information that we disclose under Items 2.02 or 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K or any corresponding information, either furnished under Item 9.01 or included as an exhibit therein, that we may from time to time furnish to the SEC will be incorporated by reference into, or otherwise included in, this prospectus, except as otherwise expressly set forth in the relevant document. Subject to the foregoing, all information appearing in this prospectus is qualified in its entirety by the information appearing in the documents incorporated by reference.

 

You may requests, orally or in writing, a copy of these documents, which will be provided to you at no cost (other than exhibits, unless such exhibits are specifically incorporate by reference), by contacting Michelle Parisi, c/o AIkido Pharma Inc., at One Rockefeller Plaza, 11th Floor, New York, New York 10020. Our telephone number is (703) 992-9325. Information about us is also available at our website at http://www.aikidopharma.com/. However, the information in our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference.

 

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PART II

 

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

 

The Company is paying all expenses of the offering. The following table sets forth all expenses to be paid by the registrant. All amounts shown are estimates except for the registration fee.

 

SEC registration fee  $12,980 
Printing   * 
Legal fees and expenses  $50,000 
Accounting fees and expenses  $3,800 
Trustees’ Fees and Expenses   * 
Warrant Agent Fees and Expenses   * 
Miscellaneous   * 
Total  $66,780 

 

*These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time. The applicable prospectus supplement will set forth the estimated amount of expenses of any offering of securities.

  

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

 

Under Section 145 of the DGCL, a corporation may indemnify its directors, officers, employees and agents and its former directors, officers, employees and agents and those who serve, at the corporation’s request, in such capacities with another enterprise, against expenses (including attorney’s fees), as well as judgments, fines and settlements, actually and reasonably incurred in connection with the defense of any action, suit or proceeding (other than an action by or in the right of the corporation) in which they or any of them were or are made parties or are threatened to be made parties by reason of their serving or having served in such capacity. The DGCL provides, however, that such person must have acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in (or not opposed to) the best interests of the corporation and, in the case of a criminal action, such person must have had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. In addition, the DGCL does not permit indemnification in an action or suit by or in the right of the corporation, where such person has been adjudged liable to the corporation for negligence or misconduct in the performance of his/her duty to the corporation, unless, and only to the extent that, a court determines that such person fairly and reasonably is entitled to indemnity for costs the court deems proper in light of liability adjudication. Indemnity is mandatory to the extent a claim, issue or matter has been successfully defended.

 

Section 102(b)(7) of the DGCL permits a corporation to include in its certificate of incorporation a provision eliminating or limiting the personal liability of a director to the corporation or its shareholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, provided that such provision shall not eliminate or limit the liability of a director (i) for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) under Section 174 of the DGCL (relating to unlawful payment of dividends and unlawful stock purchase or redemption) or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

 

Article XIII of the Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Company contains provisions which are designed to provide mandatory indemnification of directors and officers of the Company to the full extent permitted by law, as now in effect or later amended. The Amended and Restated Bylaws further provide that, if and to the extent required by the DGCL, an advance payment of expenses to a director or officer of the Company that is entitled to indemnification will only be made upon delivery to the Company of an undertaking, by or on behalf of the director or officer, to repay all amounts so advanced if it is ultimately determined that such director is not entitled to indemnification.

 

Item 16. Exhibits.

 

The following exhibits are filed with this Registration Statement.

 

The agreements included or incorporated by reference as exhibits to this registration statement contain representations and warranties by each of the parties to the applicable agreement. These representations and warranties were made solely for the benefit of the other parties to the applicable agreement and (i) were not intended to be treated as categorical statements of fact, but rather as a way of allocating the risk to one of the parties if those statements prove to be inaccurate; (ii) may have been qualified in such agreement by disclosures that were made to the other party in connection with the negotiation of the applicable agreement; (iii) may apply contract standards of “materiality” that are different from “materiality” under the applicable securities laws; and (iv) were made only as of the date of the applicable agreement or such other date or dates as may be specified in the agreement.

 

The undersigned registrant acknowledges that, notwithstanding the inclusion of the foregoing cautionary statements, it is responsible for considering whether additional specific disclosures of material information regarding material contractual provisions are required to make the statements in this registration statement not misleading.

 

II-1

 

 

Exhibit     
Number   Description of Document
     
1.1   Form of Underwriting Agreement** 
4.1   Form of Certificate of Designation of Preferred Stock**
4.2   Form of Warrant Agreement and Form of Warrant Certificate** 
4.3   Form of Subscription Rights Agreement and Form Subscription Rights Certificate**
4.4   Form of Indenture*
4.5   Form of Note**
4.6   Form of Debt Securities**
5.1   Opinion of Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP*
10.1   Master License Agreement, dated as of April 13, 2020, by and between AIkido Pharma, Inc. and the University of Maryland, Baltimore***
12.1   Computation of Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges**
23.1   Consent of Marcum LLP*
23.2   Consent of Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)*
24.1   Power of Attorney (included in Part II of this Registration Statement)*
25.1   Statement of Eligibility of trustee on Form T-1**+

 

* Filed herewith.
   
** If applicable, to be filed by an amendment or as an exhibit to a report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Exchange Act and incorporated by reference
   
***  Portions of this document have been redacted.
   
+ To be filed pursuant to Rule 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Item 17.   Undertakings.

 

(a) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

(i) to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

(ii) to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

(iii) to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

 

provided , however , that paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

  

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

II-2

 

 

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

(i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(c) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to supplement the prospectus, after the expiration of the subscription period, to set forth the results of the subscription offer, the transactions by the underwriters during the subscription period, the amount of unsubscribed securities to be purchased by the underwriters, and the terms of any subsequent reoffering thereof. If any public offering by the underwriters is to be made on terms differing from those set forth on the cover page of the prospectus, a post-effective amendment will be filed to set forth the terms of such offering.

 

(d) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

(e) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

II-3

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of New York, State of New York on this 8th day of June, 2020.

 

  AIKIDO PHARMA INC.
   
  By: /s/ Anthony Hayes
    Anthony Hayes
    Chief Executive Officer, Director,
Principal Financial Officer and
Principal Accounting Officer

 

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Anthony Hayes their true and lawful attorney-in-fact, with full power of substitution and resubstitution for them and in their name, place and stead, in any and all capacities to sign any and all amendments including post-effective amendments to this Registration Statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the SEC, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorney-in-fact or their substitute, each acting alone, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue thereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed below by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature   Title   Date
         
/s/ Anthony Hayes   Chief Executive Officer, Director, Principal Financial Officer and  

June 8, 2020

Anthony Hayes   Principal Accounting Officer    
         
/s/ Robert J. Vander Zanden   Director and Chairman of the Board  

June 8, 2020

Robert J. Vander Zanden        
         
/s/ Tim S. Ledwick   Director  

June 8, 2020

Tim S. Ledwick        
         
/s/ Paul LeMire   Director  

June 8, 2020

Paul LeMire        
         
/s/ Gregory James Blattner   Director  

June 8, 2020

Gregory James Blattner        
         
/s/ Robert Dudley   Director  

June 8, 2020

Robert Dudley        

 

 

II-4

 

 

Exhibit 4.4

 

 

 

AIKIDO PHARMA INC., as

 ISSUER

 

and 

[                                   ], as 

INDENTURE TRUSTEE

 

 

INDENTURE  

 

Dated as of [              ]

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

      Page
ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE 1
       
Section 1.01   Definitions 1
Section 1.02   Other Definitions 4
Section 1.03   Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act 4
Section 1.04   Rules of Construction 4
   
ARTICLE II THE SECURITIES 5
       
Section 2.01   Issuable in Series 5
Section 2.02   Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities 5
Section 2.03   Execution and Authentication 6
Section 2.04   Registrar and Paying Agent 7
Section 2.05   Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust 7
Section 2.06   Holder Lists 7
Section 2.07   Transfer and Exchange 7
Section 2.08   Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities 8
Section 2.09   Outstanding Securities 8
Section 2.10   Treasury Securities 8
Section 2.11   Temporary Securities 8
Section 2.12   Cancellation 9
Section 2.13   Defaulted Interest 9
Section 2.14   Global Securities 9
Section 2.15   CUSIP Numbers 10
   
ARTICLE III REDEMPTION 10
       
Section 3.01   Notice to Trustee 10
Section 3.02   Selection of Securities to be Redeemed 10
Section 3.03   Notice of Redemption 10

 

i

 

  

Section 3.04   Effect of Notice of Redemption 11
Section 3.05   Deposit of Redemption Price 11
Section 3.06   Securities Redeemed in Part 11
   
ARTICLE IV COVENANTS 11
       
Section 4.01   Payment of Principal and Interest 11
Section 4.02   SEC Reports 11
Section 4.03   Compliance Certificate 11
Section 4.04   Stay, Extension and Usury Laws 12
   
ARTICLE V SUCCESSORS 12
       
Section 5.01   When Company May Merge, etc. 12
Section 5.02   Successor Corporation Substituted 12

 

ARTICLE VI DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES 12
       
Section 6.01   Events of Default 12
Section 6.02   Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment 13
Section 6.03   Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 14
Section 6.04   Trustee May File Proofs of Claim 14
Section 6.05   Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities 14
Section 6.06   Application of Money Collected 15
Section 6.07   Limitation on Suits 15
Section 6.08   Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest 15
Section 6.09   Restoration of Rights and Remedies 15
Section 6.10   Rights and Remedies Cumulative 16
Section 6.11   Delay or Omission Not Waiver 16
Section 6.12   Control by Holders 16
Section 6.13   Waiver of Past Defaults 16
Section 6.14   Undertaking for Costs 16

 

ii

 

  

ARTICLE VII TRUSTEE 17
       
Section 7.01   Duties of Trustee 17
Section 7.02   Rights of Trustee 17
Section 7.03   Individual Rights of Trustee 18
Section 7.04   Trustee’s Disclaimer 19
Section 7.05   Notice of Defaults 19
Section 7.06   Reports by Trustee to Holders 19
Section 7.07   Compensation and Indemnity 19
Section 7.08   Replacement of Trustee 19
Section 7.09   Successor Trustee by Merger, etc. 20
Section 7.10   Eligibility; Disqualification 20
Section 7.11   Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company 20
   
ARTICLE VIII SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE 20
       
Section 8.01   Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 20
Section 8.02   Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification 21
Section 8.03   Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series 21
Section 8.04   Covenant Defeasance 22
Section 8.05   Repayment to Company 23
Section 8.06   Reinstatement 23

 

ARTICLE IX AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS 23
       
Section 9.01   Without Consent of Holders 23
Section 9.02   With Consent of Holders 24
Section 9.03   Limitations 24
Section 9.04   Compliance with Trust Indenture Act 25
Section 9.05   Revocation and Effect of Consents 25
Section 9.06   Notation on or Exchange of Securities 25
Section 9.07   Trustee Protected 25

 

iii

 

  

ARTICLE X MISCELLANEOUS 25
       
Section 10.01   Trust Indenture Act Controls 25
Section 10.02   Notices 26
Section 10.03   Communication by Holders with Other Holders 26
Section 10.04   Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent 26
Section 10.05   Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion 26
Section 10.06   Rules by Trustee and Agents 27
Section 10.07   Legal Holidays 27
Section 10.08   No Recourse Against Others 27
Section 10.09   Counterparts 27
Section 10.10   Governing Laws 27
Section 10.11   No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements 27
Section 10.12   Successors 27
Section 10.13   Severability 27
Section 10.14   Table of Contents, Headings, etc. 27
Section 10.15   Securities in a Foreign Currency 27
Section 10.16   U.S.A. Patriot Act 28
Section 10.17   Waiver of Jury Trial 28
   
ARTICLE XI SINKING FUNDS 28
       
Section 11.01   Applicability of Article 28
Section 11.02   Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 28
Section 11.03   Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 29

  

iv

 

  

AIKIDO PHARMA INC. 

Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and  

Indenture, dated as of [         ].

 

Section 310 (a)(1)   7.10
(a)(2)   7.10
(a)(3)   NOT APPLICABLE
(a)(4)   NOT APPLICABLE
(a)(5)   7.10
(b)   7.10
Section 311 (a)   7.11
(b)   7.11
(c)   NOT APPLICABLE
Section 312 (a)   2.06
(b)   10.03
(c)   10.03
Section 313 (a)   7.06
(b)(1)   7.06
(b)(2)   7.06
(c)(1)   7.06
(d)   7.06
Section 314 (a)   4.02, 10.05
(b)   NOT APPLICABLE
(c)(1)   10.04
(c)(2)   10.04
(c)(3)   NOT APPLICABLE
(d)   NOT APPLICABLE
(e)   10.05
(f)   NOT APPLICABLE
Section 315 (a)   7.01
(b)   7.05
(c)   7.01
(d)   7.01
(e)   6.14
Section 316 (a)   2.10
(a)(1)(a)   6.12
(a)(1)(b)   6.13
(b)   6.08
Section 317 (a)(1)   6.03
(a)(2)   6.04
(b)   2.05
Section 318 (a)   10.01

 

v

 

  

INDENTURE, dated as of [        ], between AIkido Pharma Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Company”), and [                                             ], as trustee (“Trustee”).

 

Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.

 

ARTICLE I  

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

 

Section 1.01 Definitions.

 

Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts which are required hereby or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Company in respect of certain taxes imposed on Holders specified herein or therein and which are owing to such Holders, as calculated by the Company.

 

Affiliate” of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.

 

Agent” means any Registrar or Paying Agent.

 

Applicable Procedures” means, with respect to any transfer or transaction involving a Global Security or beneficial interest therein, the rules and procedures of DTC or any successor Depositary, in each case to the extent applicable to such transaction and as in effect from time to time.

 

Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof.

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certificate and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Business Day means any day other than Saturday, Sunday or other day on which commercial banks in The City of New York are authorized or required by law to remain closed; provided, however, for clarification, commercial banks shall not be deemed to be authorized or required by law to remain closed due to “stay at home”, “shelter-in-place”, “non-essential employee”  or any other similar orders or restrictions or the closure of any physical branch locations at the direction of any governmental authority so long as the electronic funds transfer systems (including for wire transfers) of commercial banks in The City of New York generally are open for use by customers on such day.

 

Capital Interests” means any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of capital stock, including, without limitation, with respect to partnerships, partnership interests (whether general or limited) and any other interest or participation that confers on a person the right to receive a share of the profits and losses of, or distributions of assets of, such partnership.

 

Company” means the party named as such above until a successor replaces it and thereafter means the successor.

 

Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by two Officers, one of whom must be the Company’s principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer.

 

Company Request” means a written request signed in the name of the Company by its Chief Executive Officer or Chief Financial Officer and delivered to the Trustee.

 

1

 

  

Corporate Trust Office” means the address of the Trustee specified in Section 10.02, or such other address as to which the Trustee may give notice to the Holders and the Company.

 

Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depositary for such Series by the Company, which Depositary shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of such Series.

 

Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.

 

Dollars” and “$” means the currency of The United States of America.

 

DTC” means the Depository Trust Company, a New York corporation.

 

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of The United States of America.

 

Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, (i) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by or acting as an agency or instrumentality of such government the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government, which, in either case under clauses (i) or (ii), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

 

GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as have been approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession.

 

Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.02 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or nominee.

 

Holder” means a person in whose name a Security is registered.

 

Indenture” means this Indenture as amended or supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

 

interest” with respect to any Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity means interest payable after Maturity.

 

Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security or installment of principal thereof, means the date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

 

Officer” means the Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, any Vice-President, the Treasurer, the Secretary, any Assistant Treasurer or any Assistant Secretary of the Company.

 

Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by two Officers, one of whom must be the Company’s principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer.

 

2

 

  

Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of legal counsel who is reasonably acceptable to the Trustee. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company.

 

person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, limited liability company, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

 

principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on, and any Additional Amounts in respect of, the Security.

 

Responsible Officer” means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office with direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject.

 

SEC” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Securities” means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.02 hereof.

 

Stated Maturity” means when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is due and payable.

 

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any person, any corporation, association or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of Capital Interests entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof or, in the case of a partnership, more than 50% of the partners’ Capital Interests (considering all partners’ Capital Interests as a single class), is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of such person or combination thereof.

 

TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code Sections 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.

 

Trustee” means the person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

 

U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are (i) direct obligations of The United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of The United States of America the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by The United States of America, and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

 

3

 

  

Section 1.02 Other Definitions.

 

TERM   Defined in Section  
Bankruptcy Law     6.01  
Custodian     6.01  
Event of Default     6.01  
Legal Holiday     10.07  
mandatory sinking fund payment     11.01  
Market Exchange Rate     10.15  
optional sinking fund payment     11.01  
Paying Agent     2.04  
Registrar     2.04  
Successor Person     5.01  

 

Section 1.03 Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.

 

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

 

Commission” means the SEC.

 

indenture securities” means the Securities.

 

indenture security holder” means a Holder.

 

indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

 

indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

 

obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

 

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.

 

Section 1.04 Rules of Construction.

 

Unless the context otherwise requires:

 

(a) a term has the meaning assigned to it;

 

(b) an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

 

(c) references to “generally accepted accounting principles” and “GAAP” shall mean generally accepted accounting principles in effect as of the time when and for the period as to which such accounting principles are to be applied;

 

(d) “or” is not exclusive;

 

(e) words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular; and

 

(f) provisions apply to successive events and transactions.

 

4

 

  

ARTICLE II  

THE SECURITIES

 

Section 2.01 Issuable in Series. The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

 

Section 2.02 Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities. At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.02(a) and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.02(b) through 2.02(s)) by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate:

 

(a) the form and title of the Series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series);

 

(b) the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

 

(c) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Sections 2.07, 2.08, 2.11, 3.06 or 9.06);

 

(d) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

 

(e) the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

(f) the place or places where the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series shall be payable, where the Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be served, and the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

 

(g) if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

(h) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

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(i) the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

 

(j) if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

 

(k) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02;

 

(l) the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, and the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

(m) the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the Series;

 

(n) any addition to or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.02;

 

(o) any addition to or change in the covenants set forth in Articles IV or V which applies to Securities of the Series;

 

(p) the provisions, if any, relating to conversion of any Securities of such Series, including, if applicable, the securities into which the Securities are convertible, the conversion price, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be mandatory, at the option of the Holders or at the option of the Company, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion if such Series of Securities are redeemed;

 

(q) whether the Securities of such Series will be senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities and, if applicable, a description of the subordination terms thereof;

 

(r) any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein; and

 

(s) any other terms of the Securities of the Series (which may modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series).

 

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate referred to above, and, unless otherwise provided in such Board Resolution, a Series may be reopened, without the consent of the Holders, for increases in the aggregate principal amount of such Series and issuances of additional Securities of such Series.

 

Section 2.03 Execution and Authentication. At least one Officer shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature. If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid. A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture. The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Such Company Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to electronic instructions in PDF from the Company or its duly authorized agent or agents. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication unless otherwise provided by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate. The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02, except as provided in Section 2.02 or 2.08. Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.02) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officers’ Certificate complying with Section 10.04 and (c)(1) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.04 or (2) an Opinion of Counsel (or reliance letter with respect to an Opinion of Counsel) that the Securities have been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and such Securities will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms. The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

 

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Section 2.04 Registrar and Paying Agent. The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series pursuant to Section 2.02, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“Paying Agent”), and where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“Registrar”). The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and of their transfer and exchange. The Company hereby appoints the Trustee as Paying Agent and Registrar. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar or Paying Agent. The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars or additional paying agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar and a Paying Agent in each place so specified pursuant to Section 2.02 for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar or additional paying agent. The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar; and the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent. The Company hereby appoints the Trustee as the initial Registrar and Paying Agent for each Series unless another Registrar or Paying Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.

 

Section 2.05 Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust. The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Holders of any Series of Securities, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Series of Securities, and will notify the Trustee of any default by the Company in making any such payment. While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company) shall have no further liability for the money. If the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Holders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent. Upon an Event of Default under Section 6.01(d) or (e), the Trustee shall be the Paying Agent.

 

Section 2.06 Holder Lists. The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Holders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA Section 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least ten (10) days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Holders of each Series of Securities.

 

Section 2.07 Transfer and Exchange. Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request. No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange (except as otherwise expressly permitted herein), but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable in connection therewith (other than any such transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable upon exchanges pursuant to Sections 2.11, 3.06 or 9.06). Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business fifteen days immediately preceding the delivery of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such delivery, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.

 

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Section 2.08 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

 

(a) If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding. If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (ii) such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them and any agent of either of them harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a protected purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon its request the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding. In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.

 

(b) Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith. Every new Security of any Series issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder. The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

 

Section 2.09 Outstanding Securities. The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, those reductions in the interest on a Global Security effected by the Trustee in accordance with the provisions hereof and those described in this Section as not outstanding. If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.08, it ceases to be outstanding until the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a protected purchaser. If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary of the Company or an Affiliate of the Company) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue. A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate of the Company holds the Security. In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.

 

Section 2.10 Treasury Securities. In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, Securities of a Series owned by the Company shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, only Securities of a Series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.

 

Section 2.11 Temporary Securities. Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary Securities upon a Company Order. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee upon request shall authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities. Until so exchanged, temporary securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.

 

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Section 2.12 Cancellation. The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for registration of transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee shall cancel all Securities surrendered for registration of transfer, exchange, payment, replacement or cancellation in accordance with its customary procedures. The Company may not issue new Securities to replace Securities that it has paid or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

Section 2.13 Defaulted Interest. If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on a Series of Securities, it shall pay the defaulted interest at the rate established for the particular Series, if any, plus, to the extent permitted by law, any interest payable on the defaulted interest, to the persons who are Holders of the Series on a subsequent special record date. The Company shall fix the special record date and payment date; provided that if no rate for defaulted interest is specified for any Series of Securities, then the defaulted interest rate shall be the interest rate specified for such Series of Securities. At least ten (10) days before the special record date, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee and to each Holder of the Series a notice that states the record date, the related payment date and the amount of interest to be paid. The Company may also pay defaulted interest in any other lawful manner.

 

Section 2.14 Global Securities.

 

(a) Terms of Securities. A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities.

 

(b) Transfer and Exchange. Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.07 of the Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.07 of the Indenture for Securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depositary for such Security or its nominee only if (i) such Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act within 90 days of such event, (ii) the Company executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable or (iii) an Event of Default with respect to the Securities represented by such Global Security shall have happened and be continuing. Any Global Security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be exchangeable for Securities registered in such names as the Depositary shall direct in writing in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms.

 

(c) Except as provided in this Section 2.14(c), a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depositary, by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.

 

(d) Legend. Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

 

“This Security is a Global Security within the meaning of the Indenture hereinafter referred to and is registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary. This Security is exchangeable for Securities registered in the name of a person other than the Depositary or its nominee only in the limited circumstances described in the Indenture, and may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary to a nominee of the Depositary, by a nominee of the Depositary to the Depositary or another nominee of the Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.”

 

(e) Acts of Holders. The Depositary, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.

 

(f) Payments. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.02, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Holder thereof.

 

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(g) Consents, Declaration and Directions. Except as provided in Section 2.14(g), the Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of such Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depositary with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture.

 

(h) The Depositary or its nominee, as registered owner of a Global Security, shall be the Holder of such Global Security for all purposes under the Indenture and the Securities, and owners of beneficial interests in a Global Security shall hold such interests pursuant to the Applicable Procedures. Accordingly, any such owner’s beneficial interest in a Global Security will be shown only on, and the transfer of such interest shall be effected only through, records maintained by the Depositary or its nominee and such owners of beneficial interests in a Global Security will not be considered the owners or holders thereof. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or any Security, where this Indenture or any Global Security provides for notice of any event (including any notice of redemption or repurchase) to a Holder of a Global Security (whether by mail or otherwise), such notice shall be sufficiently given if given to the Depositary (or its designee) pursuant to the standing instructions from the Depositary or its designee, including by electronic mail in accordance with applicable Depositary procedures.

 

Section 2.15 CUSIP Numbers. The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee of any change in “CUSIP” numbers of which the Company becomes aware.

  

ARTICLE III

REDEMPTION

 

Section 3.01 Notice to Trustee. The Company may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company wants or is obligated to redeem prior to the Stated Maturity thereof all or part of the Series of Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, it shall notify the Trustee of the redemption date and the principal amount of the Series of Securities to be redeemed.

 

Section 3.02 Selection of Securities to be Redeemed. Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, if less than all the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select the Securities of the Series to be redeemed in any manner that the Trustee deems fair and appropriate. The Trustee shall make the selection from Securities of the Series outstanding not previously called for redemption. Securities of a Series and portions selected for redemption shall be in amounts of $1,000 or whole multiples of $1,000 or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.02(j), the minimum principal denomination for each Series and integral multiples thereof. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities of a Series called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities of that Series called for redemption. The Trustee shall not be liable for the selection made in accordance with this Section 3.02.

 

Section 3.03 Notice of Redemption.

 

(a) Unless otherwise specified for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, at least 30 days but not more than 60 days before a redemption date, the Company shall deliver notice of redemption to each Holder whose Securities are to be redeemed. The notice shall identify the Securities of the Series to be redeemed and shall state:

 

(i) the redemption date;

 

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(ii) the redemption price or the manner of the calculation of the redemption price;

 

(iii) the name and address of the Paying Agent;

 

(iv) that Securities of the Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price;

 

(v) that interest on Securities of the Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on and after the redemption date;

 

(vi) the CUSIP number, if any; and

 

(vii) any other information as may be required by the terms of the particular Series or the Securities of a Series being redeemed.

 

At the Company’s request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at its expense; provided that the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee, at least five Business Days (or such shorter period as the Trustee may consent to in writing) before notice of redemption is required to be delivered or caused to be delivered to Holders pursuant to this Section 3.03, an Officers’ Certificate of the Company requesting that the Trustee give such notice and setting forth the information to be stated in such notice as provided in the preceding paragraph.

 

Section 3.04 Effect of Notice of Redemption. Once notice of redemption is delivered as provided in Section 3.03, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the redemption date and at the redemption price. A notice of redemption may not be conditional. Upon surrender to the Paying Agent, such Securities shall be paid at the redemption price plus accrued interest to the redemption date; provided that installments of interest whose Stated Maturity is on or prior to the redemption date shall be payable to the Holders of such Securities (or one or more predecessor Securities) registered at the close of business on the relevant record date therefor according to their terms and the terms of this Indenture.

 

Section 3.05 Deposit of Redemption Price. Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, on or before 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the redemption date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date.

 

Section 3.06 Securities Redeemed in Part. Upon surrender of a Security that is redeemed in part, the Company shall issue and the Trustee shall authenticate for the Holder a new Security of the same Series and the same maturity equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.

 

ARTICLE IV

COVENANTS

 

Section 4.01 Payment of Principal and Interest. The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of the Holders of each Series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of that Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture.

 

Section 4.02 SEC Reports. Any information, documents or other reports that the Company shall file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act shall be filed with the Trustee within 15 days after the same is filed with the Commission; provided that any such information, documents or reports filed or furnished with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval (or EDGAR) system shall be deemed filed with the Trustee as of the time such information, documents or reports are filed or furnished via EDGAR.

 

Section 4.03 Compliance Certificate. The Company shall, so long as any of the Securities are outstanding, deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an Officers’ Certificate stating whether or not to the knowledge of the signers thereof the Company is in default in the performance and observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided hereunder), and if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, specifying all such Defaults or Events of Default and the nature and status thereof of which they may have knowledge.

 

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Section 4.04 Stay, Extension and Usury Laws. The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, plead or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension or usury law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture or the Securities or any other law that would prohibit or forgive the Company from paying all or any portion of the principal of, or interest on, the Securities as contemplated in the Indenture, any indenture supplemental thereto relating to the Securities or the Securities and the Company (to the extent it may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenants that it will not, by resort to any such law, hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law has been enacted.

 

ARTICLE V

SUCCESSORS

 

Section 5.01 When Company May Merge, Etc. The Company shall not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of its properties and assets to, another person (a “Successor Person”) unless:

 

(a) the Company is the surviving corporation or the Successor Person (if other than the Company) is organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes the Company’s obligations on the Securities and under this Indenture; and

 

(b) immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing.

 

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction an Officers’ Certificate to the foregoing effect and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the proposed transaction and any supplemental indenture comply with this Indenture.

 

Section 5.02 Successor Corporation Substituted. Upon any consolidation or merger, or any sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.01, the successor corporation formed by such consolidation or into or with which the Company is merged or to which such sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such Successor Person has been named as the Company herein; provided, however, that the predecessor Company in the case of a sale, conveyance or other disposition (other than a lease) shall be released from all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

ARTICLE VI

DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

 

Section 6.01 Events of Default.

 

Event of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default or the terms of such Event of Default have been modified or superceded as set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate for such Securities of any Series:

 

(a) default in the payment of any interest on any Security of that Series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by the Company with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent prior to the expiration of such period of 30 days); or

 

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(b) default in the payment of principal of any Security of that Series at its Maturity; or

 

(c) default in the performance or breach of any covenant or warranty of the Company in this Indenture (other than a covenant or warranty for which the consequences of nonperformance or breach are addressed elsewhere in this Section 6.01 and other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of a Series of Securities other than that Series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or

 

(d) the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:

 

(i) commences a voluntary case or proceeding;

 

(ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case,

 

(iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property,

 

(iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or

 

(v) makes an admission in writing that it is generally unable to pay its debts as the same become due; or

 

(e) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that: 

 

(i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case,

 

(ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company or for all or substantially all of its property, or

 

(iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 days; or

 

(f) any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.02(n).

 

The term “Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11 of the U.S. Code or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors. The term “Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

Section 6.02 Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment. If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing (other than an Event of Default referred to in Section 6.01(d) or (e)), then in every such case the Trustee or the Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series may declare the principal amount (or, if any Securities of that Series are Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such Securities) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all of the Securities of that Series to be due and payable immediately, by a notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by Holders), and upon any such declaration such principal amount (or specified amount) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(d) or (e) shall occur, the principal amount (or specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding Securities shall be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any Holder. At any time after such a declaration of acceleration with respect to any Series has been made and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the Trustee as hereinafter in this Article; provided that the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if all Events of Default with respect to Securities of that Series, other than the non-payment of the principal and interest, if any, of Securities of that Series which have become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived as provided in Section 6.13. No such rescission shall affect any subsequent Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

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Section 6.03 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

 

The Company covenants that if:

 

(a) default is made in the payment of any interest on any Security when such interest becomes due and payable and such default continues for a period of 30 days, or

 

(b) default is made in the payment of principal of any Security at the Maturity thereof, then the Company will, upon demand of the Trustee, pay to it, for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities, the whole amount then due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest and, to the extent that payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable, interest on any overdue principal and any overdue interest at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel.

 

If the Company fails to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, may institute a judicial proceeding for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, may prosecute such proceeding to judgment or final decree and may enforce the same against the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities and collect the moneys adjudged or deemed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated.

 

If an Event of Default with respect to any Securities of any Series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such Series by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein, or to enforce any other proper remedy.

 

Section 6.04 Trustee May File Proofs of Claim. In case of the pendency of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, arrangement, adjustment, composition or other judicial proceeding relative to the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or the property of the Company or of such other obligor or their creditors, the Trustee (irrespective of whether the principal of the Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand on the Company for the payment of overdue principal or interest) shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceeding or otherwise, (a) to file and prove a claim for the whole amount of principal and interest owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and of the Holders allowed in such judicial proceeding, and (b) to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same, and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07. Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding.

 

Section 6.05 Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities. All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or the Securities may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for the payment of the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.

 

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Section 6.06 Application of Money Collected.

 

Any money collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the Securities and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

First: To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07; and

 

Second: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid for principal of and interest on the Securities in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest, respectively; and

 

Third: To the Company.

 

Section 6.07 Limitation on Suits. No Holder of any Security of any Series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless:

 

(a) such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;

 

(b) the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;

 

(c) such Holder or Holders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request;

 

(d) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

 

(e) no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series;

 

it being understood and intended that no one or more of such Holders shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of, or by availing of, any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other of such Holders, or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other of such Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and ratable benefit of all such Holders.

 

Section 6.08 Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest. Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security shall have the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such Security on the Stated Maturity or Stated Maturities expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date) and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment, and such rights shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.

 

Section 6.09 Restoration of Rights and Remedies. If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Company, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.

 

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Section 6.10 Rights and Remedies Cumulative. Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities in Section 2.08, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not, to the extent permitted by law, prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

 

Section 6.11 Delay or Omission Not Waiver. No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Securities to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders, as the case may be.

 

Section 6.12 Control by Holders. Subject to Section 7.02(f), the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that:

 

(a) such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture,

 

(b) the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction, and 

 

(c) subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability.

 

Section 6.13 Waiver of Past Defaults. The Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such Series waive any past Default hereunder with respect to such Series and its consequences, except a Default (i) in the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such Series (provided, however, that the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration) or (ii) in respect of a covenant or provision hereof which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the Holder of each outstanding Security of such Series affected. Upon any such waiver, such Default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

Section 6.14 Undertaking for Costs. All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Company, to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Holder, or group of Holders, holding in the aggregate more than 10% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series, or to any suit instituted by any Holder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security on or after the Stated Maturity or Stated Maturities expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date).

 

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ARTICLE VII  

TRUSTEE

 

Section 7.01 Duties of Trustee.

 

(a) If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

 

(b) Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:

 

(i) The Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture and no others and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee.

 

(ii) In the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely and is fully protected, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon Officers’ Certificates or Opinions of Counsel furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; however, in the case of any such Officers’ Certificates or Opinions of Counsel which by any provisions hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall examine such Officers’ Certificates and Opinions of Counsel to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture (but need not confirm or investigate the accuracy of mathematical calculations or other facts stated therein) .

 

(c) The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

(i) This paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of this Section.

 

(ii) The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts.

 

(iii) The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it with respect to Securities of any Series in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series.

 

(d) Every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee is subject to paragraph (a), (b) and (c) of this Section.

 

(e) The Trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any right or power at the request or direction of any Holder unless it receives indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense.

 

(f) The Trustee shall not be liable for interest on any money received by it except as the Trustee may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

 

(g) No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if it shall have reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it.

 

(h) The rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including the right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder and to its agents. The provisions set forth in paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of this Section shall apply to the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder and its agents.

 

Section 7.02 Rights of Trustee.

 

(a) The Trustee may conclusively rely on and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document.

 

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(b) Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting at the direction of the Company, it may require an Officers’ Certificate. The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such Officers’ Certificate.

 

(c) The Trustee may act through agents and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent appointed with due care. No Depositary shall be deemed an agent of the Trustee, and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any act or omission by any Depositary.

 

(d) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers, provided that the Trustee’s conduct does not constitute negligence or willful misconduct.

 

(e) The Trustee may consult with counsel, and the advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder without negligence and in good faith and in reliance thereon.

 

(f) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Holders of Securities unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

 

(g) The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document believed by the Trustee to be genuine and to have been signed or delivered by the proper person.

  

(h) The Trustee shall not be deemed to have notice of any Default or Event of Default, other than a failure by the Company to make any payment hereunder when due if the Trustee is the Paying Agent, unless a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has actual knowledge thereof or unless written notice of any event which is in fact such a default is received by the Trustee at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and such notice references the Securities generally or the Securities of a particular Series and this Indenture and states that it is a “notice of default.”

 

(i) The permissive rights of the Trustee enumerated herein shall not be construed as duties.

 

(j) In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any special, indirect, punitive, incidental or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, lost profits) irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action.

 

(k) Neither the Trustee nor any Agent shall be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligation under this Indenture arising out of or caused, directly or indirectly, by circumstances beyond its reasonable control, including, without limitation, acts of God; earthquakes; fire; flood; wars; acts of terrorism; civil or military disturbances; sabotage; epidemic; riots; interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, computer (hardware or software) or communications services; accidents; labor disputes; acts of civil or military authority or governmental action; it being understood that each of the Trustee and Agents shall use commercially reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as reasonably practicable under the circumstances.

 

(l) The Trustee shall not be required to give any bond or surety in respect of the performance of its powers and duties hereunder.

 

Section 7.03 Individual Rights of Trustee. The Trustee in its individual or any other capacity may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and may otherwise deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. The Trustee is also subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11.

 

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Section 7.04 Trustee’s Disclaimer. The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities, it shall not be accountable for the Company’s use of the proceeds from the Securities, and it shall not be responsible for any statement in the Securities other than its authentication.

 

Section 7.05 Notice of Defaults. If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series and if it is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall deliver to each Holder of the Securities of that Series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. Except in the case of a Default or Event of Default in payment of principal of or interest on any Security of any Series, the Trustee may withhold the notice if and so long as it in good faith determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of Holders of that Series.

 

Section 7.06 Reports by Trustee to Holders. Within 60 days after March 15 in each year, the Trustee shall transmit by deliver to all Holders, as their names and addresses appear on the register kept by the Registrar a brief report dated as of such March 15, in accordance with, and to the extent required under, TIA Section 313. A copy of each report at the time of its delivery to Holders of any Series shall be filed with the SEC and each stock exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee when Securities of any Series are listed on any stock exchange.

 

Section 7.07 Compensation and Indemnity. The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time compensation for its services as the Company and the Trustee shall from time to time agree upon in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel. The Company shall indemnify each of the Trustee and any predecessor Trustee (including the cost of defending itself) against any loss, liability or expense, including taxes (other than taxes based upon, measured by or determined by the income of the Trustee) incurred by it except as set forth in this Section 7.07 in the performance of its duties under this Indenture as Trustee or Agent. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnity. Failure or delay by the Trustee to so notify the Company of any claim for which it may seek indemnity shall not relieve the Company of its obligations hereunder except to the extent such failure or delay shall have materially prejudiced the Company. The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have one separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee. The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through the gross negligence or willful misconduct of any such persons as determined by a final order of a court of competent jurisdiction. When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(d) or (e) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any insolvency, bankruptcy or similar law. The provisions of this Section shall survive the resignation or removal of the Trustee and the termination or discharge of this Indenture.

 

Section 7.08 Replacement of Trustee. A resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor Trustee shall become effective only upon the successor Trustee’s acceptance of appointment as provided in this Section. The Trustee may resign with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Company at least 30 days prior to the date of the proposed resignation. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company. The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of one or more Series if:

 

(a) the Trustee fails to comply with Section 7.10;

 

(b) the Trustee is adjudged bankrupt or insolvent or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee under any insolvency, bankruptcy or similar law;

 

(c) a custodian or public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or

 

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(d) the Trustee becomes incapable of acting.

 

If the Trustee resigns or is removed or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee.

 

If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any one or more Series does not take office within 60 days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the Securities of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.

 

A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company. Immediately after that, the retiring Trustee shall transfer all property held by it as Trustee to the successor Trustee subject to the lien provided for in Section 7.07, the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective, and the successor Trustee shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee with respect to each Series of Securities for which it is acting as Trustee under this Indenture. A successor Trustee shall deliver a notice of its succession to each Holder of each such Series. Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee pursuant to this Section 7.08, the Company’s obligations under Section 7.07 hereof shall continue for the benefit of the retiring Trustee with respect to expenses and liabilities incurred by it prior to the date of such replacement.

 

Section 7.09 Successor Trustee by Merger, etc. If the Trustee consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust business (including administration of this Indenture) to, another corporation, the successor corporation without any further act shall be the successor Trustee.

 

Section 7.10 Eligibility; Disqualification. This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA Section 310(a)(1), (2) and (5) and has a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000. The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 310(b).

 

Section 7.11 Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company. The Trustee is subject to TIA Section 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA Section 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TIA Section 311(a) to the extent indicated.

 

ARTICLE VIII

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

 

Section 8.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

 

This Indenture shall upon Company Order cease to be of further effect (except as hereinafter provided in this Section 8.01), and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, when

 

(a) any of the following shall have occurred:

 

(i) no Securities have been issued hereunder;

 

(ii) all Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than Securities that have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that have been replaced or paid) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or

 

(iii) all such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation (1) have become due and payable, or (2) will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within one year, or (3) are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Company; and the Company has irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust an amount sufficient for the purpose of paying and discharging the entire indebtedness on such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, for principal and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of Securities which have become due and payable on or prior to the date of such deposit) or to the Stated Maturity or redemption date, as the case may be;

 

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(b) the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company; and

 

(c) the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture have been complied with.

 

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company to the Trustee under Section 7.07 and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to clause (a) of this Section, the provisions of Sections 2.04, 2.05, 2.07, 2.08, 8.01, 8.02 and 8.05 shall survive.

 

Section 8.02 Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification.

 

(a) Subject to the provisions of Section 8.05, all money deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.01, all money and U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.03 or 8.04 and all money received by the Trustee in respect of U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.03 or 8.04, shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (other than the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the persons entitled thereto, of the principal and interest for whose payment such money has been deposited with or received by the Trustee or analogous payments as contemplated by Sections 8.03 or 8.04.

 

(b) The Company shall pay and shall indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Sections 8.03 or 8.04 or the interest and principal received in respect of such obligations other than any payable by or on behalf of Holders.

 

(c) The Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Request any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money held by it as provided in Sections 8.03 or 8.04 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are then in excess of the amount thereof which then would have been required to be deposited for the purpose for which such U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money were deposited or received. This provision shall not authorize the sale by the Trustee of any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held under this Indenture.

 

Section 8.03 Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series. Unless this Section 8.03 is otherwise specified, pursuant to Section 2.02(s), to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness on all the outstanding Securities of any Series on the 91st day after the date of the deposit referred to in subparagraph (d) hereof, and the provisions of this Indenture, as it relates to such outstanding Securities of such Series, shall no longer be in effect (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall, at Company Request, execute such instruments reasonably requested by the Company acknowledging the same), except as to:

 

(a) the rights of Holders of Securities of such Series to receive, from the trust funds described in subparagraph (d) hereof, (i) payment of the principal of and each installment of principal of and interest on the outstanding Securities of such Series on the Stated Maturity of such principal or installment of principal or interest, and (ii) the benefit of any mandatory sinking fund payments applicable to the Securities of such Series on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and the Securities of such Series; and

 

(b) the provisions of Sections 2.04, 2.05, 2.07, 2.08, 8.02, 8.03 and 8.05; and

 

(c) the rights, powers, trust and immunities of the Trustee hereunder; provided that, the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

 

(d) with reference to this Section 8.03, the Company shall have deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.02(c)) with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for and dedicated solely to the benefit of the Holders of such Securities (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Trustee), not later than one day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of all the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal and such sinking fund payments are due;

 

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(e) such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

 

(f) no Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the 91st day after such date;

 

(g) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that (i) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or (ii) since the date of execution of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable Federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such Opinion of Counsel shall confirm that, the Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred;

 

(h) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of preferring the Holders of the Securities of such Series over any other creditors of the Company or with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company;

 

(i) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for relating to the defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with; and

 

(j) such defeasance shall not result in the trust arising from such deposit constituting an investment company within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, unless such trust shall be registered under such Act or exempt from registration thereunder.

 

Section 8.04 Covenant Defeasance. Unless this Section 8.04 is otherwise specified, pursuant to Section 2.02(s), to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, on and after the 91st day after the date of the deposit referred to in subparagraph (a) hereof, the Company may omit to comply with respect to the Securities of any Series with any term, provision or condition set forth under Sections 4.02, 4.03, and 5.01 as well as any additional covenants specified in a supplemental indenture for such Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02 (and the failure to comply with any such covenants shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default with respect to such Series under Section 6.01) and the occurrence of any event specified in a supplemental indenture for such Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02 and designated as an Event of Default shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default hereunder, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

 

(a) with reference to this Section 8.04, the Company has deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.02(c)) with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of such Securities (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Trustee), not later than one day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal and such sinking fund payments are due;

 

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(b) such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

 

(c) no Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the 91st day after such date;

 

(d) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit and covenant defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and covenant defeasance had not occurred;

 

(e) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the covenant defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with; and

 

(f) Such defeasance shall not result in the trust arising from such deposit constituting an investment company within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, unless such trust shall be registered under such Act or exempt from registration thereunder.

 

Section 8.05 Repayment to Company. The Trustee and the Paying Agent shall pay to the Company upon written request any money held by them for the payment of principal and interest that remains unclaimed for two years, and after such time, Holders entitled to the money must look to the Company for payment as general creditors unless an applicable abandoned property law designates another person.

 

Section 8.06 Reinstatement. If the Trustee or the Paying Agent is unable to apply any money deposited with respect to Securities of any series in accordance with Section 8.01 by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the obligations of the Company under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series and under the Securities of such series shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to Section 8.01 until such time as the Trustee or the Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such money in accordance with Section 8.01; provided, however, that if the Company has made any payment of principal of, premium (if any) or interest on any Additional Amounts with respect to any Securities because of the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money held by the Trustee or the Paying Agent.

 

ARTICLE IX

AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS

 

Section 9.01 Without Consent of Holders. Unless otherwise specified for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, the Company and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series without the consent of any Holder:

 

(a) to evidence the succession of another person to the Company under this Indenture and the Securities and the assumption by any such Successor Person of the obligations of the Company hereunder and under the Securities;

 

(b) to add covenants of the Company for the benefit of the Holders of all or any series of Securities (and if such covenants are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such covenants are expressly being included for the benefit of such series) or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company provided such action does not adversely affect the interests of the Holders;

 

(c) to add any additional Events of Default;

 

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(d) to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture to such extent as shall be necessary to permit or facilitate the issuance of Securities in bearer form, registrable or not registrable as to principal, and with or without interest coupons, or to permit or facilitate the issuance of Securities in uncertificated form;

 

(e) to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of this Indenture in respect of one or more series of Securities, provided that any such addition, change or elimination (A) shall neither (i) apply to any Security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision nor (ii) modify the rights of the Holder of any such Security with respect to such provision or (B) shall become effective only when there is no such Security Outstanding;

 

(f) to establish the forms or terms of the Securities of any series issued pursuant to the terms hereof;

 

(g) to cure any ambiguity or correct any inconsistency in this Indenture;

 

(h) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee;

 

(i) to qualify this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act;

 

(j) to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to certificated securities;

 

(k) to supplement any provisions of this Indenture necessary to permit or facilitate the defeasance and discharge of any series of Securities, provided that such action does not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of Securities of such series or any other series;

 

(l) to conform the Indenture to any Description of Securities for a particular Series of Securities; and

 

(m) to comply with the rules or regulations of any securities exchange or automated quotation system on which any of the Securities may be listed or traded.

 

Section 9.02 With Consent of Holders. The Company and the Trustee may enter into a supplemental indenture with the written consent of the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of each Series affected by such supplemental indenture (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series), for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Holders of each such Series. Except as provided in Section 6.13, the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series by notice to the Trustee (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series) may waive compliance by the Company with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities with respect to such Series. It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders of Securities under this Section 9.02 to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof. After a supplemental indenture or waiver under this section becomes effective, the Company shall deliver to the Holders of Securities affected thereby a notice briefly describing the supplemental indenture or waiver. Any failure by the Company to deliver such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture or waiver.

 

Section 9.03 Limitations. Unless otherwise specified for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, without the consent of each Holder affected, an amendment or waiver may not:

 

(a) reduce the amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

 

(b) reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any Security;

 

24

 

  

(c) reduce the principal or change the Stated Maturity of any Security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;

 

(d) reduce the principal amount of Discount Securities payable upon acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

(e) waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

(f) make the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security payable in any currency other than that stated in the Security;

 

(g) make any change in Sections 6.08, 6.13, or 9.03; or

 

(h) waive a redemption payment with respect to any Security.

 

Section 9.04 Compliance with Trust Indenture Act. Every amendment to this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series shall be set forth in a supplemental indenture hereto that complies with the TIA as then in effect.

 

Section 9.05 Revocation and Effect of Consents. Until an amendment is set forth in a supplemental indenture or a waiver becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent by the Holder and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security, even if notation of the consent is not made on any Security. However, any such Holder or subsequent Holder may revoke the consent as to his Security or portion of a Security if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date of the supplemental indenture or the date the waiver becomes effective. Any amendment or waiver once effective shall bind every Holder of each Series affected by such amendment or waiver unless it is of the type described in any of clauses (a) through (h) of Section 9.03. In that case, the amendment or waiver shall bind each Holder of a Security who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security.

 

Section 9.06 Notation on or Exchange of Securities. The Trustee may place an appropriate notation about an amendment or waiver on any Security of any Series thereafter authenticated. The Company in exchange for Securities of that Series may issue and the Trustee shall authenticate upon request new Securities of that Series that reflect the amendment or waiver.

 

Section 9.07 Trustee Protected. In executing, or accepting the additional trusts created by, any supplemental indenture permitted by this Article or the modifications thereby of the trusts created by this Indenture, the Trustee shall receive, in addition to the documents required by Section 10.04, and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating that all conditions precedent in this Indenture to the execution of such supplemental indenture, if any, have been complied with, such supplemental indenture is authorized hereunder, and, that such supplemental indenture is the valid and legally binding obligation of the Company. The Trustee shall sign all supplemental indentures, except that the Trustee need not sign any supplemental indenture that adversely affects its rights.

 

ARTICLE X 

MISCELLANEOUS

 

Section 10.01 Trust Indenture Act Controls. If any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with another provision which is required or deemed to be included in this Indenture by the TIA, such required or deemed provision shall control.

 

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Section 10.02 Notices.

 

(a) Any notice or communication by the Company or the Trustee to the other, or by a Holder to the Company or the Trustee, is duly given if in writing and delivered in person or mailed by first-class mail or sent by telecopier transmission or electronic transmission in PDF addressed as follows:

 

if to the Company:

 

AIkido Pharma Inc.

One Rockefeller Plaza, 11th Floor

New York, NY 10020

Attention: Anthony Hayes

Telephone: (703) 992-9325

 

if to the Trustee:

 

[                             ]

 

(b) The Company or the Trustee by notice to the other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications. Any notice or communication to a Holder shall be delivered to his address shown on the register kept by the Registrar. Failure to deliver a notice or communication to a Holder of any Series or any defect in it shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Holders of that or any other Series. If a notice or communication is delivered in the manner provided above, within the time prescribed, it is duly given, whether or not the Holder receives it. If the Company delivers a notice or communication to Holders, it shall deliver a copy to the Trustee and each Agent at the same time.

 

(c) Any notice or demand that by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given or served by the Company may, at the Company’s written request received by the Trustee not fewer than five (5) Business Days prior (or such shorter period of time as may be acceptable to the Trustee) to the date on which such notice must be given or served, be given or served by the Trustee in the name of and at the expense of the Company.

 

Section 10.03 Communication by Holders with Other Holders. Holders of any Series may communicate pursuant to TIA Section 312(b) with other Holders of that Series or any other Series with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities of that Series or all Series. The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and anyone else shall have the protection of TIA

 

Section 10.04 Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent. Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:

 

(a) an Officers’ Certificate stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and

 

(b) an Opinion of Counsel stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, all such conditions precedent have been complied with.

 

Section 10.05 Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion. Each certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than a certificate provided pursuant to TIA Section 314(a)(4)) shall comply with the provisions of TIA Section 314(e) and shall include:

 

(a) a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;

 

(b) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

 

26

 

  

(c) a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

 

(d) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

Section 10.06 Rules by Trustee and Agents. The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or a meeting of Holders of one or more Series. Any Agent may make reasonable rules and set reasonable requirements for its functions.

 

Section 10.07 Legal Holidays. Unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series, a “Legal Holiday” is any day that is not a Business Day. If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a place of payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue for the intervening period.

 

Section 10.08 No Recourse Against Others. A director, officer, employee or stockholder, as such, of the Company shall not have any liability for any obligations of the Company under the Securities or the Indenture or for any claim based on, in respect of or by reason of such obligations or their creation. Each Holder by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issue of the Securities.

 

Section 10.09 Counterparts. This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts and by the parties hereto in separate counterparts, each of which when so executed shall be deemed to be an original and all of which taken together shall constitute one and the same agreement. The exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile or PDF transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture for all purposes. Signatures of the parties hereto transmitted by facsimile or PDF shall be deemed to be their original signatures for all purposes.

 

Section 10.10 Governing Laws. This Indenture and the Securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York.

 

Section 10.11 No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements. This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture, loan or debt agreement of the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company. Any such indenture, loan or debt agreement may not be used to interpret this Indenture.

 

Section 10.12 Successors. All agreements of the Company in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind its successor. All agreements of the Trustee in this Indenture shall bind its successor.

 

Section 10.13 Severability. In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

 

Section 10.14 Table of Contents, Headings, Etc. The Table of Contents, Cross-Reference Table, and headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part hereof, and shall in no way modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

 

Section 10.15 Securities in a Foreign Currency. Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02 of this Indenture with respect to a particular Series of Securities, whenever for purposes of this Indenture any action may be taken by the Holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of Securities of all Series or all Series affected by a particular action at the time outstanding and, at such time, there are outstanding Securities of any Series which are denominated in a coin or currency other than Dollars, then the principal amount of Securities of such Series which shall be deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of taking such action shall be that amount of Dollars that could be obtained for such amount at the Market Exchange Rate at such time. For purposes of this Section 10.15, “Market Exchange Rate” shall mean the noon Dollar buying rate in New York City for cable transfers of that currency as published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. If such Market Exchange Rate is not available for any reason with respect to such currency, the Company shall use, in its sole discretion and without liability on its part, such quotation of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York as of the most recent available date, or quotations from one or more major banks in The City of New York or in the country of issue of the currency in question or such other quotations as the Company, shall deem appropriate. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply in determining the equivalent principal amount in respect of Securities of a Series denominated in currency other than Dollars in connection with any action taken by Holders of Securities pursuant to the terms of this Indenture. All decisions and determinations of the Company regarding the Market Exchange Rate or any alternative determination provided for in the preceding paragraph shall be in its sole discretion and shall, in the absence of manifest error, to the extent permitted by law, be conclusive for all purposes and irrevocably binding upon the Company, the Trustee and all Holders. The Trustee shall have no duty to calculate or verify the calculations made pursuant to this Section 10.15.

 

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Section 10.16 U.S.A. Patriot Act. The Company acknowledges that in accordance with Section 326 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act, the Trustee, like all financial institutions, and in order to help fight the funding of terrorism and money laundering, is required to obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person or legal entity that establishes a relationship or opens an account with the Trustee. The Company agrees that it will provide the Trustee with such information as it may reasonably request as required in order for the Trustee to satisfy the requirements of the U.S.A. Patriot Act.

 

Section 10.17 Waiver of Jury Trial. EACH OF THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING AS BETWEEN THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE ONLY ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE OR THE SECURITIES.

 

ARTICLE XI 

SINKING FUNDS

 

Section 11.01 Applicability of Article. The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of the Securities of a Series, except as otherwise permitted or required by any form of Security of such Series issued pursuant to this Indenture. The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of the Securities of any Series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment” and any other amount provided for by the terms of Securities of such Series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment.” If provided for by the terms of Securities of any Series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 11.02. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any Series as provided for by the terms of the Securities of such Series.

 

Section 11.02 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities. The Company may, in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of any Series to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities (1) deliver outstanding Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable (other than any of such Securities previously called for mandatory sinking fund redemption) and (2) apply as credit Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable and which have been repurchased by the Company or redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Series of Securities (except pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund) or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments or other optional redemptions pursuant to the terms of such Securities, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received by the Trustee, together with an Officers’ Certificate with respect thereto, not later than 15 days prior to the date on which the Trustee begins the process of selecting Securities for redemption, and shall be credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly. If as a result of the delivery or credit of Securities in lieu of cash payments pursuant to this Section 11.02, the principal amount of Securities of such Series to be redeemed in order to exhaust the aforesaid cash payment shall be less than $100,000, the Trustee need not call Securities of such Series for redemption, except upon receipt of a Company Order that such action be taken, and such cash payment shall be held by the Trustee or a Paying Agent and applied to the next succeeding sinking fund payment, provided, however, that the Trustee or such Paying Agent shall from time to time upon receipt of a Company Order pay over and deliver to the Company any cash payment so being held by the Trustee or such Paying Agent upon delivery by the Company to the Trustee of Securities of that Series purchased by the Company having an unpaid principal amount equal to the cash payment required to be released to the Company.

 

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Section 11.03 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund. Not less than 45 days (unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate in respect of a particular Series of Securities) prior to each sinking fund payment date for any Series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing mandatory sinking fund payment for that Series pursuant to the terms of that Series, the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting of Securities of that Series pursuant to Section 11.02, and the optional amount, if any, to be added in cash to the next ensuing mandatory sinking fund payment, and the Company shall thereupon be obligated to pay the amount therein specified. Not less than 30 days (unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture in respect of a particular Series of Securities) before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.03. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06.

 

[Remainder of page intentionally left blank]

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed and attested, all as of the day and year first above written.

 

  AIKIDO PHARMA INC., a Delaware corporation
     
  By:  
  Name: Anthony Hayes
  Title: Chief Executive Officer
     
  [                  ].
  as Trustee
     
  By:  
  Name:  
  Title:  

 

[Signature Page to Indenture]

 

 

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Exhibit 5.1

 

https:||www.sec.gov|Archives|edgar|data|12239|000121390020005069|image_001.jpg 

 

1345 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10105

Telephone: (212) 370-1300

Facsimile: (212) 370-7889

www.egsllp.com

 

June 5, 2020

AIkido Pharma Inc.

One Rockefeller Plaza, 11th Floor

New York, New York 10020

Re: Registration Statement on Form S-3

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We have acted as counsel to AIkido Pharma, a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), in connection with the preparation of a registration statement on Form S-3 (the “Registration Statement”), filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), relating to the offer and sale from time to time by the Company of up to a maximum of $100,000,000 aggregate initial offering price of a presently indeterminate amount of the following securities (each a “Company Security” and collectively, or in any combination, the “Company Securities”):

(i) shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.0001 par value per share (the “Common Stock”);

(ii) one or more classes or series of shares of the Company’s preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share (the “Preferred Stock”);

(iii) purchase contracts entitling or obligating holders to purchase from or sell to the Company, and for the Company to sell to or purchase from such holders, a specific or varying number of debt or equity securities issued by the Company or by an entity other than the Company at a future date or dates;

(iv) warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, other securities or any combination of those securities;

(v) subscription rights;

(vi) depositary shares;

(vii) debt securities (which may be senior or subordinated, convertible or non-convertible, secured or unsecured); and

(viii) units consisting of any combination of the foregoing securities.

The Company Securities may be issued and sold by the Company pursuant to applicable provisions of Rule 415 under the Securities Act, in amounts, at prices and on terms to be determined in light of market conditions at the time of sale, and as set forth in the Registration Statement, any amendment thereto, the prospectus contained therein (the “Prospectus”) and any supplements to the Prospectus (each, a “Prospectus Supplement”). The Company Securities may be issued from time to time on a delayed or continuous basis, and this opinion is limited to the laws, including the rules and regulations, as in effect on the date hereof, which laws are subject to change with possible retroactive effect.

You have requested our opinion as to the matters set forth below in connection with the Registration Statement. For purposes of rendering the opinions set forth below, we have examined (i) the Registration Statement, including the exhibits filed therewith, (ii) the Prospectus, (iii) the Company’s amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended or supplemented (the “Certificate of Incorporation”), (iv) the Company’s amended and restated bylaws, as amended (the “Bylaws”), and (v) the corporate resolutions and other actions of the Company that authorize and provide for the filing of the Registration Statement, and we have made such other investigation as we have deemed appropriate. We have not independently established any of the facts so relied on.

 

 

https:||www.sec.gov|Archives|edgar|data|12239|000121390020005069|image_001.jpg 

 

1345 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10105

Telephone: (212) 370-1300

Facsimile: (212) 370-7889

www.egsllp.com

For purposes of this opinion letter, we have assumed the accuracy and completeness of each document submitted to us, the genuineness of all signatures on original documents, the authenticity of all documents submitted to us as originals, the conformity to original documents of all documents submitted to us as facsimile, electronic, certified, conformed or photostatic copies thereof, and the due execution and delivery of all documents where due execution and delivery are prerequisites to the effectiveness thereof. We have further assumed the legal capacity of natural persons, that persons identified to us as officers of the Company are actually serving in such capacity, that the representations of officers and employees of the Company are correct as to questions of fact, that the board of directors will have taken all action necessary to set the issuance price of the Company Securities to be offered and sold and that each party to the documents we have examined or relied on (other than the Company) has the power, corporate or other, to enter into and perform all obligations thereunder and also have assumed the due authorization by all requisite action, corporate or other, the execution and delivery by such parties of such documents, and the validity and binding effect thereof on such parties. We have not independently verified any of these assumptions.

The opinions expressed in this opinion letter are limited to the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”), the applicable statutory provisions of the Delaware Constitution and the reported judicial decisions interpreting such statute and provisions and the laws of the state of New York. We are not opining on, and we assume no responsibility for, the applicability to or effect on any of the matters covered herein of (a) any other laws; (b) the laws of any other jurisdiction; or (c) the laws of any county, municipality or other political subdivision or local governmental agency or authority.

All references in this opinion letter to the board of directors of the Company are intended to include an authorized committee thereof empowered and authorized to act under the DGCL in lieu of the full board of directors of the Company.

Based on the foregoing and in reliance thereon, and subject to the assumptions, qualifications, limitations and exceptions set forth below, we are of the opinion that:

1. With respect to shares of Common Stock, when (a) the board of directors of the Company has taken all necessary corporate action to approve the issuance and terms of the offering thereof and related matters, including without limitation the due reservation of any Common Stock for issuance, and (b) certificates representing the shares of Common Stock have been duly executed, countersigned, registered and delivered, in each case in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and either (i) in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement approved by the board of directors of the Company upon payment of the consideration therefor (which consideration shall not be less than the par value of the Common Stock) provided for in such definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement, as applicable, or (ii) upon conversion, exchange or exercise of any other Company Security in accordance with the terms of such Company Security or the instrument governing such Company Security providing for the conversion, exchange or exercise as approved by the board of directors of the Company, for the consideration therefor set forth in the applicable agreement and approved by the board of directors of the Company, which consideration shall not be less than the par value of the Common Stock, such shares of Common Stock will be validly issued, fully paid, and non-assessable.

 

 

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1345 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10105

Telephone: (212) 370-1300

Facsimile: (212) 370-7889

www.egsllp.com

2. With respect to shares of any series of Preferred Stock, when (a) the board of directors of the Company has taken all necessary corporate action to approve the issuance and terms of the shares of such series, the terms of the offering thereof and related matters, including the adoption of a certificate of designation or amendment to the Certificate of Incorporation fixing and determining the terms of such Preferred Stock conforming to the DGCL, the filing of a certificate or amendment, as applicable, with the Secretary of State of Delaware, the payment in full of any filing fees attendant thereto, and the due reservation of any Common Stock and Preferred Stock for issuance, and (b) certificates representing the shares of such series of Preferred Stock have been duly executed, countersigned, registered and delivered, in each case in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and either (i) in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement approved by the board of directors of the Company upon payment of the consideration therefor (which consideration shall not be less than the par value of the Preferred Stock) provided for in such definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement, as applicable, or (ii) upon conversion, exchange or exercise of any other Company Security in accordance with the terms of such Company Security or the instrument governing such Company Security providing for the conversion, exchange or exercise as approved by the board of directors of the Company, for the consideration therefor set forth in the applicable agreement and approved by the board of directors of the Company, which consideration shall not be less than the par value of the Preferred Stock, the shares of such series of Preferred Stock will be validly issued, fully paid, and non-assessable.

3. With respect to the issuance of any purchase contracts, when (a) the board of directors of the Company has taken all necessary corporate action to approve the purchase contract agreement to be entered into in connection with the issuance of any purchase contracts and such purchase contract agreement has been validly executed and delivered by the purchase contract agent and Company, (b) the board of directors of the Company has taken all necessary corporate action to approve the specific issuance and terms of any purchase contracts duly established in accordance with the applicable purchase contract agreement and (c) such purchase contracts have been duly executed, countersigned, registered, issued and delivered in accordance with the purchase contract agreement and the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement, as applicable, for the consideration therefor set forth in the applicable agreement and approved by the board of directors of the Company (assuming the securities issuable upon exercise of the purchase contracts, if any, have been duly authorized and reserved for issuance by all necessary corporate action and in accordance with applicable law), such purchase contracts will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms, subject to applicable bankruptcy, insolvency and similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, concepts of reasonableness and equitable principles of general applicability.

4. With respect to the issuance of any warrants, when (a) the board of directors of the Company has taken all necessary corporate action to approve the warrant agreement to be entered into in connection with the issuance of any warrants and such warrant agreement has been validly executed and delivered by the warrant agent and Company, (b) the board of directors of the Company has taken all necessary corporate action to approve the specific issuance and terms of any warrants duly established in accordance with the applicable warrant agreement and (c) such warrants have been duly executed, countersigned, registered, issued and delivered in accordance with the warrant agreement and the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement, as applicable, for the consideration therefor set forth in the applicable agreement and approved by the board of directors of the Company (assuming the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants have been duly authorized and reserved for issuance by all necessary corporate action and in accordance with applicable law), such warrants will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms, subject to applicable bankruptcy, insolvency and similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, concepts of reasonableness and equitable principles of general applicability.

5. With respect to the subscription rights, when (a) the board of directors of the Company has taken all necessary corporate action to authorize the issuance and the specific terms of such subscription rights, the terms of the offering thereof, and related matters and (b) such subscription rights and agreements relating to the subscription rights have been duly executed and delivered in accordance with the terms thereof (assuming the securities issuable upon exercise of the subscription rights have been duly authorized and reserved for issuance by all necessary corporate action and in accordance with applicable law), then such subscription rights will be valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms.

 

 

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1345 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10105

Telephone: (212) 370-1300

Facsimile: (212) 370-7889

www.egsllp.com

6. With respect to the depositary shares, when (a) the board of directors of the Company has taken all necessary corporate action to approve the issuance and terms of the depositary shares, the terms of the offering thereof and related matters, including the adoption of a certificate of designation relating to any series of Preferred Stock underlying the depositary shares as required by applicable law and the filing of the certificate of designation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware as required by applicable law; (b) the depositary agreement or agreements relating to the depositary shares and the related depositary receipts have been duly authorized and validly executed and delivered by the board of directors of the Company and the depositary appointed by the Company; (c) the shares of Preferred Stock underlying the depositary shares have been duly authorized, validly issued and deposited with the depositary under the applicable depositary agreement; and (d) the depositary receipts representing the depositary shares have been duly executed, countersigned, registered and delivered in accordance with the appropriate depositary agreement approved by the Company, upon payment of the consideration therefor provided for in the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement, the depositary shares will be legally issued and will entitle their holders to the rights specified in the deposit agreement and the depositary receipt.

 

7. With respect to any debt securities, when (a) the board of directors of the Company has taken all necessary corporate action to approve an applicable indenture, if any, or any amendment or supplement thereto or other agreement in respect thereof, if any, and such indenture, if any, or any amendment or supplement thereto or other agreement in respect thereof, if any, has been validly executed and delivered by the Company, (b) any applicable indenture, if required, has been duly qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, if qualification is required thereunder, (c) the board of directors of the Company has taken all necessary corporate action to approve the specific issuance and terms of any series of debt security duly established in accordance with the applicable indenture, if any, and (d) such debt security have been duly executed, countersigned, registered, issued and delivered either (i) in accordance with the indenture, if any, or any amendment or supplement thereto or other agreement in respect thereof, if any, the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement, as applicable, or (ii) upon conversion, exchange or exercise of any other Company Security in accordance with the terms of such Company Security or the instrument governing such Company Security providing for the conversion, exchange or exercise as approved by the board of directors of the Company, for the consideration therefor set forth in the applicable agreement and approved by the board of directors of the Company, such debt securities will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms, subject to applicable bankruptcy, insolvency and similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, concepts of reasonableness and equitable principles of general applicability, provided that we express no opinion as to (x) the enforceability of any waiver of rights under any usury or state law, (y) the validity, legally binding effect or enforceability of any provision of the indenture that requires or relates to adjustments to the conversion rate at a rate or in an amount that a court would determine in the circumstances under applicable law to be commercially unreasonable or a penalty or forfeiture or (z) the validity, legally binding effect or enforceability of any provision that permits holders to collect any portion of stated principle amount upon acceleration of the debt securities to the extent determined to constitute unearned interest.

8. With respect to the issuance of any units, when (a) the board of directors of the Company has taken all necessary corporate action to approve the unit agreement, if any, to be entered into in connection with the issuance of any units and such unit agreement, if any, has been validly executed and delivered by the unit agent, if any, and Company, (b) the board of directors of the Company has taken all necessary corporate action to approve the specific issuance and terms of any units duly established in accordance with the applicable unit agreement, if any, and (c) such units have been duly executed, countersigned, registered, issued and delivered in accordance with the unit agreement, if any, and the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement, as applicable, for the consideration therefor set forth in the applicable agreement and approved by the board of directors of the Company (assuming the securities underlying the units have been duly authorized, and validly issued by all necessary corporate action and in accordance with applicable law), such units will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms, subject to applicable bankruptcy, insolvency and similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, concepts of reasonableness and equitable principles of general applicability.

The opinions set forth above are subject to the following additional assumptions:

(i) the Registration Statement, any amendments thereto (including post-effective amendments), will have been declared effective under the Securities Act and such effectiveness shall not have been terminated, suspended or rescinded;

(ii) all Company Securities will be issued and sold in compliance with applicable federal and state securities laws, rules and regulations and solely in the manner provided in the Registration Statement and the appropriate Prospectus Supplement and there will not have occurred any change in law or fact affecting the validity of any of the opinions rendered herein;

 

 

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1345 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10105

Telephone: (212) 370-1300

Facsimile: (212) 370-7889

www.egsllp.com

(iii) a definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement and any other necessary agreements with respect to any Company Securities offered or issued will have been duly authorized and duly executed and delivered by the Company and the other parties thereto;

(iv) the Company shall have taken any action required to be taken by the Company, based on the type of Company Security being offered, to authorize the offer and issuance thereof, and such authorization shall remain in effect and unchanged at all times during which the Company Securities are offered and issued and shall not have been modified or rescinded (subject to the further assumption that the sale of any Company Security takes place in accordance with such authorization), the board of directors of the Company shall have duly established the terms of such Company Security and duly authorized and taken any other necessary corporate action to approve the issuance and sale of such Company Security in conformity with the Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws (subject to the further assumption that neither the Certificate of Incorporation nor Bylaws have been amended from the date hereof in a manner that would affect the validity of any of the opinions rendered herein), and such authorization shall remain in effect and unchanged at all times during which the Company Securities are offered and issued and shall not have been modified or rescinded (subject to the further assumption that the sale of any Company Security takes place in accordance with such authorization);

(v) there will exist, under the Certificate of Incorporation, the requisite number of authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock (and securities of any class into which any of the Preferred Stock may be convertible), as the case may be; and

(vi) to the extent they purport to relate to liabilities resulting from or based upon gross negligence, recklessness or other conduct committed or omitted willfully or in bad faith or any violation of federal or state securities or blue sky laws, we express no opinions concerning the enforceability of indemnification provisions.

The opinions above are subject to the effects of (i) bankruptcy, insolvency, fraudulent conveyance, fraudulent transfer, reorganization, receivership, moratorium and other similar laws relating to or affecting enforcement of creditors’ rights or remedies generally, (ii) general principles of equity, whether such principles are considered in a proceeding of law or at equity, and (iii) an implied covenant of good faith, reasonableness and fair dealing and standards of materiality.

We express no opinion as to any provision in any stock purchase contract, unit purchase agreement, other agreement pursuant to which any Company Securities are to be issued or governed, or the Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws (i) that purports to waive forum non conveniens or trial by jury; (ii) that relates to judgments in currencies other than U.S. dollars; (iii) that releases, exculpates or exempts a party from, or requires indemnification or contribution of a party for, liability for its own negligence or misconduct; (iv) that purports to allow any party to unreasonably interfere in the conduct of the business of another party; (v) that purports to require any party to pay any amounts due to another party without a reasonable accounting of the sums purported to be due; (vi) that purports to prohibit the assignment of rights that that may be assigned pursuant to applicable law regardless of an agreement not to assign such rights; (vii) that purports to require that amendments to any agreement be in writing; (viii) relating to powers of attorney, severability or set-off; (ix) that purports to limit access exclusively to any particular courts; (x) that provides a waiver of stay, extension or usury laws or of unknown future rights; and (xi) providing that decisions by a party are conclusive or may be made in its sole discretion. We express no opinion concerning whether a U.S. federal court would accept jurisdiction in any dispute, action, suit or proceeding arising out of or relating to any agreement or the transactions contemplated thereby.

 

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1345 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10105

Telephone: (212) 370-1300

Facsimile: (212) 370-7889

www.egsllp.com

We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the use of our name under the caption “Legal Matters” in the prospectus. In giving our consent, we do not thereby admit that we are experts with respect to any part of the Registration Statement, the prospectus or any prospectus supplement within the meaning of the term “expert,” as used in Section 11 of the Securities Act or the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder by the Commission, nor do we admit that we are in the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder.

Yours truly,

/s/ Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP

Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP

 

 

 

Exhibit 10.1

 

INFORMATION IN THE MARKED SECTIONS OF THIS MASTER LICENSE AGREEMENT HAS BEEN OMITTED BECAUSE IT IS NOT MATERIAL AND WOULD LIKELY CAUSE COMPETITIVE HARM IF PUBLICLY FILED.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MASTER LICENSE AGREEMENT

 

 

between

 

University of Maryland, Baltimore

 

and

 

Aikido Pharma Inc.

 

 

 

 

 

OTT Docket No.:

MF-2019-124

MF-2020-041

 

CONFIDENTIAL 

 

 

 

Master License Agreement

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Article 1. BACKGROUND 1
     
Article 2. DEFINITIONS 1
     
Article 3. GRANT OF LICENSE 6
     
Article 4. DILIGENCE REQUIREMENTS 12
     
Article 5. CONSIDERATION 13
     
Article 6. PATENT PROSECUTION 15
     
Article 7. CONFIDENTIALITY 17
     
Article 8. REPORTS, PAYMENTS, AND ACCOUNTING 19
     
Article 9. INFRINGEMENT 21
     
Article 10. TERM AND TERMINATION 24
     
Article 11. OTHER AGREEMENTS 26
     
Article 12. REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES 27
     
Article 13. INSURANCE AND INDEMNIFICATION 30
     
Article 14. DISPUTE RESOLUTION 32
     
Article 15. NOTICES AND INVOICES 33
     
Article 16. ASSIGNMENT 34
     
Article 17. MISCELLANEOUS 35

 

Schedules

 

A PATENT RIGHTS
   
B COMMERCIALIZATION PLAN
   
C DILIGENCE MILESTONES
   
D MILESTONE PAYMENTS
   
E PAYMENT INFORMATION
   
F CONTACT INFORMATION FOR PAYMENTS AND REPORTING

 

Exhibits

 

1 SPONSORED RESEARCH AGREEMENT

 

CONFIDENTIAL 

 

 

 

Master License Agreement

 

This Master License Agreement (“Agreement”) is effective as of the date of the last signature on the signature page (“Effective Date”) and is made by and between the University of Maryland, Baltimore (“University”), a public university that is part of the University System of Maryland (which is a public corporation and an instrumentality of the State of Maryland), and Aikido Pharma Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Company”) (collectively referred to as the “Parties”).

 

Article 1. BACKGROUND

 

1.1 Valuable inventions collectively known as “Broad Spectrum Antiviral Compounds Which Target the SKI Complex” (the “Inventions”), have been made by Matthew Frieman, Alexander MacKerell, and Stuart Watson 1 (“University Inventors”).

 

1.2 Under the IP Policies (as defined below): (a) University owns the Inventions; and (b) University is the record owner of the Inventions, which has been confirmed by the execution of assignments to University from the University Inventors. University is responsible for administration and marketing of the Inventions.

 

1.3 As a public research and education institution, University is interested in licensing the Invention to Company to benefit the public by the development and marketing of new and useful products and methods. Company desires to license the Invention on the terms and conditions set forth in this Agreement. University and Company have entered into this Agreement of their own free will. The terms of this Agreement were agreed upon in an arm’s length transaction.

 

1.4 Simultaneously with the execution of this Agreement, the Parties have entered into a Sponsored Research Agreement (“SRA”), attached hereto as Exhibit 1.

 

Article 2. DEFINITIONS

 

In this Agreement, the following terms have the meanings set forth in this Article.

 

2.1 “Bankruptcy”: As defined in Section 10.2.4.

 

2.2 “Business Day”: A day other than a Saturday, Sunday, federal holiday, holiday observed by University, or any day on which the University campus is closed.

 

2.3 “Change of Control”: Any one of the following: (a) a sale, lease, transfer, or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets or business of the Company; (b) a merger, consolidation, reorganization, recapitalization, share exchange, business combination, or similar form of transaction in which the equity holders of the Company immediately prior to such transaction cease to own collectively fifty percent (50%) or more of the equity securities of the successor entity of the Company; or (c) the acquisition of fifty percent (50%) or more of the equity securities of the Company by a person or group of persons acting in concert, in each case, whether through a single transaction or a series of related transactions.

 

 

1 Stuart Watson was an inventor on MF-2020-041 only.

 

1

CONFIDENTIAL

 

 

2.4 “Clinical Trial”: A human clinical trial of a Licensed Product that satisfies the requirements of 21 C.F.R. §312.21, or its foreign equivalent.

 

2.5 “Commercialization Plan”: As defined in Section 4.1.

 

2.6 “Commercially Reasonable Efforts”: With respect to the development or commercialization of a Licensed Product, efforts that are consistent with those utilized by companies of similar size as Company with reference to products with similar commercial potential at a similar stage, taking into consideration their safety and efficacy, their cost to develop, the competitiveness of alternative products, the intellectual property landscape, the nature and extent of their market exclusivity, the likelihood of regulatory approval, their profitability, and all other relevant factors.

 

2.7 “Company Affiliate”: Any Person which controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with Company. For purposes of this definition only, “control” means (a) to possess, directly or indirectly (through one or more intermediaries), the power to direct the management or policies of a Person, whether through ownership of voting securities or by contract relating to voting rights or corporate governance, or (b) to own, directly or indirectly, more than fifty percent (50%) of the outstanding voting securities or other ownership interest of a Person.

 

2.8 “Company Improvement”: (a) An Improvement that is invented solely by one or more Company Personnel, or on behalf of Company, without using University resources (other than routine and minimal office use of email or telephones); or (b) an Improvement in which Company otherwise has an ownership interest, and University has no ownership interest.

 

2.9 “Company Personnel”: Officers, directors, employees of Company and/or any Company Affiliate. Company Personnel shall also include independent contractors, agents, and representatives of Company and/or any Company Affiliate, when those individuals are acting in such capacity.”

 

2.10 “Confidential Information”: Information (including without limitation documents, notes, drawings, models, designs, data, results, memoranda, tapes, records, hardware, software, formulae, algorithms, biological materials (including without limitation organisms, cells, viruses, cell products, DNA, cDNA, and RNA sequences), other materials of any kind, standard operating procedures (“SOPs”), strategic business plans, product forecasts, communications with government entities, marketing data, business planning or financial information, pricing information, personnel information, and other commercially sensitive or proprietary information or materials, in hard copy form or in electronic form) which is disclosed by a party to the other party in connection with this Agreement, including without limitation information that: (a) is related to, results from, or arises out of use of the Inventions, the Improvements, or practice of the Patent Rights, or (b) is reasonably necessary for the use of the Inventions, the Improvements, or practice of the Patent Rights, or for the development or commercialization of Licensed Products.

 

2.11 “Discloser”: As defined in Section 7.1.1

 

2.12 “Dollar” means a U.S. dollar, and “$” shall be interpreted accordingly.

 

2.13 “Effective Date”: As defined above.

 

2

CONFIDENTIAL

 

 

2.14 “Export Control Laws”: The Arms Export Control Act; the Export Administration Act of 1979; the International Traffic in Arms Regulations; the Export Administration Regulations; or any other rules or regulations pertaining to restrictions on use or disclosure of goods, information, or technology, of any applicable governmental agency.

 

2.15 “FDA”: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or any successor agency thereto.

 

2.16 “First Commercial Sale”: The initial sale of a Licensed Product to a third party end user.

 

2.17 “HIPAA”: The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended, and all rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith, including without limitation the Privacy, Security, Breach Notification, and Enforcement Rules at 45 CFR Part 160 and Part 164.

 

2.18 “Improvement”: An invention which: (a) is made after the Effective Date; (b) is directly related to the Patent Rights, but is not included within the definition of Patent Rights; (c) is or may be patentable or otherwise protected or protectable under law as intellectual property; and (d) either cannot be practiced without infringing one or more claims of the Patent Rights, or would itself be infringed by the practicing of the Patent Rights.

 

2.19 “IND”: An Investigational New Drug Application submitted to FDA under §505 of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which satisfies the requirements of 21 C.F.R. §312; or a similar application to FDA’s foreign equivalents.

 

2.20 “Infringe,” “infringe,” “infringement,” or any correlative term: Any infringement (whether direct, indirect, contributory or otherwise) of the intellectual property rights of University (including without limitation under the doctrines of claim construction or differentiation, literal overlap or equivalents); or any misuse, misappropriation, theft, or breach of confidence related to the Inventions, Licensed Products, Improvement, and/or the Patent Rights.

 

2.21 “Inventions”: As defined in Section 1.1.

 

2.22  “IP Policies”: Collectively: (a) The University System of Maryland Policy on Intellectual Property, effective July 1, 2002, as amended, and any predecessor or successor policy adopted by USM regarding intellectual property and applicable to the Inventions and Patent Rights; and (b) the UMB Policy on Intellectual Property, and any successor policy adopted by University regarding intellectual property and applicable to the Inventions and Patent Rights.

 

2.23 “Joint Improvement”: Any Improvement that is invented: (a) by one or more Company Personnel or on behalf of Company, and by one or more University Personnel or on behalf of University; or (b) by one or more Company Personnel who used University’s resources in making the Improvement.

 

2.24 “Licensed Field”: The use of the Inventions and Patent Rights in the field of therapeutic antiviral drugs.

 

2.25 “Licensed Improvement”: As defined in Section 3.6.5.

 

3

CONFIDENTIAL

 

 

2.26 “Licensed Product”: Any product, service, or process, the development, making, use, offer for sale, sale, importation, or providing of which: (a) is covered by one or more claims of the Patent Rights; or (b) contains, comprises, utilizes, incorporates, or is derived from the Invention, any technology disclosed in the Patent Rights, University’s Confidential Information, or any information provided to Company by University Personnel (including without limitation under a consulting agreement). For avoidance of doubt, “Licensed Products” include the UMB18 and two additional scaffolds targeting the SKI complex for antiviral activity against influenza and coronaviruses which are the focus of the work set forth in the SRA (see Task 1.A. of Exhibit A thereof).

 

2.27 “Licensed Territory”: Worldwide.

 

2.28 “NDA”: A New Drug Application submitted to the FDA to market a new drug under §505 of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which satisfies the requirements of 21 C.F.R. §313; or a similar application to FDA’s foreign equivalents.

 

2.29  “Net Revenues”: The gross revenues received from sales of Licensed Products, less the following: (a) sales or use taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, customs duties, or other governmental charges; (b) amounts invoiced to the customer for outbound transportation, shipping, handling, and insurance; and (c) amounts actually allowed or credited on returns or rejections or billing errors. “Net Revenues” shall not include any consideration designated specifically and solely for research and development of a Licensed Product.

 

2.30 “Non-Commercial Organization”: As defined in Section 3.1.2.

 

2.31 “Non-Commercial Uses”: As defined in Section 3.2.1.

 

2.32  “Option”: As defined in Section 3.6.4.

 

2.33 “Option Term”: As defined in Section 3.6.5.

 

2.34 “OTT”: The Office of Technology Transfer in University’s Office of Research and Development, and any successor to its responsibilities.

 

2.35 “Patent Challenge”: Any action before a court or governmental authority which disputes the validity or enforceability of, or otherwise opposes or interferes adversely with the prosecution of, any of the claims of the Patent Rights (including without limitation filing an action under the Declaratory Judgment Act, 28 U.S.C. §2201(a)).

 

2.36 “Patent Expenses”: All fees, charges, expenses, and costs incurred before and after the Effective Date in connection with the preparation, filing, prosecution (including without limitation any issuance, reissuance, reexamination, interference, or opposition), and/or maintenance of patents or patent applications relating to the Patent Rights, including without limitation all fees and charges of outside patent counsel. Patent Expenses shall be considered to be incurred when the fee, charge, expense, or cost is actually incurred (rather than when it is invoiced). For example, charges of outside patent counsel are considered to be incurred as of the date on which the professional services are rendered.

 

4

CONFIDENTIAL

 

 

2.37 “Patent Rights”: (a) U.S. and foreign patents and patent applications listed in Schedule A, as it may be amended from time to time by mutual agreement of the parties or to add Licensed Improvements pursuant to Section 3.6.5; (b) all patents and patent applications, whether filed before or after the Effective Date, which claim priority under 35 U.S.C. §119 or the benefit of the filing date under 35 U.S.C. §120 or §371 of any of the patents and applications listed in Schedule A (but only to the extent of subject matter in a patent or patent application for which priority or benefit is claimed in a patent or patent application described in clause (a)); (c) any divisional, continuation, and continuation-in-part of any of the patents and applications listed in Schedule A (but only to the extent a claim in a patent or patent application described in clause (a) or (b) covers subject matter disclosed in the continuation-in-part or a claim in the continuation-in-part is directed to subject matter contained in a patent or patent application described in clause (a) or (b)); (d) any patent issuing from any patent or patent application described in clause (a), (b), or (c); (e) any reissue, renewal, reexamination, supplementary protection certificate, or extension of any patent or patent application described in clause (a), (b), (c), or (d); and (f) any foreign counterpart or equivalent of any patent or patent application described in clause (a), (b), (c), (d), or (e).

 

2.38 “Person”: An individual, sole proprietorship, partnership, limited partnership, limited liability partnership, corporation, limited liability company, business trust, joint stock company, trust, estate, incorporated association, joint venture or similar entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision, department, agency, or unit of a government.

 

2.39 “Phase 1 Clinical Trial”: A Clinical Trial that is intended to initially evaluate the safety and/or pharmacological effect in subjects, or that would otherwise satisfy the requirements of 21 C.F.R. §312.21(a), or its foreign equivalent.

 

2.40 “Phase 2 Clinical Trial”: A Clinical Trial for which a primary endpoint is a preliminary determination of efficacy for a particular indication in patients with the disease and to determine the common short-term side effects and risks associated with the drug, or that would otherwise satisfy the requirements of 21 C.F.R. §312.21(b), or its foreign equivalent.

 

2.41 “Phase 3 Clinical Trial”: A Clinical Trial that is performed after preliminary evidence suggesting effectiveness of the drug has been obtained and that is intended to gather confirmatory data supporting effectiveness and safety needed to evaluate the overall benefit-risk relationship of the drug, to provide an adequate basis for physician labeling, or that would otherwise satisfy the requirements of 21 C.F.R. §312.21(c), or its foreign equivalent.

 

2.42 “Recipient”: As defined in Section 7.1.1.

 

2.43 “Sale,” “sale,” “sell,” or any correlative term: The sale, lease, license, transfer, or other disposition of a Licensed Product in return for any type of consideration. Licensed Products shall be considered sold when shipped or invoiced, whichever is first.

 

2.44 “Sublicense”: A license, grant of rights to, or other similar permission to use all or some of the Patent Rights.

 

2.45 “Sublicense Income”: Consideration in any form received from a Sublicensee for use of the Inventions and Patent Rights or otherwise in consideration of its rights as a Sublicensee, including without limitation option fees, up-front fees, license signing fees, license maintenance fees, milestone payments, success fees, and any other consideration paid by or on behalf of the Sublicensee. “Sublicense Income” shall not include any royalties based on sales of Licensed Products by any Sublicensee. “Sublicense Income” shall also not include any payment or consideration received from a Sublicensee in consideration for anything other than a Sublicense, including without limitation: amounts paid for equity of Company by a Sublicensee (up to fair market value); loans or extensions of credit by a Sublicensee to Company; consideration for a license granted under technology other than the Inventions and Patent Rights; or consideration designated specifically and solely for research and development by Company of a Licensed Product.

 

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2.46 “Sublicensee”: A Person (other than a Company Affiliate) which receives a Sublicense.

 

2.47 “Term”: The period commencing as of the Effective Date, and ending upon the expiration or termination of this Agreement.

 

2.48 “University Improvement”: (a) An Improvement which was invented solely by one or more University Personnel or on behalf of University; or (b) an Improvement in which University otherwise has an ownership interest, and Company has no ownership interest.

 

2.49 “University Inventors”: As defined in Section 1.1.

 

2.50 “University Personnel”: University Inventors; and University faculty members, employees (including without limitation post-doctoral fellows), and students.

 

2.51 “University Related Organizations”: USM; any constituent institution, center, or institute that is part of USM; University of Maryland Medical System Corporation (and its subsidiaries and affiliates); faculty practice organizations of University; and the Baltimore Veterans Administration Medical Center.

 

2.52 “USM”: The University System of Maryland, a public corporation and an instrumentality of the State of Maryland.

 

2.53 “USPTO”: The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

 

Article 3. GRANT OF LICENSE

 

3.1 License.

 

3.1.1 University hereby grants to Company, and Company hereby accepts, an exclusive license, but only during the Term, within the Licensed Field, and in the Licensed Territory: (a) to make, have made, use, sell, offer to sell, and import the Licensed Products; (b) in connection therewith, to use the Inventions and University’s Confidential Information; and (c) to practice the Patent Rights.

 

3.1.2 However, the license is subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement, including without limitation Section 3.2.

 

3.1.3 All fields of use which are not specifically included in the definition of the “Licensed Field” are excluded, and University grants no license or other right with respect to those excluded fields of use.

 

3.2 University’s Reservation of Rights. Notwithstanding anything contained in this Agreement to the contrary, University specifically reserves for itself and University Related Organizations the following rights:

 

3.2.1 To use the Inventions, to practice under the Patent Rights, and to make and use Licensed Products on a royalty-free basis for research, scholarly use, teaching, education, patient care incidental to the foregoing, and other similar uses (“Non-Commercial Uses”);

 

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3.2.2 To license government agencies, universities or other educational institutions, organizations of the type described in §501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, scientific or educational organizations qualified under a state nonprofit organization statute (or foreign equivalents of the foregoing) (“Non-Commercial Organizations”) to use the Inventions, and to practice under the Patent Rights, on a royalty-free basis solely for Non-Commercial Uses; and to provide material and information (excluding Confidential Information of Company and Company Affiliates) to Non-Commercial Organizations solely for Non-Commercial Uses;

 

3.2.3 Subject to Article 7 (Confidentiality), to disseminate and publish scientific findings from research related to the Inventions, the Patent Rights, and/or Licensed Products, and to permit University Personnel to do the same; and

 

3.2.4 To license the Patent Rights, and to provide material and information (excluding Confidential Information of Company and of Company Affiliates), to third parties for uses outside the Licensed Field.

 

3.3 Company Affiliates.

 

3.3.1 Company may not assign, sublicense, grant, or otherwise convey any rights or obligations under this Agreement to a Company Affiliate, without obtaining University’s prior written consent. Such consent shall not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned, or delayed. No license is conveyed under this Agreement to any Company Affiliate, except pursuant to this Section 3.3.

 

3.3.2 In the event of a permitted assignment, sublicense, grant, or other conveyance to a Company Affiliate:

 

(a) The terms and conditions of the assignment, sublicense, grant, or other conveyance must be consistent with this Agreement;

 

(b) Company shall identify to University the name and address of any such Company Affiliate, and shall promptly provide to University a true and complete copy of each relevant agreement or document and any amendments;

 

(c) The Company Affiliate shall be bound by all of Company’s duties, obligations, and responsibilities under this Agreement;

 

(d) Company and that Company Affiliate shall be jointly and severally liable for all of their respective duties, obligations, and responsibilities under this Agreement, including without limitation the payment of royalties and Sublicense Income, whether or not paid to Company by Company Affiliate; and

 

(e) Unless the context specifically indicates otherwise, the definition of “Company” as used in this Agreement shall be construed to mean “Aikido Pharma Inc. and those Company Affiliates which have received an assignment, sublicense, grant, or other conveyance pursuant to Section 3.3, as the case may be.”

 

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3.4 Sublicenses.

 

3.4.1 Generally.

 

(a) Company may grant Sublicenses of some or all of the rights granted by this Agreement, provided that there is no uncured default or breach of any material term or condition of this Agreement by Company at the time of the grant, and that the grant complies with the terms and conditions of this Section 3.4. Company shall be and remain responsible for the performance by each Sublicensee of the Company’s obligations under this Agreement.

 

(b) Prior to entering into any Sublicense, Company shall provide University a draft of the proposed sublicense in substantially final form. University shall have fifteen (15) Business Days after receipt of the draft agreement to provide Company with comments. If University does not provide comments within such period, Company may proceed to execute the proposed sublicense substantially in the form submitted to University. University’s comments shall be limited to ensuring that the Sublicense satisfies the requirements of Section 3.4.2. Company shall make reasonable revisions to accommodate any such University comments. If Company disputes any University comment, it shall advise University prior to finalizing the Sublicense, and the parties shall promptly negotiate in good faith to resolve any disagreement. Company shall promptly provide to University a true and complete copy of each executed Sublicense and any amendments. Any documents provided under this Section shall be subject to Article 7 (Confidentiality).

 

(c) Any purported Sublicense entered into by Company in violation of the requirements of this Section 3.4 or over University’s objection that it is inconsistent with this Agreement shall be voidable in whole or in part by University in its sole discretion.

 

(d) Company shall be responsible to ascertain, compute, audit, and collect all consideration that is payable by the Sublicensee, and to enforce the performance by the Sublicensee of its obligations under the Sublicense.

 

(e) To the extent required by this Agreement, Company shall establish standards regarding the quality of Licensed Products made or sold by the Sublicensee, and shall monitor and enforce those standards.

 

(f) Company shall be required to pay Sublicense Income, pursuant to Section 5.6.

 

3.4.2 Required Terms of Sublicenses. Any Sublicense shall be consistent with and subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement, and shall incorporate terms and conditions sufficient to enable Company to comply with this Agreement. In addition, any Sublicense shall:

 

(a) Expressly include provisions for the benefit of University substantially similar to and at least as restrictive as this Section 3.4 (Sublicenses), Section 3.7 (Patent Challenges), Section 5.7 (Royalty Stacking), Article 7 (Confidentiality), Article 8 (Reports, Payments, and Accounting), Article 11 (Other Agreements), and Section 12.2 (Disclaimer of Warranties);

 

(b) Require the Sublicensee to maintain insurance consistent with the requirements of Section 13.1, and to defend, indemnify, and hold harmless consistent with Section 13.2;

 

(c) Prohibit further sublicensing by Sublicensee without the prior written consent of University (which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld), and

 

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(d) Require that any permitted Sublicense from a Sublicensee to a downstream Sublicensee satisfy the requirements of this Section (and Company shall notify University of the identity of any such further Sublicensees);

 

(e) Require that any dispute between Sublicensee and University shall be subject to dispute resolution on the terms and conditions set forth in Article 14 (Dispute Resolution) of this Agreement; and

 

(f) Provide that if this Agreement terminates or expires: (1) if requested by University, all of Sublicensee’s duties and obligations under the Sublicense shall be transferred from Company to University or its designee; and (2) any Sublicensee not in default may request a license from University to the rights sublicensed to the Sublicensee under the Sublicense (it being understood that otherwise no rights shall become directly licensed from University to any Sublicensee).

 

3.4.3 Limitations. Notwithstanding anything contained in this Agreement to the contrary, University shall not be bound by any of the following with respect to a Sublicense: (1) duties or obligations of the Company to Sublicensee which cannot be assumed or performed by University because they are inconsistent with the laws of the State of Maryland or written USM or University policy then in effect; (2) duties or obligations of the Company that exceed the obligations of University as licensor in this Agreement; and/or (3) duties or obligations of the Company contained in any Sublicense that are not contained in this Agreement, or which extend beyond the Term.

 

3.5 No Implied Rights. This Agreement confers no license or rights by implication, estoppel, or otherwise in any intellectual property, except as explicitly set forth in this Agreement. Any rights not expressly granted to Company under this Agreement are expressly reserved by University.

 

3.6 Improvements.

 

3.6.1 Ownership of Improvements; License to Company Improvements.

 

(a) University Improvements shall be solely owned by University.

 

(b)  Joint Improvements shall be owned jointly by Company and University.

 

(c) Company Improvements shall be solely owned by Company. Notwithstanding the foregoing, but still subject to Article 7 (Confidentiality), Company grants to University, and University hereby accepts, a non-exclusive, non-transferable, irrevocable, and royalty-free license to practice Company Improvements consistent with the reservation of rights set forth in Sections 3.2.1 and 3.2.3.

 

3.6.2 Disclosure.

 

(a) University Personnel (including without limitation University Inventors) are required to promptly disclose to OTT any University Improvement or Joint Improvement made during the Term. University shall report promptly to Company in writing each University Improvement and/or Joint Improvement made during the Term by University Personnel which is disclosed to OTT; provided, however, that University’s duty to disclose shall be subject to any confidentiality obligations imposed by a third party which (after the Effective Date) collaborates on or sponsors the research at University as a result of which the Improvement was made.

 

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(b) Company shall report promptly to University in writing each Company Improvement and/or Joint Improvement made by Company during the Term.

 

(c) These reports shall be subject to Article 7 (Confidentiality), and shall be in sufficient detail to determine inventorship and an appropriate intellectual property protection strategy, if any.

 

3.6.3 Company and University shall discuss whether a patent application or applications pertaining to each University Improvement and/or Joint Improvement should be filed. If Company notifies University in writing that patent application(s) should be filed with respect to any University Improvement and/or Joint Improvement, then University shall be responsible for preparing and filing those patent applications in accordance with Sections 6.1 and 6.2, and Company shall be responsible for Patent Expenses incurred for those filings in accordance with Section 3.6.7. If Company notifies University in writing that it is not interested in having patent application(s) filed with respect to a particular University Improvement and/or Joint Improvement, or if Company fails to notify University of its interest within sixty (60) days from the date on which the Improvement was disclosed by University to Company, Company shall have no further right to University’s rights to that University Improvement and/or Joint Improvement. In all events, Company shall reasonably cooperate with University’s filing of patent application(s).

 

3.6.4 Subject to rights of a third party which (after the Effective Date) collaborates on or sponsors the research at University which results in the University Improvement and/or Joint Improvement, University hereby grants to Company an exclusive option to obtain an exclusive license to any University Improvement and University’s rights in any Joint Improvement (the “Option”) during the Option Term (as defined below), provided that: (a) this Agreement is in full force and effect at the time of exercise of the Option; (b) there are no uncured material defaults or breaches by Company of this Agreement or any other agreement between Company and University at the time of exercise of the Option; (c) Company timely exercises the Option in accordance with Section 3.6.5; and (d) Company pays Patent Expenses in accordance with Section 3.6.7.

 

3.6.5 Exercise; Terms of Licensed Improvement.

 

(a) Company may exercise the Option by giving written notice to University within sixty (60) days after Company receives written notice from University under Section 3.6.2 concerning the particular University Improvement and/or Joint Improvement (the “Option Term”). Promptly following University’s receipt of that notice, the parties shall negotiate in good faith for a period of ninety (90) days or such longer period agreed by the parties (the “Negotiation Period”) an amendment to this Agreement adding that Improvement to the Patent Rights set forth on Schedule A.

 

(b) If and after an amendment is executed by the parties, but only in that event, the licensed University Improvement and/or Joint Improvement (the “Licensed Improvement”) shall be deemed to constitute part of the Patent Rights and the Invention for all purposes hereunder.

 

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(c)  The amendment shall contain the terms and conditions of the license (including without limitation royalties and other payments, milestones, etc.). Any license of a Licensed Improvement shall be consistent with and subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement; provided, however, additional or modified milestone payments may be required to correspond to new diligence milestones with respect to the Licensed Improvement. However, if (1) USM bond counsel advises that U.S. tax law relating to tax-exempt bond issues which financed the construction or renovation of University resources used for research related to the Licensed Improvement (including without limitation Internal Revenue Procedure 2007-47) would be applicable to the terms of the license of the Licensed Improvement, and (2) University or USM reasonably determines that the royalty rate set forth in this Agreement as applied to the Licensed Improvement would not satisfy the requirements of that tax law, then the parties shall negotiate in good faith to set a commercially reasonable royalty rate that does satisfy those requirements. If the parties are unable to agree upon a royalty rate for the Licensed Improvement during the Negotiation Period, the determination of a royalty rate shall be submitted to the dispute resolution process set forth in Article 14.

 

3.6.6 If the Negotiation Period ends and the parties have not executed an amendment with respect to a particular University Improvement or Joint Improvement, Company shall have no rights with respect to the University Improvement or the University’s interest in the Joint Improvement, and University may license all or a portion of the University Improvement or the University’s interest in the Joint Improvement to one or more third parties, and Company may license Company’s interest in the Joint Improvement to one or more third parties.

 

3.6.7 In consideration for the Option, Company shall be responsible for payment of all Patent Expenses with respect to Improvements reported by University under Section 3.6.2. Patent Expenses shall be due and payable within thirty (30) days of receipt by Company of a written invoice from University detailing such Patent Expenses.

 

(a) If Company fails to pay timely any invoice for the Patent Expenses, the Option with respect to the relevant University Improvement or Joint Improvement shall terminate and be of no further force or effect, effective as of the date of University’s written notice of termination.

 

(b) If (1) Company notifies University of its intent not to exercise the Option with respect to any particular University Improvement and/or Joint Improvement, (2) Company does not timely exercise the Option, or (3) the parties have not executed an amendment by the end of the Negotiation Period, then Company shall have no obligation to pay Patent Expenses related to the University Improvement and/or Joint Improvement which are incurred more than thirty (30) days after the relevant time; provided, however, Company shall reimburse University for any Patent Expenses that result from Company’s instructions to perform any such service(s). University shall use reasonable efforts to minimize the Patent Expenses incurred during the thirty (30) day period.

 

3.6.8 For purposes of this Agreement, inventorship or authorship of any Improvement or other invention shall be determined solely in accordance with U.S. intellectual property law, notwithstanding that the laws of other countries where patent, trademark, applications are filed may follow rules of inventorship or authorship that differ from U.S. intellectual property law. For purposes of this Agreement, an Improvement or other invention shall be deemed to be “made” when it is conceived.

 

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3.7 Patent Challenges.

 

3.7.1 Prior to taking or causing the taking of any Patent Challenge concerning the Patent Rights in any forum outside of the USPTO, Company agrees to first pursue an appropriate proceeding, filing, or other action in the USPTO in the form of an Inter Partes Review or Post Grant Review. Company agrees to await a final determination of any Inter Partes Review or Post Grant Review pursuant to this Section by the tribunal of last resort having jurisdiction prior to taking or causing the taking of the Patent Challenge in a forum outside of the USPTO. Company and University agree that this Section does not prohibit or limit Company’s ability to take or cause the taking of any Patent Challenge, but merely dictates the procedure for a Patent Challenge falling under the scope and kind that the USPTO is authorized to adjudicate.

 

3.7.2  If Company takes or causes the taking of any Patent Challenge (but excluding a request for Inter Partes Review or Post Grant Review under Section 3.7.1), University shall have the right: (a) to convert the exclusive license granted in this Agreement to a nonexclusive license (which shall be subject to all of the terms and conditions of the Agreement); and (b) to grant nonexclusive licenses to third parties.

 

3.7.3 If Company takes or causes the taking of any Patent Challenge, Company agrees to pay directly to University (and not into any escrow or other account) all royalties, milestone payments, Sublicense Income, and any other payment due under this Agreement during the period of challenge. If such a Patent Challenge is successful, Company shall have no right to recoup any amounts paid before or during the period of the Patent Challenge.

 

3.7.4 The provisions of this Section 3.7 shall apply in all events jointly and severally to Company and all Company Affiliates.

 

Article 4. DILIGENCE REQUIREMENTS

 

4.1 Commercialization Plan.

 

4.1.1 By [REDACTED], Company shall deliver to University a commercialization plan, in form and substance reasonably acceptable to University. A true and complete copy of the commercialization plan will be attached hereto as Schedule B (the “Commercialization Plan”). The Commercialization Plan sets forth the Company’s plan for research and development required in order to develop Licensed Product(s), and Company’s commercialization strategy regarding Licensed Product(s).

 

4.1.2 Company shall provide to University semi-annual written reports during the years 2021-2025, and annual written reports thereafter, on progress against the Commercialization Plan. The reports shall be due within thirty (30) days following the expiration of each reporting period. However, no progress reports under this Section shall be due after the First Commercial Sale, because the reporting requirements of Section 8.2 shall apply after that time. Any information or reports provided under this Section shall be treated as Company’s Confidential Information subject to Article 7 (Confidentiality).

 

4.1.3 Company shall promptly notify University of any substantial change in the Commercialization Plan if such change will materially alter or affect the timely achievement of any diligence milestone set forth on Schedule C. Any amendment of the Commercialization Plan that will materially alter or affect the timely achievement of any diligence milestone shall require the consent and approval of University, which shall not be unreasonably withheld.