UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549



FORM 6-K



REPORT OF FOREIGN PRIVATE ISSUER
PURSUANT TO RULE 13a-16 OR 15d-16 OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934



For the month of March 2020
Commission File No. 001-36085

CNH INDUSTRIAL N.V.
(Translation of Registrant's Name Into English)

25 St James’s Street,
London, SW1A 1HA
United Kingdom
Tel. No.: +44 1268 533000
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)



(Indicate by check mark whether the registrant files or will file annual reports under cover of Form 20-F or Form 40-F.)
Form 20-F      X    Form 40-F _________

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is submitting the Form 6-K in paper as permitted by Regulation S-T Rule 101(b)(1): o

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is submitting the Form 6-K in paper as permitted by Regulation S-T Rule 101(b)(7): o
    





CNH INDUSTRIAL N.V.

The following exhibit is furnished herewith:
 
Exhibit 99.1
CNH Industrial N.V. Annual Report for the year ended December 31, 2019 (prepared in accordance with EU-IFRS)







SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.



CNH Industrial N.V.



                            
By: /s/     Michael P. Going        
Name: Michael P. Going
Title: Corporate Secretary




March 3, 2020






Index of Exhibits
 
 
 
Exhibit
Number
 
Description of Exhibit
 
 
Exhibit 99.1
 
CNH Industrial N.V. Annual Report for the year ended December 31, 2019 (prepared in accordance with EU-IFRS)




Exhibit

Exhibit 99.1
 
 
 





ANNUAL REPORT
At December 31, 2019





CONTENTS

BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND AUDITOR
LETTER FROM THE CHAIRPERSON AND THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER
BOARD REPORT
PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND CERTAIN OTHER INFORMATION
OUR COMMITMENT TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND LONG-TERM VALUE CREATION
REPORT ON OPERATIONS
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
RISK FACTORS
BUSINESS OVERVIEW
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
HUMAN RESOURCES
OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS
RISK MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL SYSTEM
CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
REMUNERATION REPORT
MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS
SUBSEQUENT EVENTS AND OUTLOOK
CNH INDUSTRIAL – CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AT DECEMBER 31, 2019
CONSOLIDATED INCOME STATEMENT
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN EQUITY
NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
COMPANY FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AT DECEMBER 31, 2019
INCOME STATEMENT
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION
NOTES TO THE COMPANY FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
OTHER INFORMATION
APPENDIX – CNH INDUSTRIAL GROUP COMPANIES AT DECEMBER 31, 2019
INDEPENDENT AUDITOR’S REPORT







CNH Industrial N.V.
Corporate Seat: Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Principal Office: 25 St. James’s Street, London, SW1A 1HA, United Kingdom
Share Capital: €17,608,744.72 (as of December 31, 2019)
Amsterdam Chamber of Commerce: reg. no. 56532474

Contents 1



BOARD OF DIRECTORS
AND AUDITOR

BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Chairperson
Suzanne Heywood
Chief Executive Officer
Hubertus M. Mühlhäuser
Directors(a)
Léo W. Houle(2)(3)(*)
John Lanaway(1)(**)
Alessandro Nasi(2)(3)(b) 
Silke C. Scheiber(1)(**)
Lorenzo Simonelli(1)(**)(b)  
Jacqueline A. Tammenoms Bakker(2)(3)(**)(c) 
Jacques Theurillat(1)(**)

INDEPENDENT AUDITOR
Ernst & Young Accountants LLP


(1)Member of the Audit Committee
(2)    Member of the Governance and Sustainability Committee
(3)    Member of the Compensation Committee
(*)    Independent Director and Senior Non-Executive Director
(**)    Independent Director
(a)     Ms. Mina Gerowin, Mr. Peter Kalantzis and Mr. Guido Tabellini members of the Board until April 12, 2019.
Mr. Alessandro Nasi and Mr. Lorenzo Simonelli members of the Board since April 12, 2019.
(b)     Member of the relevant Committee/s since April 12, 2019.
(c)     Member of the Compensation Committee since April 12, 2019.
Disclaimer
All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this filing, including statements regarding our competitive strengths; business strategy; future financial position or operating results; budgets; projections with respect to revenue, income, earnings (or loss) per share, capital expenditures, dividends, capital structure or other financial items; costs; and plans and objectives of management regarding operations and products, are forward-looking statements. These statements may include terminology such as “may”, “will”, “expect”, “could”, “should”, “intend”, “estimate”, “anticipate”, “believe”, “outlook”, “continue”, “remain”, “on track”, “design”, “target”, “objective”, “goal”, “forecast”, “projection”, “prospects”, “plan”, or similar terminology. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance. Rather, they are based on current views and assumptions and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, many of which are outside our control and are difficult to predict. If any of these risks and uncertainties materialize or other assumptions underlying any of the forward-looking statements prove to be incorrect, the actual results or developments may differ materially from any future results or developments expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.
Factors, risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated by the forward-looking statements include, among others: the many interrelated factors that affect consumer confidence and worldwide demand for capital goods and capital goods-related products; general economic conditions in each of our markets; changes in government policies regarding banking, monetary and fiscal policy; legislation, particularly relating to capital goods-related issues such as agriculture, the environment, debt relief and subsidy program policies, trade and commerce and infrastructure development; government policies on international trade and investment, including sanctions, import quotas, capital controls and tariffs; volatility in international trade caused by the imposition of tariffs, sanctions, trade wars; actions of competitors in the various industries in which we compete; development and use of new technologies and technological difficulties; the interpretation of, or adoption of new, compliance requirements with respect to engine emissions, safety or other aspects of our products; production difficulties, including capacity and supply constraints and excess inventory levels; labor relations; interest rates and currency exchange rates; inflation and deflation; energy prices; prices for agricultural commodities; housing starts and other construction activity; our ability to obtain financing or to refinance existing debt; a decline in the price of used vehicles; the resolution of pending litigation and investigations on a wide range of topics, including dealer and supplier litigation, follow-on private litigation in various jurisdictions after the settlement of the EU antitrust investigation announced on July 19, 2016, intellectual property rights disputes, product warranty and defective product claims, and emissions and/or fuel economy regulatory and contractual issues; the Company’s pension plans and other post-employment obligations; political and civil unrest; volatility and deterioration of capital and financial markets, including possible effects of “Brexit”, pandemics, terror attacks in Europe and elsewhere; our ability to achieve the targets set out in the Strategic Business Plan announced on September 3, 2019 at our Capital Markets Day event; our ability to successfully implement the planned spin-off of the Company's On-Highway business; and other similar risks and uncertainties and our success in managing the risks involved in the foregoing.
Forward-looking statements are based upon assumptions relating to the factors described in this filing, which are sometimes based upon estimates and data received from third parties. Such estimates and data are often revised. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which such statements are made, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly our forward-looking statements.
Additional factors which could cause actual results and developments to differ from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements are included in the section “Risk Factors” of this Annual Report.
Further information concerning CNH Industrial and its businesses, including factors that potentially could materially affect CNH Industrial’s financial results, is included in CNH Industrial’s reports and filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), the Autoriteit Financiële Markten (“AFM”) and Commissione Nazionale per le Società e la Borsa (“CONSOB”).
All future written and oral forward-looking statements by CNH Industrial or persons acting on the behalf of CNH Industrial are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained herein or referred to above.



Board of Directors and Auditor 2




LETTER FROM THE CHAIRPERSON AND THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER


Dear Shareholders,

Although 2019 has been challenging, it has also been a year of transformative breakthroughs for CNH Industrial. While we have remained focused on the present, and have delivered solid results, we have also had an eye to the future, putting in place some of the building blocks to support our long-term strategic direction. Our Annual Report summarizes our progress and the strategic priorities that we see ahead.
Introduction
In 2019, we put in place a new corporate structure focused around our business segments. We also forged strategic alliances, expanded our digital capabilities and introduced innovative and disruptive new products, services and technologies. We want to thank our 63,500 employees for putting their trust in our leadership and working hard to realize so many successful milestones.
We also want to thank you, our shareholders, for your support as we continue to generate progressive returns and long-term value.
In the year covered by this Annual Report, we have defined our purpose to be ‘Powering Sustainable Transformation’ with our vision being that we become ‘the partner of choice to feed, build and connect the world’. Achieving this vision, in a world that is experiencing an accelerating rate of economic, social and environmental change, creates both challenges and exciting opportunities for our businesses. From a growing global population and a rural exodus that has resulted in increased urbanization, to the rise of connected devices, and the implications of climate change, we are working to offer solutions that are sustainable and socially responsible.
Our purpose and vision guided our work on the five-year ‘Transform2Win’ strategy that we announced last September at our Capital Markets Day. This strategy is based on three pillars:
I.
Growth through innovation;
II.
Margin improvement through performance and simplification; and
III.
Portfolio transformation to unlock shareholder value with the ‘spin-off’ of our ‘On-Highway’ business.
Financial Highlights
For the 12-month period ending December 31, 2019, CNH Industrial faced several market headwinds, which were exacerbated by global trade tensions and extreme weather conditions and we have been working hard to offset these challenges.
The key highlights from CNH Industrial’s 2019 financial results were as follows:
Consolidated revenues of $28.0 billion;
Adjusted EBIT(1) of $1,873 million;
Net income of $906 million.
Given weaker than expected end markets, CNH Industrial has delivered creditable full-year results in 2019. Our financial position remains robust with a strong balance sheet and excellent liquidity, and we have achieved a diluted EPS of $0.65 per share.
In July, Fitch Ratings improved our outlook to Positive from Stable and confirmed CNH Industrial N.V.’s and CNH Industrial Capital LLC's Long-Term Issuer Default Ratings at 'BBB-'.



(1) This item is a non-GAAP financial measure. Refer to the “Board Report - Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” section of this annual report for information regarding non-GAAP financial measures.

Letter from the Chairperson and the Chief Executive Officer 3



For our annual cash dividend, our Board of Directors recommended a pay out of €0.18 per common share, totaling approximately €243 million, equivalent to approximately $267 million. During the past year, we also spent almost $60 million repurchasing more than six million shares under our Buy-Back Program, underlining our commitment to supporting shareholder value.
The megatrends revolutionizing capital goods
Four megatrends are reshaping our marketplace:
1.
Digitalization
2.
Automation
3.
Servitization
4.
Alternative Propulsion
Digitalization, which is a critical enabler for automation and autonomous vehicles, and connectivity are now expected by our customers and we have plans to put both in place across our product portfolio. Servitization and the services around our products are increasingly important, and are creating new business models that we expect will significantly increase our aftermarket service business. And the growing concern about climate change has underscored the importance of our work on alternative propulsion systems and our efforts to become carbon neutral in the near future.
Accelerated global growth as a streamlined, innovative, customer centric and entrepreneurial organization
We started 2019 by announcing our new organizational structure, which is designed to make CNH Industrial more customer centric and agile. This new structure streamlined the organization and focused our attention on the global segments and functions. Alongside this structural change we began changing our culture, underpinning this with four new company values: Entrepreneurship, Passion, Team Spirit and Excellence.
This new structure and shift in our culture have brought the businesses closer to their customers and have accelerated decision-making. As one of its first tasks, this new organization developed the ‘Transform2Win’ strategy. This in turn has led to a series of acquisitions, alliances and innovation developments that we summarize below.
GROWTH THROUGH INNOVATION
Driving innovation in agriculture for our customers
Our Agriculture segment focused on digital transformation in 2019, a core theme of our ‘Transform2Win’ strategy. We strengthened our digital service platform, acquiring the software and application company AgDNA and launched a series of connected services to enrich our product offering, all of which will reduce input costs and improve productivity for our end customers. Our decision to join the universal data exchange platforms DataConnect and DKE Agrirouter for mixed fleet operation, shows our intent to become the easiest to work with and the most open manufacturer of agricultural equipment.
In 2019, we made a number of bolt-on acquisitions to expand our core portfolio offering. We are at the forefront of some of agriculture’s most innovative new technologies thanks to our in-house incubator AGXTEND and its cooperation with global Ag-tech start-ups. We have also continued to invest in promoting connectivity infrastructure projects that support our end customers. One example of this is our collaboration with ConectarAGRO, in Brazil, which seeks to consolidate and expand internet access across the country’s agricultural regions.
In line with our purpose of Powering Sustainable Transformation, one of the major additions to the New Holland Agriculture brand portfolio this year has been the world’s first methane-powered production tractor, the T6 Methane Power. By enabling farmers to use the biomethane produced by their biodigesters, they can create a virtuous circle that allows them to become energy efficient and improve the environment through decarbonization. We also introduced the STEYR Konzept tractor last year, another alternative propulsion concept, which features a modular hybrid electric drive.
Our innovative efforts were acknowledged with a number of accolades. The concept from which the New Holland T6 Methane Power model originates won the Sustainable Tractor of the Year® 2020 award, confirming the viability and industry-recognition of this solution. Further afield in the United States, Case IH and New Holland Agriculture won five innovation awards from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE).
Reinforcing our Construction business
In 2019, we continued to invest in our Construction segment, which offers a portfolio of superior products to customers. This included introducing, within our CASE Construction Equipment brand, a new methane-powered wheel loader concept. This is a new departure for the construction industry since it is powered by a methane engine, produced by FPT Industrial, which delivers the same performance as its diesel equivalent, an innovation that was recognized with the Good Design Award for 2019. Our CASE brand also marked this year with the 50th anniversary of its skid steer loader production.

Letter from the Chairperson and the Chief Executive Officer 4



This was also a year in which we strengthened the Construction leadership team. This new team is focused on supporting innovation and margin improvement and, although the financial turnaround of this segment has been behind our expectations, we expect to see improved results in the second half of 2020.
An enhanced new ‘On-Highway’ product portfolio and the road towards a zero-emission future
A new leadership team, product launches and technologies all contributed to the growth we have seen in our On-Highway business. This business consists of the Commercial Vehicles segment, which includes Trucks, Vans and Buses and the Powertrain segment. The award-winning product launch of the new fully-connected IVECO S-WAY in Madrid, Spain this past July ushered in the first new model in the IVECO WAY heavy range. The new IVECO Daily light commercial vehicle was also introduced in a now fully-connected configuration, receiving significant attention from press and customers.
In the past year, we also reinforced our positive approach in the alternative natural gas segment, which we regard as one of the best answers currently available in the transportation market to reduce emissions, a view that has been strengthened by the strong growth of this market segment in 2019. We solidified our leading role in both liquefied and compressed natural gas (LNG and CNG), promoting the expansion of the required infrastructure in Europe by partnering with leading utility providers. Demand for alternative propulsion extends to our bus business, where our IVECO BUS and HEULIEZ BUS brands are leaders in electric and hybrid solutions.
We have also begun to invest in hydrogen technologies for the commercial vehicles segment. At our Capital Markets Day last year, we announced a $250 million investment in an exclusive heavy-duty truck partnership with Nikola Motor Company (NIKOLA), a pioneer in battery electric and hydrogen electric heavy-duty applications. The primary focus of the partnership is to use IVECO, FPT Industrial and NIKOLA’s respective expertise to produce Zero-Emission heavy-duty trucks and to disrupt the industry with a new business model. We have started development of the joint-venture’s first truck: the battery electric NIKOLA TRE, which is based on the IVECO S-WAY platform and integrates NIKOLA’s proprietary technology, controls and infotainment. We plan to launch our first battery electric truck in 2021 and the fuel cell electric version will follow in 2023, strengthening our position as a sustainability leader.
Increasing the alternative propulsion Powertrain offering
In addition to the investment and development work with NIKOLA, the breadth of our Powertrain offering demonstrates the FPT Industrial brand’s ongoing leadership and commitment to increasing fuel efficiency. The segment formed alliances in 2019 to enhance its alternative propulsion engine technologies and reduce CO2 emissions. It also began work on battery packs, in partnership with Microvast, the US-Chinese leader in fast charging, long life battery power systems. These growth developments included the acquisition of Dolphin N2, a startup specialized in innovative internal combustion engine technology. FPT Industrial aims to use this to increase fuel efficiency while reducing operating costs and CO2 emissions, initially for long-haul trucks and then for other heavy-duty applications. This technology could also be extended to other industrial segments across the complete power range, and will be suitable for all fuels, with ad hoc configuration for a range of liquid fuel and gas applications.
Continued success in the Specialty Vehicles businesses
One unique part of CNH Industrial remains our presence in Specialty Vehicles. These businesses, consisting of our Magirus and Iveco Defence Vehicles brands, will remain part of our Off-Highway organization in 2021. In 2019, they generated international growth, recorded increased deliveries, sustained positive aftermarket activity and positive price realization. We are optimistic about the progress and growth prospects of these businesses.
MARGIN IMPROVEMENT THROUGH PERFORMANCE AND SIMPLIFICATION
The second pillar of our ‘Transform2Win’ strategy - Margin improvement through performance and simplification - will be driven by a set of strategic initiatives to deliver step-changes in operational performance.
Supply chain excellence and manufacturing are both critical to delivering our long-term profitability. In 2019, our global World Class Manufacturing (WCM) program continued to strengthen with four plants earning new medals, including a gold medal for our commercial vehicles facility in Valladolid, Spain.
Inspired by the success of WCM, we have adopted its principles and pillars within some of our other global functions. World Class Company initiatives have been implemented in Engineering, Finance and Logistics and we are already encouraged by the early positive results.
This year we have also made progress in simplifying our industrial footprint and rolling out our 80/20 program to streamline our product line-up and strengthen our distribution network. This work is on-track across all segments and we expect to see further benefits as we move into 2020 and beyond including through improved product margins, reduced inventory levels and optimized service levels. As we continue to roll out this program, taking it from a regional to a global level, we will ingrain simplification in the way in which we do business day-to-day. This year we have also improved parts availability and introduced new customer services, many of which are based on digitalization.

Letter from the Chairperson and the Chief Executive Officer 5



PORTFOLIO TRANSFORMATION
The third and final pillar of ‘Transform2Win’ is the ‘spin-off’ of our On-Highway business. This strategy will create two global leaders, one in sustainable agriculture and construction and one in sustainable transportation and propulsion. This change will both unlock shareholder value and give the two companies more autonomy in setting their strategic direction and allocating their capital.
This planned separation is on track. We will announce the leadership of the new On-Highway company in the second quarter of 2020, hold investor roadshows for the two companies towards the beginning of the fourth quarter and maintain our target to complete the spin-off in January 2021.
Sustainably championing excellence
CNH Industrial is committed to a better future and is intending to become carbon neutral, to produce fully recoverable products, incur zero serious injuries in the process and have a fully engaged workforce. These targets demonstrate our commitment to sustainability and this commitment also underpinned the thinking in our ‘Transform2Win’ strategy. Our segments have responded to this challenge, launching close to 100 innovative new products in 2019 and collecting numerous industry-accolades for their innovation. Our efforts demonstrate the quality of the work of our Innovation, Engineering, Product and Design teams and our global Manufacturing colleagues. As summarized in this letter, many of our brands championed alternative power solutions to improve air quality and emissions, bringing industry firsts to the market that will disrupt and change our businesses.
Our 2019 Sustainability Report summarizes our work in this area. We are very proud of our continued progress and leadership, which was once again recognized in 2019 by the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices, World and Europe, naming CNH Industrial as the Industry Leader for the ninth year in a row in the Machinery and Electrical Equipment division. We were also recognized by CDP, the international non-profit that drives companies and governments to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, safeguard water resources and protect forests, with leadership positions in CDP Water Security and CDP Climate Change.
We see sustainability not only as a global need, but also as a competitive differentiator for CNH Industrial. We are committed to continuing this journey, enhancing the Company’s growth and profitability whilst maintaining high levels of sustainability to deliver even greater long-term value for all stakeholders.
2020 Outlook
Looking ahead to 2020, the profitability and margin improvement initiatives that we outlined at our Capital Markets Day are on track and will continue to help counter the current market headwinds.
Our Capex and R&D spending for 2020 are expected to be slightly up year-over-year with investments in sustainability programs now accounting for approximately 40%.
Our overall transformation plan is on track and we are working toward achieving our financial commitments in 2020. Like many other companies, we are actively managing the rapidly evolving situation with the current spread of the coronavirus, with our aim being to try to keep our plants open and productive while being fully in line with all of the evolving public health requirements and safeguarding our employees and customers.
Our appreciation to you, our stakeholders, is immense, and we count on your support as we carry out our ‘Transform2Win’ strategy and transition into two global leaders. We look forward to sharing the results with you of our final year as one Company and celebrating the opportunities that lie ahead.



Suzanne Heywood                            Hubertus M. Mühlhäuser
Chairperson                                Chief Executive Officer


Letter from the Chairperson and the Chief Executive Officer 6



BOARD REPORT
PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND CERTAIN OTHER INFORMATION
CNH Industrial N.V. is incorporated under the laws of the Netherlands. CNH Industrial N.V. has its corporate seat in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and its principal office in London, England, United Kingdom. Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, as used in this Annual Report, the terms “we”, “us”, and “our”, refer to CNH Industrial N.V. together with its consolidated subsidiaries.
CNH Industrial presents its Consolidated Financial Statements, prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”) and adopted by the European Union (“EU-IFRS”).
CNH Industrial reports quarterly and annual financial results both under accounting standards generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”) for SEC reporting purposes and under EU-IFRS for European listing purposes and for Dutch law requirements. The reconciliation from EU-IFRS figures to U.S. GAAP is presented, on a voluntary basis, in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Financial statements under both sets of accounting principles use the U.S. dollar as the presentation currency. CNH Industrial reports its operations under five segments: Agriculture, Construction, Commercial and Specialty Vehicles, Powertrain, and Financial Services. The activities carried out by Agriculture, Construction, Commercial and Specialty Vehicles, and Powertrain, as well as corporate functions, are collectively referred to as “Industrial Activities”.
We have prepared our annual consolidated financial statements presented in this Annual Report in accordance with EU-IFRS and with Part 9 of Book 2 of the Dutch Civil Code. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared with the U.S. dollar as the presentation currency and, unless otherwise indicated, all financial data set forth in this Annual Report are expressed in U.S. dollars.
Certain financial information in this report has been presented by geographic area. Our geographic regions are: (1) North America; (2) Europe; (3) South America and (4) Rest of World. The geographic designations have the following meanings:
North America (formerly NAFTA): United States, Canada and Mexico;
Europe: member countries of the European Union, European Free Trade Association, Ukraine and Balkans, formerly included in EMEA;
South America (formerly LATAM): Central and South America, and the Caribbean Islands; and
Rest of World: Continental Asia (including Turkey and Russia), Oceania and member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (excluding Ukraine), formerly included in APAC, and African continent and Middle East, formerly included in EMEA.
Certain industry and market share information in this Annual Report has been presented on a worldwide basis which includes all countries. In this Annual Report, management estimates of market share information are generally based on retail unit sales data in North America, on registrations of equipment in most of Europe, Brazil, and various Rest of World markets, and on retail and shipment unit data collected by a central information bureau appointed by equipment manufacturers associations, including the Association of Equipment Manufacturers in North America, the Committee for European Construction Equipment in Europe, the Associação Nacional dos Fabricantes de Veículos Automotores (“ANFAVEA”) in Brazil, the Japan Construction Equipment Manufacturers Association, and the Korea Construction Equipment Manufacturers Association, as well as on other shipment data collected by independent service bureaus. Not all agricultural or construction equipment is registered, and registration data may thus underestimate, perhaps substantially, actual retail industry unit sales demand, particularly for local manufacturers in China, Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe, Russia, Turkey, Brazil, and any country where local shipments are not reported. For Commercial Vehicles, regions are defined as: Europe (the 27 countries where our Commercial Vehicles business competes, excluding United Kingdom and Ireland, for market share and total industry volume (“TIV”) reporting purposes), South America (Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela) and Rest of World (Russia, Turkey, South East Asia, Australia and New Zealand). In addition, there may be a period of time between the shipment, delivery, sale and/or registration of a unit, which must be estimated, in making any adjustments to the shipment, delivery, sale, or registration data to determine our estimates of retail unit data in any period.

Board Report Presentation of Financial and Certain Other Information 7




OUR COMMITMENT TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND LONG-TERM VALUE CREATION
CNH Industrial is committed to a better future, integrating sustainability in its day-to-day activities and involving all employees. The full integration of environmental and social considerations with economic objectives enables the Group to identify potential risks and seize additional development opportunities, resulting in a process of continuous, and sustainable, improvement that creates value over the long-term.
As evidence of this, CNH Industrial included 10 strategic sustainability targets in its Strategic Business Plan that are in line with the Company’s priorities; these in turn are based on internal assessment and stakeholder engagement.
The priorities and targets are aligned with the 6 UN Sustainable Development Goals ("SDGs") most relevant to CNH Industrial:
SDG 2: Zero hunger - end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture;
SDG 3: Good health and well-being - ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages;
SDG 8: Decent work and economic growth - promote sustained, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all;
SDG 10: Reduced inequalities - reduce inequality within and among countries;
SDG 12: Responsible consumption and production - ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns;
SDG 13: Climate action - take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.
These SDGs will inspire CNH Industrial’s future endeavors in terms of sustainability targets, practices, and projects.
 
The targets were incorporated into the Sustainability Plan, which expresses CNH Industrial’s commitment to contribute to development in harmony with people and the environment. The Sustainability Plan which includes also short-term targets


Board Report Our Commitment to Sustainable Development and Long-term Value Creation    8



is updated annually to report the progress of existing projects and establish new targets to ensure continuous improvement, essential for long-term growth and value creation.
The Sustainability Model facilitates the identification of aspirational goals and strategic sustainability targets. The Model illustrates the relationship between CNH Industrial and the external drivers that affect its business (or have the potential to do so) and provides an overview of how the Group is structured to deal with and manage them. These external drivers are the variables that continuously feed, guide, and steer the internal mechanisms of CNH Industrial, and they consist of global challenges, industry megatrends, customer needs, and the regulatory framework.
Global challenges(1) are long-term global changes affecting governments, economies, and societies, and they reflect ongoing changes across the globe and of emerging social needs. Industry megatrends are those megatrends that we believe will specifically impact our industries over the coming years. Customer needs identify customer priorities and demand for products and services. The regulatory framework fosters continuous improvement through legislation, regulation, and industry standards.
CNH Industrial responds to these external drivers with a shared corporate purpose, defined as Powering Sustainable Transformation, and an individual purpose for each brand, consistent across the Group and viable over the medium-to-long term, as well as with a set of values that lie at the core of CNH Industrial’s day-to-day activities.
CNH Industrial's purpose and values are implemented through:
strategic planning, including medium-to-long term targets;
a system of principles, rules, and procedures in which roles and responsibilities are clearly defined; and
a process that anticipates and manages current and future economic, environmental, and social risks and opportunities.
Moving closer to the core of the Model, the emphasis shifts from strategy and governance to the operational aspects of the Group. These consist of processes and applications such as manufacturing and logistics, product development and innovation, and employee behavior and stakeholder engagement, all of which must be integrated into the entire value chain to achieve CNH Industrial’s core objective: the creation of sustainable, long-term value for all stakeholders.



(1) The global challenges selected by CNH Industrial are: climate change; food scarcity and food security; and the innovative and digital world.



Board Report Our Commitment to Sustainable Development and Long-term Value Creation    9



Sustainability is a core element of CNH Industrial’s Corporate Governance, with senior management playing a direct and active role. The Governance and Sustainability Committee (the "Governance and Sustainability Committee") of the Board of Directors ("Board") is responsible for, among other things, assisting the Board in: monitoring and evaluating reports on CNH Industrial’s sustainable development policies and practices, management standards, strategy, global performance and governance; reviewing, assessing, and making recommendations on strategic sustainability guidelines, including climate-related issues; and reviewing the Company’s annual Sustainability Report(2).
CNH Industrial has established an organizational structure made up of global and regional sustainability committees and the Sustainability Team in order to optimize the management of sustainability aspects within the Group.
The Sustainability Steering Committee (“SSC”) is a committee of the Global Executive Committee ("GEC"), and is responsible for identifying sustainability strategies, integrating them with business needs, adopting a medium-to-long term vision, and providing a forum for communication and benchmarking among the geographic areas.
The SSC is chaired by the Chief Sustainability Officer ("CSO"), who is also the Chief Financial Officer, and is coordinated by the Sustainability Unit. The permanent members of the committee are: the Operating Segments’ Leaders together with the Chief Strategy, Talent, ICT and Digital Officer, Chief Technology Officer, Chief Supply Chain Officer, General Manager Aftermarket Solutions, General Managers High Growth Markets, and the leaders of the following functions: Corporate Communications, Legal, Compliance, Internal Audit, Corporate Control & Accounting, and Sustainability.
The Sustainability Team is a network of experts responsible for incorporating sustainability criteria more effectively into Company strategy and for ensuring the necessary support for sustainability planning and reporting. The Sustainability Team is overseen by the CSO and comprises personnel with global expertise (the Sustainability Unit and twenty-five Sustainability Points of Reference), as well as the Global Social Initiatives team, composed of the representatives for local community initiatives.
CNH Industrial's sustainability management system consists of the following tools:
the Code of Conduct, approved by the Board of Directors, and related policies that set out the Company’s approach to key topics;
a set of policies to manage specific issues, as well as the Human Capital Management Guidelines, Green Logistics Principles, and the Supplier Code of Conduct;
the materiality analysis, which defines social and environmental priorities;
stakeholder engagement on material topics;
a set of approximately 200 sustainability-related Key Performance Indicators, designed to provide comprehensive coverage of all the key environmental, social, and governance aspects, in line with the Global Reporting Initiative guidelines ("GRI Standards") and those of the major sustainability rating agencies;
the Sustainability Plan, which identifies action priorities and tracks commitments undertaken; and
the annual Sustainability Report, which discloses the Company’s sustainability performance.
The Sustainability Report, prepared on a voluntary basis and in line with GRI Standards, integrates the economic aspects described herein with a comprehensive view of the environmental and social performance of CNH Industrial’s operations.
Materiality analysis
The materiality analysis is a tool that CNH Industrial uses to ensure close alignment between the material topics identified and the Company's business decisions, increasingly integrating sustainability principles into the Company's daily activities. According to this approach, topics are considered material if they reflect CNH Industrial’s economic, environmental, and social impact, or influence the decisions of stakeholders.
Until 2018, occupational health and safety and connectivity fell under the material topics innovation-to-zero and autonomous vehicles, respectively. However, in 2019, to better reflect CNH Industrial’s current strategy, both were individually added to the materiality analysis as new stand-alone material topics - given that occupational health and safety is a key topic in CNH Industrial’s Strategic Business Plan, and that connectivity reflects the trends and developments in technology and big data, and merits separate evaluation due to its numerous applications.




(2) The 2019 Sustainability Report will be made available on the Company’s website as of April 16, 2020, the day of the 2020 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders.



Board Report Our Commitment to Sustainable Development and Long-term Value Creation    10



In the past four years, the material topics have been evaluated through stakeholder engagement to assess:
their relevance to CNH Industrial, based on feedback from the SSC members (feedback updated in 2019);
their relevance to stakeholders, based on feedback from a sample of 1,934 stakeholders (247 in 2019) including employees, customers, dealers, opinion leaders, public institutions, non-governmental organizations, investors, and journalists.
CNH Industrial managers and stakeholders were engaged through an online survey or direct interviews. They were asked to evaluate the 14 material topics identified, ranking the five most significant based on their impact on the economy, the environment, and society.
CNH Industrial's Materiality Matrix reflects how frequently each material topic was selected. It was shared with the GEC members, reviewed by the SSC, and reviewed and approved by the Chief Executive Officer ("CEO"). The final phase involved third party assurance of compliance, in which the Matrix development process was audited by an independent company.
The Materiality Matrix confirms the greater significance of business-related aspects, in line with the sustainability priorities defined within CNH Industrial's Strategic Business Plan. Specifically, from a circular economy perspective, the material topic Circular product life cycle was considered, both within and outside the Company, as one of the most relevant to CNH Industrial, highlighting the importance of adopting alternative solutions that minimize the impact of a product’s life cycle.


Board Report Our Commitment to Sustainable Development and Long-term Value Creation    11



CO2 and other air emissions was also one of the most relevant topics, considering not only the impact of manufacturing processes, but also of the entire value chain (logistics, supply chain, and product use). Even the topic Occupational health and safety ranked among the most relevant to both the Company and its stakeholders, highlighting the importance of an approach based on effective preventive and protective measures that involves all employees.
CNH Industrial’s materiality analysis employs a multi-year approach. The Materiality Matrix is updated annually to take incorporate changes in stakeholder perceptions and incorporate any new aspect that may become significant for the Company or its stakeholders. Additional stakeholders will be interviewed in 2020 to identify needs or priorities related to the current material topics.
Topic
Reference
PRODUCT & INNOVATION
 
Circular Product life cycle
Business Overview/Industry Overview
Autonomous vehicles
Business Overview/Industry Overview
Connectivity
Business Overview/Industry Overview
Self-sustaining food systems
Business Overview/Industry Overview
Trade, regulations, and public debate
Business Overview/Industry Overview
BEHAVIORS & ENGAGEMENT
 
Occupational health and safety
Human Resources/Employees
Local community engagement
Corporate Governance/Community Relations
Value chain management
Business Overview/Suppliers
Employee engagement
Human Resources/Employees
Digital workplaces
N.A.
PROCESSES & APPLICATIONS
 
CO2 and other air emissions
Business Overview/Plants and Manufacturing Processes
Renewable energy
Business Overview/Plants and Manufacturing Processes
Water and waste efficiency
Business Overview/Plants and Manufacturing Processes
Innovation-to-zero
Business Overview/Plants and Manufacturing Processes;
Human Resources/Employees
Taskforce on Climate-related Financial Disclosures
CNH Industrial is committed to climate change mitigation and aims at full transparency in its management of climate-related risks and opportunities through the disclosures provided in this section, in accordance with the recommendations of the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures ("TCFD"). The following section contains four thematic areas showing how the Company is tackling climate-change risks and opportunities: Governance, Strategy, Risk, Management, and Metrics and Targets. For further details, please see the TCFD correspondence table at the end of this section.
Governance
The Governance and Sustainability Committee of the Board of Directors is responsible for reviewing and guiding the strategy and risk management policies related to climate change at executive level. Moreover, the Committee is responsible for monitoring the implementation of measures to meet climate change targets such as CO2 emissions and energy efficiency.
The highest responsibility for initiatives focusing on energy efficiency and on the management of CO2 emissions at CNH Industrial lies with the Global Executive Committee. GEC members are also members of the SSC, together with the leaders of the following functions: Corporate Communications, Legal, Compliance, Internal Audit, and Corporate Control & Accounting, and Sustainability. The SSC is responsible for defining sustainability strategy and for integrating sustainability aspects into operating processes, and is chaired by the Chief Sustainability Officer.


Board Report Our Commitment to Sustainable Development and Long-term Value Creation    12



Strategy
CNH Industrial’s risk assessment process, which includes climate-related risk, identifies the risks and opportunities on which the Company’s climate change strategy is based.
CNH Industrial has started to align the reporting of its climate change mitigation actions with the recommendations of the TCFD. To this end, the Company is planning to carry out the recommended scenario analysis in the coming years and setting scientific, research-based targets accordingly. In the meantime, CNH Industrial developed a scenario analysis which led to the identification of the Internal Price of Carbon ("IPoC"), an indicator that enables it to prioritize energy-saving projects based on their ability to generate the greatest reduction in CO2 emissions. The IPoC is used as a decision-making tool whenever an initiative is presented to the Company's Investment Committee.
The identification of climate-related risks and opportunities led to the definition of a decarbonization strategy, in the light of which CNH Industrial reviewed its business priorities, adapted its financial programming, and identified the following steps for its product portfolio:
biofuels: development of vehicles powered by natural gas, currently the most widely available "green" fuel, and engines powered by other more environmentally friendly fuels, such as dimethyl ether (DME) and green diesel (HVO)
electrification: development of further electric drive technologies
hydrogen: hydrogen fuel cells represent the most promising electric drive technology for industrial, heavy-duty applications such as long-haul transport.
In order to implement its decarbonization strategy, CNH Industrial plans to develop new products by 2022 and 2024 (e.g., next generation alternative fuel engines, natural gas engine technologies, and alternative fuel tractors and wheel loaders).
To tackle climate change issues, CNH Industrial has integrated these projects and a number of specific climate-related topics into its Sustainability Plan and has defined long-term strategic targets that will drive its business strategy.
Risk Management
CNH Industrial’s Enterprise Risk Management ("ERM") system is based on the framework published by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission ("COSO") and adapted according to specific Company requirements. Climate-related issues are therefore integrated into the overall risk management process.
The process of identifying and prioritizing risks follows a bottom-up analysis: (i) management survey, (ii) GEC member interviews; and (iii) risk assessment discussions with the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors.
Direct feedback received from each of these layers, including the Board, is used to identify and develop risk-mitigating activities within a given business or functional area.
In order to strengthen sustainability and resilience within CNH Industrial, the Company works to develop and launch forward-looking solutions to better understand the impacts of natural hazards and to respond accordingly. The ability to assess the losses and costs associated with natural hazards essential for better decision making on hazard-mitigation investments and planning.
Metrics and targets
CNH Industrial has developed various indicators and tools to assess its contribution, exposure, and resilience to climate change. Annually, the Company reports its climate change impacts and performance according to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Standards in its Sustainability Report. CO2 emissions are calculated according to the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol), incorporated into Company Guidelines.
Based on the climate-related risks and opportunities identified, CNH Industrial sets targets, included in its Sustainability Plan, to reduce emissions and increase energy efficiency:
TARGETS
REFERENCE PERIOD
Monitoring of CO2 emissions of 100% of key suppliers
2022
-20% vs. 2014 in kg of CO2 emissions per ton of goods transported (including spare parts)
2024
25% of product portfolio available with natural gas powertrains
2024
-30% vs. 2014 in energy consumption per production unit at Company plants worldwide
2030
-60% vs. 2014 in CO2 emissions per production unit at Company plants worldwide
(2024 target: -46% vs. 2014 in CO
2 emissions per production unit)
2030
90% of total electricity consumption derived from renewable sources
(2024 target: 80% of total electricity consumption derived from renewable sources)
2030


Board Report Our Commitment to Sustainable Development and Long-term Value Creation    13



TCFD correspondence table
Thematic area
Recommended TCFD disclosures
Reference
Governance Disclose the organization’s governance around climate-related risks and opportunities.
a) Describe the board’s oversight of climate-related risks and opportunities.
§ Annual Report: Our commitment to sustainable development and Long-term Value Creation; Corporate Governance/Board of Directors; the Governance and Sustainability Committee
§ CDP Climate Change Questionnaire: C1 - Governance
§ Sustainability Report: Our Governance Model/Governance Structure; Manufacturing Processes/Energy management
b) Describe management’s role in assessing and managing climate-related risks and opportunities.
§ Annual Report: Our commitment to sustainable development and Long-term Value Creation
§ CDP Climate Change Questionnaire: C1 - Governance
§ Sustainability Report: Our Governance Model/Governance Structure; Manufacturing Processes/Energy management
Strategy Disclose the actual and potential impacts of climate-related risks and opportunities on the organization’s businesses, strategy, and financial planning where such information is material.
a) Describe the climate-related risks and opportunities the organization has identified over the short, medium, and long term.
§ Annual Report: Business Overview/Industry Overview; Risk Management and Control System
§ CDP Climate Change Questionnaire: C2 - Risks and Opportunities; C3 - Business strategy
§ Sustainability Report: Our commitment to the future/Materiality Analysis; Manufacturing Processes/Energy Management; Purchasing Processes; Sustainable Products
b) Describe the impact of climate-related risks and opportunities on the organization’s businesses, strategy, and financial planning.
§ Annual Report: Business Overview/Industry Overview; Risk Management and Control System
§ CDP Climate Change Questionnaire: C2 - Risks and Opportunities; C3 - Business strategy
§ Sustainability Report: Our commitment to the future/Materiality Analysis; Manufacturing Processes/Energy Management; Purchasing Processes; Sustainable Products
c) Describe the resilience of the organization’s strategy, taking into consideration different climate-related scenarios, including a 2°C or lower scenario.
§ Annual Report: Business Overview/Industry Overview; Risk Management and Control System
§ CDP Climate Change Questionnaire: C2 - Risks and Opportunities; C3 - Business strategy
§ Sustainability Report: Our commitment to the future/Materiality Analysis; Manufacturing Processes/Energy/Management; Purchasing Processes; Sustainable Products
Risk Management Disclose how the organization identifies, assesses, and manages climate-related risks.
a) Describe the organization’s processes for identifying and assessing climate-related risks.
§ Annual Report: Risk Management and Control System
§ CDP Climate Change Questionnaire: C2 - Risks and Opportunities
§ Sustainability Report: Our Governance Model/Risk Management
b) Describe the organization’s processes for managing climate-related risks.
§ Annual Report: Risk Management and Control System; Business Overview/Plants and Manufacturing Processes
§ CDP Climate Change Questionnaire: C2 - Risks and Opportunities
§ Sustainability Report: Our Governance Model/Risk management; Manufacturing Processes/Energy Management; Purchasing Processes; Sustainable Products
c) Describe how processes for identifying, assessing, and managing climate-related risks are integrated into the organization’s overall risk management.
§ Annual Report: Risk Management and Control System
§ CDP Climate Change Questionnaire: C2 - Risks and Opportunities
§ Sustainability Report: Our Governance Model/Risk Management
Metrics & targets Disclose the metrics and targets used to assess and manage relevant climate-related risks and opportunities where such information is material.
a) Disclose the metrics used by the organization to assess climate-related risks and opportunities in line with its strategy and risk management process.
§ Annual Report: Business Overview/Plants and Manufacturing Processes
§ CDP Climate Change Questionnaire: C4 - Targets and performance; C6 - Emissions data; C8 - Energy
§ Sustainability Report: Manufacturing Processes/Energy Management; Energy Performance
b) Disclose Scope 1, Scope 2, and, if appropriate, Scope 3 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the related risks.
§ Annual Report: Business Overview/Plants and Manufacturing Processes
§ CDP Climate Change Questionnaire: C4 - Targets and Performance; C6 - Emissions data; C8 - Energy
§ Sustainability Report: Manufacturing Processes/Energy Management; Energy Performance
c) Describe the targets used by the organization to manage climate-related risks and opportunities and performance against targets.
§ Annual Report: Business Overview/Plants and Manufacturing Processes
§ CDP Climate Change Questionnaire: C4 - Targets and Performance; C6 - Emissions data; C8 - Energy
§ Sustainability Report: Manufacturing Processes/Energy Management; Energy performance



Board Report Our Commitment to Sustainable Development and Long-term Value Creation    14



As further evidence of its commitment to promote sustainable development and to mitigate climate change, the Company endorsed two of the commitments promoted by the CDP(1) through its Commit to Action campaign during the UN Climate Change Conference (COP21) held in Paris in December 2015. CNH Industrial committed to (i) produce and use climate change information in mainstream corporate reports out of a sense of fiduciary and social responsibility, and (ii) engage in national and international debates to contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In response to the first commitment, some information required by the Climate Change Reporting Framework of the Climate Disclosure Standards Board (CDSB) is included in this Annual Report.

Methodologies
This Non-Financial Statement addresses the requirements of the Dutch Decree dated March 14, 2017 on Non-Financial Information, that implemented the Directive 2014/95/EU into Dutch law and this Non-Financial Statement is based on the GRI Standards reporting guidelines.
Defining the contents of this Annual Report is a process based on principles of materiality, stakeholder inclusiveness, sustainability context, and completeness. Ensuring the quality of information concerns principles of balance, comparability, accuracy, timeliness, clarity, and reliability.
Environmental and social issues included in the Annual Report were selected on the basis of the materiality analysis and focus on key phases in the product life cycle. For further information on CNH Industrial commitment to sustainable development, see the 2019 Sustainability Report.
The contents related to the different requirements stated in the Dutch Decree are included in this Annual Report in different sections. The table below shows the internal references where to find the information for each requirement.


















(1) CDP is the international non-profit organization that provides the only global system for companies and cities to measure, disclose, manage, and share essential environmental information.




Board Report Our Commitment to Sustainable Development and Long-term Value Creation    15



EU Directive Non-Financial Information and Diversity information reference table
Topic
Subtopic
Included (yes/no)
Reference
Business model
 
Yes
Business Overview; Our Commitment to Sustainable Development and Long-term Value Creation; Corporate Governance/Code of Conduct
Relevant social and personnel matters (e.g. HR, safety etc.)
A description of the policies pursued, including due diligence.
Yes
Corporate Governance/Code of Conduct; Human Resources/Employees; Business Overview/Suppliers
The outcome of those policies.
Yes
Corporate Governance/Code of Conduct; Human Resources/Employees; Business Overview/Suppliers
Principle risks in own operations and within value chain.
Yes
Risk Management and Control System; Human Resources/Employees; Business Overview/Suppliers
How risks are managed.
Yes
Risk Management and Control System; Human Resources/Employees; Business Overview/Suppliers
Non-financial key performance indicators.
Yes
Human Resources/Employees; Business Overview/Suppliers
Relevant Environmental matters (e.g. climate-related impacts)
A description of the policies pursued, including due diligence.
Yes
Corporate Governance/Code of Conduct; Business Overview/Plants and Manufacturing Processes
The outcome of those policies.
Yes
Corporate Governance/Code of Conduct; Business Overview/Plants and Manufacturing Processes
Principle risks in own operations and within value chain.
Yes
Risk Management and Control System; Business Overview/Plants and Manufacturing Processes
How risks are managed.
Yes
Risk Management and Control System; Business Overview/Plants and Manufacturing Processes
Non-financial key performance indicators.
Yes
Business Overview/Plants and Manufacturing Processes
Relevant matters with respect for human rights (e.g. labour protection)
A description of the policies pursued, including due diligence.
Yes
Corporate Governance/Code of Conduct; Corporate Governance/Respect for Human Rights
The outcome of those policies.
Yes
Corporate Governance/Code of Conduct; Corporate Governance/Respect for Human Rights
Principle risks in own operations and within value chain.
Yes
Risk Management and Control System; Corporate Governance/Respect for Human Rights
How risks are managed.
Yes
Risk Management and Control System; Corporate Governance/Respect for Human Rights
Non-financial key performance indicators.
Yes
Corporate Governance/Respect for Human Rights
Relevant matters with respect to anti-corruption and bribery
A description of the policies pursued, including due diligence.
Yes
Corporate Governance/Code of Conduct; Corporate Governance/Anti-Corruption and Bribery
The outcome of those policies.
Yes
Corporate Governance/Code of Conduct; Corporate Governance/Anti-Corruption and Bribery
Principle risks in own operations and within value chain.
Yes
Risk Management and Control System; Corporate Governance/Anti-Corruption and Bribery
How risks are managed.
Yes
Risk Management and Control System; Corporate Governance/Anti-Corruption and Bribery
Non-financial key performance indicators.
Yes
Corporate Governance/Anti-Corruption and Bribery
Insight into the diversity (executive board and the supervisory board)
A description of the policies pursued.
Yes
Corporate Governance/Board of Directors
Diversity targets
No
Corporate Governance/Board of Directors
Description of how the policy is implemented
Yes
Corporate Governance/Board of Directors
Results of the diversity policy
Yes
Corporate Governance/Board of Directors



Board Report Our Commitment to Sustainable Development and Long-term Value Creation    16



Presence in Sustainability Indexes
Inclusion in sustainability indexes, and the ratings received from specialized sector-specific agencies, further reflect the robustness of CNH Industrial’s commitment sustainability. In 2019, CNH Industrial was reconfirmed as Industry Leader in the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices (DJSI) World and Europe for the ninth consecutive year. It received a score of 88/100. Still in 2019, CNH Industrial scored A- in the CDP Climate Change program, in recognition of its actions to optimize energy consumption, reduce CO2 emissions, and mitigate the business risks of climate change. It also ranked among the 72 A-listers in the CDP Water Security program, won the SAM Gold Class Sustainability Award 2020, and was awarded ISS-oekom Prime Status.
As of December 31, 2019, CNH Industrial was included in the following indexes: FTSE4Good Index Series, ECPI Global Agriculture Liquid, ECPI World ESG Equity, ECPI Global Developed ESG Best in Class, ECPI Euro ESG Equity, Euronext Vigeo Europe 120, Euronext Vigeo Eurozone 120, STOXX Global ESG Leaders Index, STOXX Global ESG Environmental Leaders Index, STOXX Global ESG Social Leaders Index, STOXX Global ESG Governance Leaders Index, STOXX Global ESG Impact Index, STOXX Global Low Carbon Footprint, STOXX Global Reported Low Carbon Index(1) and Integrated Governance Index (IGI). Furthermore, as of 2019, CNH industrial received an MSCI ESG Rating of AAA.


(1) Those listed are the main global STOXX indexes in which CNH Industrial is included.


Board Report Our Commitment to Sustainable Development and Long-term Value Creation    17



REPORT ON OPERATIONS
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

($ million)
 
2019(*)

2018(**)

2017(***)

2016(****)

2015(****)

Net revenues
 
28,024

29,736

27,624

25,328

26,378

Profit/(loss) before taxes
 
1,208

1,914

740

(28
)
659

Profit/(loss)
 
906

1,399

456

(371
)
234

Attributable to:
 










Owners of the parent
 
874

1,368

439

(373
)
236

Non-controlling interests
 
32

31

17

2

(2
)
Basic earnings/(loss) per common share ($)
 
0.65

1.01

0.32

(0.27
)
0.17

Diluted earnings/(loss) per common share ($)
 
0.65

1.01

0.32

(0.27
)
0.17

Investments in tangible and intangible assets
 
1,063

1,033

896

874

1,116

of which: capitalized R&D costs
 
426

455

404

372

460

R&D expenditure(1)
 
1,050

1,080

986

891

877

Total Assets
 
49,182

48,650

50,798

47,834

49,117

Total equity
 
7,863

7,472

6,684

6,634

7,217

Equity attributable to owners of the parent
 
7,819

7,443

6,671

6,623

7,170

(*)
Effective January 1, 2019, CNH Industrial has adopted the IFRS 16 – Leases using the modified retrospective approach, without recasting prior periods. Reference should be made to paragraph “New standards and amendments effective from January 1, 2019” of section "Significant accounting policies" included into the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
(**)
Effective January 1, 2018, CNH Industrial adopted IFRS 15 – Revenue from Contracts with Customers using the full retrospective approach. On the same date, CNH Industrial adopted IFRS 9 – Financial Instruments retrospectively, except for hedge accounting which was applied prospectively, without recasting prior periods.
(***)
2017 figures have been recast following the retrospective adoption, on January 1, 2018, of the updated standard for revenue recognition (IFRS 15).
(****)
As previously reported.
(1)
Includes capitalized development costs and research and development (“R&D”) costs charged directly to the income statement.




Board Report Selected Financial Data    18



RISK FACTORS
The following risks should be considered in conjunction with the other risks described in the Disclaimer, Risk Management and Control System section and Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements. These risks may affect our trading results and, individually or in the aggregate, could cause our actual results to differ materially from past and projected future results. Some of these risks and uncertainties could affect particular lines of business, while others could affect all of our businesses. Although risks are discussed separately, many are interrelated. The following discussion of risks may contain forward-looking statements that are intended to be covered by the Disclaimer. Except as may be required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise. It is impossible to predict or identify all risk factors and, consequently, you should not consider the following factors to be a complete discussion of risks and uncertainties that may affect us. For the 2019 financial statements contained in this Annual Report, the Group’s assessment is that no material uncertainties (as defined in paragraph 25 of IAS 1 - Presentation of Financial Statements) exist about its ability to continue as a going concern.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS, STRATEGY AND OPERATIONS
Global economic conditions impact our businesses
Our results of operations and financial position are and will continue to be influenced by macroeconomic factors – including changes in gross domestic product, the level of consumer and business confidence, changes in interest rates, the availability of credit, inflation and deflation, energy prices, and the cost of commodities or other raw materials – which exist in the countries and regions in which we operate. Such macroeconomic factors vary from time to time and their effect on our results of operations and financial position cannot be specifically and singularly assessed and/or isolated.
Economic conditions vary across regions and countries, and demand for our products and services generally increases in those regions and countries experiencing economic growth and investment. Slower economic growth or a change in global mix of regions and countries experiencing economic growth and investment could have an adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In a weaker economic environment, some dealers and customers may delay or cancel plans to purchase our products and services and may not be able to fulfill their obligations to us in a timely fashion. Our suppliers may also be impacted by economic pressures, which may adversely affect their ability to fulfill their obligations to us. These factors could result in product delays, increased accounts receivable, defaults and inventory challenges. In addition, demand for our products and services can be significantly impacted by concerns regarding the diverse economic and political circumstances in the European Union, the debt burden of several countries in the European Union, the risk that one or more European Union countries could come under increasing pressure to leave the European Union and the long-term stability of the euro as a single common currency. These concerns, along with the significant fiscal adjustments carried out in several countries, intended to manage actual or perceived sovereign credit risk, have led to further pressure on economic growth and may lead to new periods of economic volatility and recession in the European Union. Similarly, in Brazil and Argentina, macroeconomic conditions remain volatile. If there is significant deterioration in the global economy or the economies of key countries or regions, the demand for our products and services would likely decrease and our results of operations, financial position and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
We are exposed to political, economic, trade and other risks beyond our control as a result of operating a global business
We manufacture and sell products and offer services in several continents and numerous countries around the world including those experiencing varying degrees of political and economic instability. Given the global nature of our activities, we are exposed to risks associated with international business activities that may increase our costs, impact our ability to manufacture and sell our products and require significant management attention. These risks include:
changes in laws, regulations and policies that affect, among other things:
import and export duties and quotas;
currency restrictions;
the design, manufacture and sale of our products, including, for example, engine emissions regulations;
interest rates and the availability of credit to our dealers and customers;
property, contract rights and intellectual property;
where, to whom, and what type of products may be sold, including new or additional trade or economic sanctions imposed by the U.S., EU or other governmental authorities and supranational organizations (e.g., the United Nations); and

Board Report Risk Factors    19




taxes;
regulations from changing world organization initiatives and agreements;
changes in the dynamics of the industries and markets in which we operate;
labor disruptions;
disruption in the supply of raw materials and components (e.g. as a consequence of epidemics and pandemics), including rare materials (the latter might be more easily the target of sudden increases due to a variety of factors, including speculative measures or unforeseen political changes);
changes in governmental debt relief and subsidy program policies in certain significant markets such as Argentina and Brazil, including the Brazilian government discontinuing programs subsidizing interest rates on equipment loans;
withdrawal from or changes to trade agreements or trade terms, negotiation of new trade agreements and the imposition of new (and retaliatory) tariffs on certain countries or covering certain products or raw materials, including developments in U.S.-China trade relations; and
war, civil unrest and terrorism.
In recent years, terrorist attacks have occurred around the world, leading to personal safety anxieties and political instability in many countries and, ultimately, an impact on consumers’ confidence. More recently, growing populist political movements in several major developed countries, changes in or uncertainty surrounding global trade policies and other unanticipated changes to the previous geopolitical order may have negative effects on the global economy. The recent outbreak of Coronavirus, a virus causing potentially deadly respiratory tract infections originating in China, may negatively affect economic conditions regionally as well as globally, disrupt supply chains and otherwise impact operations. Governments in affected countries are imposing travel bans, quarantines and other emergency public safety measures. Those measures, though temporary in nature, may continue and increase depending on developments in the virus’ outbreak. The ultimate severity of the Coronavirus outbreak is uncertain at this time and therefore we cannot predict the impact it may have on our end markets and our operations; however, the effect on our results may be material and adverse.
There can be no guarantee that we will be able to quickly and completely adapt our business model to changes that could result from the foregoing, and any such changes may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Reduced demand for equipment would reduce our sales and profitability
The agricultural equipment market is influenced by factors such as:
the price of agricultural commodities and the ability to competitively export agricultural commodities;
the profitability of agricultural enterprises, farmers’ income and their capitalization;
the demand for food products; and
agricultural policies, including aid and subsidies to agricultural enterprises provided by governments and/or supranational organizations, policies impacting commodity prices or limiting the export or import of commodities, and alternative fuel mandates.
In addition, droughts and other unfavorable climatic conditions, especially during the spring, a particularly important period for generating sales orders, could have a negative impact on decisions to buy agricultural equipment and, consequently, on our revenues.
The construction equipment market is influenced by factors such as:
public infrastructure spending; and
new residential and non-residential construction; and
capital spending in oil and gas and, to a lesser extent, in mining.
The commercial vehicles market is influenced by factors such as:
changes in global market conditions, including interest rates;
changes in business investment, including timing of fleet renewals; and
public infrastructure spending.
The above factors can significantly influence the demand for agricultural and construction equipment, as well as for commercial vehicles, and consequently, our financial results. Additionally, if demand for our products is less than we expect, we may experience excess inventories and be forced to incur additional charges and our profitability will suffer, including higher fixed costs associated with lower production levels at our plants. Our business may be negatively impacted if we

Board Report Risk Factors    20




experience excess inventories or we are unable to adjust our production schedules or our purchases from suppliers to reflect changes in customer demand and market fluctuations on a timely basis.
We depend on suppliers for raw materials, parts and components
We rely upon many suppliers for raw materials, parts and components that we require to manufacture our products. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to maintain access to raw materials, parts and components, and in some cases, this access may be affected by factors outside of our control and the control of our suppliers. Certain components and parts used in our products are available from a single supplier and cannot be quickly sourced from other suppliers. Increasing demand for certain products has resulted in challenges in obtaining parts and components due to supplier constraints. Supply chain disruptions, including those due to supplier financial distress, capacity constraints, labor shortages, business continuity, delivery or disruptions due to weather-related, natural disaster, pandemics or other unforeseen events, could negatively impact our business, results of operations and financial condition. Supply chain disruptions, including those due to supplier financial distress, capacity constraints, labor shortages, business continuity, delivery or disruptions due to weather-related, natural disaster, epidemics and pandemics (like the recent Coronavirus outbreak) or other unforeseen events, could negatively impact our business, results of operations and financial condition
We use a variety of raw materials in our businesses, including steel, aluminum, lead, resin and copper, and precious metals such as platinum, palladium and rhodium. The availability and price of these raw materials fluctuate, particularly during times of economic volatility or regulatory instability or in response to changes in tariffs, and while we seek to manage this exposure, we may not be successful in mitigating these risks. Further, increases in the prices for raw materials can significantly increase our costs of production, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, particularly if we are unable to offset the increased costs through an increase in product pricing.
Competitive activity, or failure by us to respond to actions by our competitors, could adversely affect our results of operations
We operate in highly competitive global and regional markets. Depending on the particular country and product, we compete with other international, regional and local manufacturers and distributors of agricultural and construction equipment, commercial vehicles, and powertrains. Certain of our global competitors have substantial resources and may be able to provide products and services at little or no profit or even at a loss to compete with certain of our product offerings. We compete primarily on the basis of product performance, innovation, quality, distribution, customer service, and price. Aggressive pricing or other strategies pursued by competitors, unanticipated product or manufacturing delays, quality issues, or our failure to price our products competitively could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial position. Additionally, there has been a trend toward consolidation in the truck and construction equipment industries that has resulted in larger and potentially stronger competitors in those industries. The markets in which we compete are highly competitive in terms of product quality, innovation, pricing, fuel economy, reliability, safety, customer service and financial services offered. Competition, particularly on pricing, has increased significantly in the markets in which we compete in recent years. Should we be unable to adapt effectively to market conditions, this could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Costs of ongoing compliance with, or failure to comply with, increasingly stringent environmental, health and safety laws could have an adverse effect on our results of operations
We are subject to comprehensive and constantly evolving laws, regulations and policies in numerous jurisdictions around the world. We expect the extent of legal requirements affecting our businesses and our costs of compliance to continue to increase in the future. Such laws govern, among other things, products – with requirements on emissions of polluting gases and particulate matter, increased fuel efficiency and safety becoming increasingly strict – and industrial plants – with requirements for reduced air emissions, treatment of waste and water, and prohibitions on soil contamination also becoming increasingly strict. To comply with such laws, we make significant investments in research and development and capital expenditures and expect to continue to incur substantial costs in the future. Failure to comply with such laws could limit or prohibit our ability to sell our products in a particular jurisdiction, expose us to penalties or clean-up costs, civil or criminal liability and sanctions on certain of our activities, as well as damage to property or natural resources. Liabilities, sanctions, damages and remediation efforts related to any non-compliance with such laws, including those that may be adopted or imposed in the future, could negatively impact our ability to conduct our operations and our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, there can be no assurance that we will not be adversely affected by costs, liabilities or claims with respect to any subsequently acquired operations.
Further, environmental, health and safety regulations change from time to time, as may related interpretations and other guidance. For example, changes in environmental and climate change laws, including laws relating to engine and vehicle emissions, safety regulations, fuel requirements, restricted substances, or greenhouse gas emissions, could lead to new or additional investments in product designs and could increase environmental compliance expenditures. If these laws are either changed or adopted and impose significant operational restrictions and compliance requirements on our products or operations, they could result in higher capital expenditures and negatively impact our business, results of operations,

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financial position and competitive position. Finally, recent public opinion backlash against diesel engine emissions might trigger the adoption of policies severely restricting the use of diesel engines.
Changes in government monetary or fiscal policies may negatively impact our results
Most countries where our products and services are sold have established central banks to regulate monetary systems and influence economic activities, generally by adjusting interest rates. Some governments may implement measures designed to slow economic growth in those countries (e.g. higher interest rates, reduced bank lending and other anti-inflation measures). Rising interest rates could have a dampening effect on the overall economic activity and/or the financial condition of our customers, either or both of which could negatively affect demand for our products and our customers’ ability to repay obligations to us. Central banks and other policy arms of many countries may take further actions to vary the amount of liquidity and credit available in an economy. The impact from a change in liquidity and credit policies could negatively affect the customers and markets we serve or our suppliers, which could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition. Government initiatives that are intended to stimulate demand for products sold by us, such as changes in tax treatment or purchase incentives for new equipment, can significantly influence the timing and level of our revenues. The terms, size and duration of such government actions are unpredictable and outside of our control. Any adverse change in government policy relating to those initiatives could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our future performance depends on our ability to innovate and on market acceptance of new or existing products
Our success depends on our ability to maintain or increase our market share in existing markets and to expand into new markets through the development of innovative, high-quality products that provide adequate profitability. In September 2019, we announced our five-year Strategic Business Plan. This Plan includes investments in innovation designed to further develop existing, and create new, product offerings responsive to customer needs, thereby producing sales growth in existing markets and expansion into new markets. Achievement of these objectives is dependent on a number of factors, including our ability to maintain key dealer relationships, our ability to produce products that meet the quality, performance and price expectations of our customers, and our ability to develop effective sales, dealer training and marketing programs. Failure to develop and offer innovative products that compare favorably to those of our principal competitors in terms of price, quality, functionality, features, mobility and connected services, vehicle electrification, fuel cell technology and autonomy, or delays in bringing strategic new products to market, or the inability to adequately protect our intellectual property rights or supply products that meet regulatory requirements, including engine emissions requirements, could result in reduced market share, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our existing operations and expansion plans in emerging markets could entail significant risks
Our ability to grow our businesses depends to an increasing degree on our ability to increase market share and operate profitably worldwide, and in particular, in emerging market countries, such as Brazil, Russia, India, China, Argentina, Turkey, and South Africa. In addition, we could increase our use of suppliers located in such countries. Our implementation of these strategies will involve a significant investment of capital and other resources and exposes us to multiple and potentially conflicting cultural practices, business practices and legal requirements that are subject to change, including those related to tariffs, trade barriers, investments, property ownership rights, taxation and sanction and export control requirements. For example, we may encounter difficulties in obtaining necessary governmental approvals in a timely manner. In addition, we may experience delays and incur significant costs in constructing facilities, establishing supply channels, and commencing manufacturing operations. Further, customers in these markets may not readily accept our products as compared with products manufactured and commercialized by our competitors. The emerging market countries may also be subject to a greater degree of economic and political volatility that could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows. Many emerging market economies have experienced slower growth, volatility, and other economic challenges in recent periods and may be subject to a further slowdown in gross domestic product expansion and/or be impacted by domestic political or currency volatility, potential hyperinflationary conditions and/or increase of public debt.
We may not realize all of the anticipated benefits from our business simplification initiatives, the spin-off of our On-Highway business and cost management initiatives
As part of our Strategic Business Plan, we are actively engaged in a number of initiatives to simplify our business and increase our productivity, efficiency and cash flow, which we expect to have a positive long-term effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. These initiatives include the announced spin-off of our On-Highway business and the 80/20 simplification process related to our product portfolio. There can be no assurance that these initiatives or others will be beneficial to the extent anticipated, or that the estimated efficiency improvements or cash flow improvements will be realized as anticipated or at all. If these initiatives are not implemented successfully, they could have an adverse effect on our operations. We also expect to take targeted restructuring actions as we continue to optimize our cost structure and improve the efficiency of our operations. In order to complete these actions, we will incur charges. Failure to realize

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anticipated savings or benefits from our cost reduction actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and cash flows.
We are subject to extensive anti-corruption and antitrust laws and regulations
Due to the global scope of our operations, we are subject to many laws and regulations that apply to our operations around the world, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and the U.K. Bribery Act, as well as a range of national anti-corruption and antitrust or competition laws that apply to conduct in a particular jurisdiction. These anti-corruption laws prohibit improper payments in cash or anything of value to improperly influence third parties to obtain or retain business or gain a business advantage. These laws tend to apply regardless of whether those practices are legal or culturally acceptable in a particular jurisdiction. Over the past several years there has been an increase in the enforcement of anti-corruption and antitrust or competition laws both globally and in particular jurisdictions and we have from time to time been subject to investigations and charges claiming violations of anti-corruption or antitrust or competition laws, including our settlement of the EU antitrust investigation announced on July 19, 2016. Following this settlement, the Company has been named as defendant in current private litigation commenced in various European jurisdictions and Israel that remains at an early stage. The Company expects to face further claims in various jurisdictions, the extent and outcome of which cannot be predicted at this time. We are committed to operating in compliance with all applicable laws, in particular, anti-corruption and antitrust or competition laws. We have implemented a program to promote compliance with these laws and to reduce the likelihood of potential violations. Our compliance program, however, may not in every instance protect us from acts committed by our employees, agents, contractors, or collaborators that may violate the applicable laws or regulations of the jurisdictions in which we operate. Such improper actions could subject us to civil or criminal investigations and monetary, injunctive and other penalties as well as damage claims. Investigations of alleged violations of these laws tend to be expensive and require significant management time and attention, and these investigations of purported violations, as well as any publicity regarding potential violations, could harm our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position. For further information see Note 28 “Commitments and contingencies” to the Consolidated Financial Statements at December 31, 2019.
We may be adversely affected by the U.K. vote to leave the European Union (Brexit)
In a June 23, 2016 referendum, the United Kingdom (“U.K.”) voted to terminate the U.K.’s membership in the European Union (“Brexit”). The U.K. withdrew from the European Union on January 31, 2020. Following its departure, the U.K. entered a transition period until December 31, 2020. Negotiations during the transition period will determine the terms of the U.K.’s future relationship with the European Union and its member states, including the terms of trade. Any effect of Brexit is expected to depend on the agreements, if any, negotiated between the U.K. and the EU with respect to reciprocal market access and other matters, either during a transitional period or more permanently. The terms of the withdrawal, including terms of trade, are subject to ongoing negotiations that have created significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the U.K. and the EU. Brexit may also lead to legal uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the U.K. determines which EU laws to replace or replicate. Any of these effects of Brexit, among others, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Brexit could adversely affect U.K., European or worldwide economic and market conditions more broadly and could contribute to instability in global financial markets. We have operations in the U.K., but do not believe that our global operations would be affected materially by Brexit. However, any adverse effect of Brexit on us or on global or regional economic or market conditions could adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition as customers may reduce or delay spending decisions with respect to our products. Any uncertainty related to Brexit could also affect trading in our shares.
We are organized as a Dutch company, but we are considered resident in the U.K. for U.K. tax purposes. This determination is based on the U.K. as the location of management and control which has been confirmed through a mutual agreement procedure with the relevant tax authorities (as to which see “Other Risks - CNH Industrial operates and will continue to operate, as a company that is resident in the U.K. for tax purposes; other tax authorities may treat CNH Industrial as being tax resident elsewhere”). We do not expect the U.K.’s exit from the European Union to affect our tax residency in the U.K.; however, we are unable to predict with certainty whether any measures implemented in connection with the U.K.'s exit from the European Union or arrangements relating to the future relationship between the European Union and the U.K. will ultimately have any such impact.
Dealer equipment sourcing and inventory management decisions could adversely affect our sales
We sell our products primarily through independent dealers and are subject to risks relating to their inventory management decisions and operating and sourcing practices. Our dealers carry inventories of finished products and parts as part of ongoing operations and adjust those inventories based on their assessment of future sales opportunities and market conditions, including the level of used equipment inventory. If our dealers’ inventory levels are higher than they desire, they may postpone product purchases from us, which could cause our sales to be lower than the end-user demand for our products and negatively impact our results. Similarly, our sales could be negatively impacted through the loss of time-sensitive sales if our dealers do not maintain inventory sufficient to meet customer demand. Further, dealers who carry other products that compete with our products may focus their inventory purchases and sales efforts on goods provided

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by other suppliers due to industry demand or profitability. Such inventory adjustments and sourcing decisions can adversely impact our sales, results of operations and financial condition.
We may not be able to realize anticipated benefits from any acquisitions and, further, challenges associated with strategic alliances may have an adverse impact on our results of operations
We have engaged in the past, and may engage in the future, in mergers and acquisitions or enter into, expand or exit from strategic alliances and joint ventures that could involve risks that could prevent us from realizing the expected benefits of the transactions or the achievement of strategic objectives or could divert management’s time and attention. Such risks, many of which are outside our control, include:
technological and product synergies, economies of scale and cost reductions not occurring as expected;
unexpected liabilities;
incompatibility of operating, information or other systems;
unexpected changes in laws;
inability to retain key employees;
protecting intellectual property rights;
inability to source certain products or components (or the cost thereof);
significant costs associated with terminating or modifying alliances; and
problems in retaining customers and integrating operations, services, personnel, and customer bases.
If problems or issues were to arise among the parties to one or more strategic alliances for managerial, financial, or other reasons, or if such strategic alliances or other relationships were terminated, our product lines, businesses, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Our results of operations may be adversely impacted by various types of claims, lawsuits, and other contingent obligations
In the ordinary course of business, we are involved in pending litigation and investigations on a wide range of topics, including dealer and supplier litigation, intellectual property rights disputes, product warranty and defective product claims, product performance, asbestos, personal injury, engine emissions and/or fuel economy regulatory and contract issues, and environmental claims. The industries in which we operate are also periodically reviewed or investigated by regulators, which could lead to enforcement actions, fines and penalties or the assertion of private litigation claims. The ultimate outcome of these legal matters pending against us is uncertain, and although such legal matters are not expected individually to have a material adverse effect on our financial position or profitability, such legal matters could, in the aggregate, in the event of unfavorable resolutions thereof, have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, we could in the future be subject to judgments or enter into settlements of lawsuits and claims that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations in any particular period. In addition, while we maintain insurance coverage with respect to certain risks, we may not be able to obtain such insurance on acceptable terms in the future, if at all, and any such insurance may not provide adequate coverage against claims under such policies. We establish reserves based on our assessment of contingencies, including contingencies related to legal claims asserted against us. Subsequent developments in legal proceedings may affect our assessment and estimates of the loss contingency recorded as a reserve and require us to make payments that exceed our reserves, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and/or financial position. For further information see Note 28 “Commitments and contingencies” to the Consolidated Financial Statements at December 31, 2019.
A cybersecurity breach could interfere with our operations, compromise confidential information, negatively impact our corporate reputation and expose us to liability
We rely upon information technology systems and networks, some of which are managed by third parties, in connection with a variety of our business activities. These systems include supply chain, manufacturing, distribution, invoicing and collection of payments from dealers or other purchasers of our products and from customers of our financial services business, and connectivity services among vehicles. We use information technology systems to record, process and summarize financial information and results of operations for internal reporting purposes and to comply with regulatory financial reporting, legal and tax requirements. Additionally, we collect and store sensitive data, including intellectual property, proprietary business information and the proprietary information of our customers, suppliers and dealers, as well as personally identifiable information of our dealers, customers and employees, in data centers and on information technology networks. Operating these information technology systems and networks, and processing and maintaining this data, in a secure manner, are critical to our business operations and strategy. Increased information technology security threats and more sophisticated computer crime pose a risk to the security of our systems and networks and the confidentiality, availability and integrity of our data. Cybersecurity attacks could also include attacks targeting customer data or the security, integrity and/or reliability of the hardware and software installed in our products.

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While we actively manage information technology security risks within our control through security measures, business continuity plans and employee training around phishing and other cyber risks, there can be no assurance that such actions will be sufficient to mitigate all potential risks to our systems, networks, data, and products. Furthermore, third parties on which we rely, including internet, mobile communications technology and cloud service providers, could be sources of information security risk to us.
A failure or breach in security, whether of our systems and networks or those of third parties on which we rely, could expose us and our customers, dealers and suppliers to risks of misuse of information or systems, the compromising of confidential information, loss of financial resources, manipulation and destruction of data, defective products, production downtimes and operations disruptions, which in turn could adversely affect our reputation, competitive position, businesses and results of operations. Security breaches could also result in litigation, regulatory action, unauthorized release of confidential or otherwise protected information and corruption of data, as well as remediation costs and higher operational and other costs of implementing further data protection measures. In addition, as security threats continue to evolve we may need to invest additional resources to protect the security of our systems and data. The amount or scope of insurance coverage we maintain may be inadequate to cover claims or liabilities relating to a cybersecurity attack.
Changes in privacy laws could disrupt our business
We are also subject to various laws regarding privacy and the protection of personal information. The regulatory framework for privacy and data security issues worldwide is rapidly evolving and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. The European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) imposes more stringent data protection requirements and provides for significant penalties for noncompliance. New privacy laws will continue to come into effect around the world, including the California Consumer Privacy Act and Brazil’s General Law of Personal Data Protection. We may be required to incur significant costs to comply with these and other privacy and data security laws, rules and regulations. Any inability to adequately address privacy and security concerns or comply with applicable privacy and data security laws, rules and regulations could have an adverse effect on our business prospects, results of operations and/or financial position.
We face risks associated with our employment relationships
In many countries where we operate, our employees are protected by laws and/or collective labor agreements that guarantee them, through local and national representatives, the right of consultation on specific matters, including repurposing, downsizing or closure of production facilities, activities and reductions in personnel. Laws and/or collective labor agreements applicable to us could impair our flexibility in reshaping and/or strategically repositioning our business activities. Therefore, our ability to reduce personnel or implement other permanent or temporary redundancy measures is subject to government approvals and/or the agreement of labor unions where such laws and agreements are applicable. Furthermore, we are at greater risk of work interruptions or stoppages than non-unionized companies and any work interruption or stoppage could significantly impact the volume of products we manufacture and sell, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our ability to execute our strategy is dependent upon our ability to attract, motivate and retain qualified personnel Our ability to compete successfully, to manage our business effectively, to expand our business and to execute our strategic direction, in particular the implementation of our Strategic Business Plan, depends, in part, on our ability to attract, motivate and retain qualified personnel in key functions. In particular, we are dependent on our ability to attract, motivate and retain qualified personnel with the requisite education, background, talents and industry experience. Failure to attract and retain qualified personnel, whether as a result of an insufficient number of qualified applicants, difficulty in recruiting new personnel, or the inability to integrate and retain qualified personnel, could impair our ability to execute our business strategy and could adversely affect our business.
Our business may be affected by unfavorable weather conditions, climate change or other calamities
Poor, severe or unusual weather conditions caused by climate change or other factors, particularly during the planting and early growing season, can significantly affect the purchasing decisions of our agricultural equipment customers. The timing and quantity of rainfall are two of the most important factors in agricultural production. Insufficient levels of rain prevent farmers from planting crops or may cause growing crops to die, resulting in lower yields. Excessive rain or flooding can also prevent planting or harvesting from occurring at optimal times and may cause crop loss through increased disease or mold growth. Temperature affects the rate of growth, crop maturity, crop quality and yield. Temperatures outside normal ranges can cause crop failure or decreased yields and may also affect disease incidence. Natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, storms, droughts, diseases and pests can have a negative impact on agricultural production. The resulting negative impact on farm income can strongly affect demand for our agricultural equipment in any given period.
In addition, natural disasters, pandemic illness, terrorist attacks or violence, equipment failures, power outages, disruptions to our information technology systems and networks or other unexpected events could result in physical damage to and complete or partial closure of one or more of our manufacturing facilities or distribution centers, temporary or long-term disruption in the supply of parts or component products, disruption in the transport of our products to dealers and customers and delay in delivery of products to distribution centers. In the event such events occur, our financial results might be

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negatively impacted. Our existing insurance arrangements may not protect against all costs that may arise from such events.
Furthermore, the potential physical impacts of climate change on our facilities, suppliers and customers and therefore on our operations are highly uncertain and will be particular to the circumstances developing in various geographical regions. These may include long-term changes in temperature and water availability. These potential physical effects may adversely impact the demand for our products and the cost, production, sales and financial performance of our operations.
Changes in demand for food and alternate energy sources could impact our revenues
Changing worldwide demand for farm outputs to meet the world’s growing food and alternative energy demands, driven in part by government policies and a growing world population, are likely to result in fluctuating agricultural commodity prices, which affect sales of agricultural equipment. While higher commodity prices will benefit our crop producing agricultural equipment customers, higher commodity prices also result in greater feed costs for livestock and poultry producers, which in turn may result in lower levels of equipment purchased by these customers. Lower commodity prices directly affect farm income, which could negatively affect sales of agricultural equipment. Moreover, changing alternative energy demands may cause farmers to change the types or quantities of the crops they grow, with corresponding changes in equipment demands. Finally, changes in governmental policies regulating bio-fuel utilization could affect demand for our equipment and result in higher research and development costs related to equipment fuel standards.
International trade policies may impact demand for our products and our competitive position
Government policies on international trade and investment such as sanctions, import quotas, capital controls or tariffs, whether adopted by non-governmental bodies, individual governments or addressed by regional trade blocs, may affect the demand for our products, technology and services, impact the competitive position of our products or prevent us from being able to sell products to certain customers or in certain countries. The implementation of more protectionist trade policies, such as more detailed inspections, higher tariffs, or new barriers to entry, in countries where we sell products and provide services could negatively impact our business, results of operations and financial position. For example, a government’s adoption of trade sanctions or “buy national” policies or retaliation by another government against such policies could have a negative impact on our results of operations.
FINANCIAL RISKS
Difficulty in obtaining financing or refinancing existing debt could impact our financial performance
Our performance will depend on, among other things, our ability to finance debt repayment obligations and planned investments from operating cash flow, available liquidity, the renewal or refinancing of existing bank loans and/or facilities and access to capital markets or other sources of financing. A decline in revenues could have a negative impact on the cash-generating capacity of our operations. Consequently, we could find ourselves in the position of having to seek additional financing and/or having to refinance existing debt, including in unfavorable market conditions with limited availability of funding and a general increase in funding costs. Instability in global capital markets, including market disruptions, limited liquidity and interest rate and exchange rate volatility, could reduce our access to capital markets or increase the cost of our short and long-term financing. Any difficulty in obtaining financing could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.
Our ability to access the capital markets or other forms of financing and related costs are highly dependent on, among other things, the credit ratings of CNH Industrial N.V., its subsidiaries, asset-backed securities (“ABS”) and other debt instruments. Rating agencies may review and revise their ratings from time to time, and any downgrade or other negative action with respect to our credit ratings by one or more rating agencies may increase our cost of capital, potentially limit our access to sources of financing, and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We are subject to exchange rate fluctuations, interest rate changes and other market risks
We operate in numerous markets worldwide and are exposed to market risks stemming from fluctuations in currency and interest rates, including as a result of changes in monetary or fiscal policies of governmental authorities from time to time. We are subject to currency exchange risk to the extent that our costs are denominated in currencies other than those in which we earn revenues. In addition, the reporting currency for our consolidated financial statements is the U.S. dollar. Certain of our assets, liabilities, expenses and revenues are denominated in other currencies. Those assets, liabilities, expenses and revenues are translated into the U.S. dollar at the applicable exchange rates to prepare our consolidated financial statements. Therefore, increases or decreases in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and those other currencies affect the value of those items reflected in our consolidated financial statements, even if their value remains unchanged in their original currency. Changes in currency exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and other currencies have had, and will continue to have, an impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
We use various forms of financing to cover the funding requirements of our Industrial Activities and for financing offered to customers and dealers. Financial Services normally implements a matching policy to offset the impact of differences in

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interest rates on the financed portfolio and related liabilities. Nevertheless, any future changes in interest rates can result in increases or decreases in revenues, finance costs and margins.
Although we seek to manage our currency risk and interest rate risk, including through hedging activities, there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so successfully, and our business, results of operations and financial position could be adversely affected. In addition, by utilizing these instruments, we potentially forego the benefits that may result from favorable fluctuations in currency exchange and interest rates. For additional information, see Note 31 “Information on financial risks” to the Consolidated Financial Statements at December 31, 2019.
We also face risks from currency devaluations. Currency devaluations result in a diminished value of funds denominated in the currency of the country instituting the devaluation.
Because Financial Services provides financing for a significant portion of our sales worldwide, our operations and financial results could be impacted materially should negative economic conditions affect the financial industry
Negative economic conditions can have an adverse effect on the financial industry in which Financial Services operates. Financial Services, through wholly-owned financial services companies and joint ventures, provides financing for a significant portion of our sales worldwide. Financial Services may experience credit losses that exceed its expectations and adversely affect its financial condition and results of operations. Financial Services’ inability to access funds at cost-effective rates to support its financing activities could have a material adverse effect on our business. Financial Services’ liquidity and ongoing profitability depend largely on timely access to capital in order to meet future cash flow requirements and to fund operations and costs associated with engaging in diversified funding activities. Additionally, negative market conditions could reduce customer confidence levels, resulting in declines in credit applications and increases in delinquencies and default rates, which could materially impact Financial Services’ write-offs and provision for credit losses. Financial Services may also experience residual value losses that exceed its expectations caused by lower pricing for used equipment and higher than expected equipment returns at lease maturity.
An increase in delinquencies or repossessions could adversely affect the results of Financial Services
Fundamental in the operation of Financial Services is the credit risk associated with its customers/borrowers. The creditworthiness of each customer, rates of delinquency and default, repossessions and net losses on loans to customers are impacted by many factors, including: relevant industry and general economic conditions; the availability of capital; the terms and conditions applicable to extensions of credit; the experience and skills of the customer’s management team; commodity prices; political events; weather; and the value of the collateral securing the extension of credit. An increase in delinquencies or defaults, or a reduction in repossessions could have an adverse impact on the performance of Financial Services and our earnings and cash flows. In addition, although Financial Services evaluates and adjusts its allowance for credit losses related to past due or non-performing receivables on a regular basis, adverse economic conditions or other factors that might cause deterioration of the financial health of customers could change the timing and level of payments received and thus necessitate an increase in Financial Services’ estimated losses, which could have a material adverse effect on Financial Services’ and our results of operations and cash flows.
New regulations or changes in financial services regulations could adversely impact us
Financial Services’ operations are highly regulated by governmental authorities in the locations where it operates, which can impose significant additional costs and/or restrictions on its business. In the U.S., for example, the requirements of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (“Dodd-Frank Act”), including its implementing regulations, may substantially affect Financial Services’ origination, servicing, and securitization programs. The Dodd-Frank Act also strengthens the regulatory oversight of these securities and related capital market activities by the SEC and increases the regulation of the ABS markets through, among other things, a mandated risk retention requirement for securitizers and a direction to regulate credit rating agencies. Other future regulations may affect Financial Services' ability to engage in funding these capital market activities or increase the effective cost of such transactions, which could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
We may be exposed to shortfalls in our pension plans
At December 31, 2019, the funded status for our defined benefit pension, and other post-employment benefits was an underfunded status of $1,431 million that is included in the consolidated statement of financial position. The funded status is the balance between the present value of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of related assets, in case of funded plans (plans managed by a separate fund, “trust”). Consequently, the funded status is subject to many factors, as discussed in the Consolidated Financial Statements at December 31, 2019, section “Significant Accounting Policies” paragraph “Use of Estimates”, as well as Note 23 “Provisions for employee benefits”.
To the extent that our obligations under a plan are unfunded or underfunded, we will have to use cash flows from operations and other sources to pay our obligations as they become due. In addition, since the assets that currently fund these obligations are primarily invested in debt instruments and equity securities, the value of these assets is subject to changes due to market fluctuations.

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We have significant outstanding indebtedness, which may limit our ability to obtain additional funding and may limit our financial and operating flexibility
As of December 31, 2019, we had an aggregate of $25,413 million (including $20,820 million relating to Financial Services’ activities) of consolidated gross indebtedness, and our equity was $7,863 million, including noncontrolling interests. The extent of our indebtedness could have important consequences on our operations and financial results, including
we may not be able to secure additional funds for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements or general corporate purposes;
we may need to use a portion of our projected future cash flow from operations to pay principal and interest on our indebtedness, which may reduce the amount of funds available to us for other purposes;
we may be more financially leveraged than some of our competitors, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage;
we may not be able to invest in the development or introduction of new products or new business opportunities;
we may not be able to adjust rapidly to changing market conditions, which may make us more vulnerable to a downturn in general economic conditions; and
we may not be able to access the capital markets on favorable terms, which may adversely affect our ability to provide competitive retail and wholesale financing programs.
These risks are exacerbated by the ongoing volatility in the financial markets, in part resulting from perceived strains on the finances and creditworthiness of several governments and financial institutions, particularly in the European Union and Latin America, and from continued concerns about global economic growth, particularly in emerging markets.
Further, our indebtedness under some of our instruments including our revolving credit facilities and derivative transactions may bear interest at variable interest rates based on LIBOR. The LIBOR benchmark has been subject to national, international, and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. In July 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for calculation of LIBOR after 2021. These reforms may cause LIBOR to perform differently than in the past and LIBOR may ultimately cease to exist after 2021 or be unsuitable to use as a benchmark. The consequences of any potential cessation, modification or other reform of LIBOR cannot be predicted at this time. Any new benchmark rate will likely not replicate LIBOR exactly, which could impact new credit facilities and derivative transaction entered into after 2021. Any changes to benchmark rates could have an impact on our cost of funds and our access to the capital markets, which could impact our results of operations and cash flows. Uncertainty as to the nature of such potential changes may also adversely affect the trading market for our securities.
Restrictive covenants in our debt agreements could limit our financial and operating flexibility
The agreements governing our outstanding debt securities and other credit agreements to which we are a party from time to time contain, or may contain, covenants that restrict our ability to, among other things:
incur additional indebtedness by certain subsidiaries;
make certain investments;
enter into certain types of transactions with affiliates;
sell or acquire certain assets or merge with or into other companies; and/or
use assets as security in other transactions.
Although we do not believe any of these covenants materially restrict our operations currently, a breach of one or more of the covenants could result in adverse consequences that could negatively impact our businesses, results of operations, and financial position. These consequences may include the acceleration of amounts outstanding under certain of our credit facilities, triggering an obligation to redeem certain debt securities, termination of existing unused commitments by our lenders, refusal by our lenders to extend further credit under one or more of the facilities or to enter into new facilities or the lowering or modification of CNH Industrial’s credit ratings or those of one or more of its subsidiaries. For further information, see Note 25 “Debt” to the Consolidated Financial Statements at December 31, 2019.
OTHER RISKS
CNH Industrial operates and will continue to operate, as a company that is resident in the U.K. for tax purposes; other tax authorities may treat CNH Industrial as being tax resident elsewhere
CNH Industrial is not incorporated in the U.K.; therefore, in order to be resident in the U.K. for tax purposes, CNH Industrial’s central management and control must be located (in whole or in part) in the U.K. The test of central management and control is largely a question of fact based on all the circumstances. The decisions of the U.K. courts and the published practice of Her Majesty’s Revenue & Customs, or HMRC, suggest that CNH Industrial should be regarded as being U.K.-

Board Report Risk Factors    28




resident on this basis. The competent authority ruling referred to below supports this analysis. Although CNH Industrial’s “central management and control” is in the U.K., it would not be treated as U.K.-resident if (a) CNH Industrial were concurrently resident in another jurisdiction (applying the tax residence rules of that jurisdiction) which has a double tax treaty with the U.K.; and (b) that tax treaty allocates exclusive residence to that other jurisdiction.
Although CNH Industrial’s central management and control is in the U.K., CNH Industrial is considered to be resident in the Netherlands for Dutch corporate income tax and Dutch dividend withholding tax purposes because CNH Industrial is incorporated in the Netherlands. The U.K. and Dutch competent authorities have agreed, following a mutual agreement procedure (as contemplated by the Netherlands-U.K. tax treaty), that CNH Industrial will be regarded as solely resident in the U.K. for purposes of the application of the Netherlands-U.K. tax treaty provided that CNH Industrial operates as planned and provides appropriate required evidence to the U.K. and Dutch competent tax authorities. If the facts upon which the competent authorities issued this ruling change over time, this ruling may be withdrawn or cease to apply and in that case the Netherlands may levy corporate income tax on CNH Industrial and impose withholding taxes on dividends distributed by CNH Industrial.
We do not expect Brexit to affect our tax residency in the U.K.; however, we are unable to predict with certainty whether the discussions to implement Brexit will ultimately have any impact on this matter.
CNH Industrial’s residence for Italian tax purposes is also largely a question of fact based on all the circumstances. For Italian tax purposes, a rebuttable presumption of CNH Industrial’s residence in Italy may apply under Italian legislation. However, CNH Industrial has a management and organizational structure such that CNH Industrial should be deemed resident in the U.K. from the date of its incorporation for purposes of the Italy-U.K. tax treaty. Because this analysis is highly factual and may depend on future changes in CNH Industrial’s management and organizational structure, there can be no assurance that CNH Industrial’s determination of its tax residence will be respected by all relevant tax authorities. Should CNH Industrial be treated as an Italian tax resident, CNH Industrial would be subject to corporate income tax in Italy on its worldwide income and may be required to comply with withholding tax on dividends and other distributions and/or reporting obligations under Italian law, which could result in additional costs and expenses.
Tax may be required to be withheld from dividend payments
Although the U.K. and Dutch competent authorities have ruled that we should be treated as solely resident in the U.K. for the purposes of the Netherlands-U.K. double tax treaty, under Dutch domestic law dividend payments made by us to Dutch residents are still subject to Dutch dividend withholding tax and we would have no obligation to pay additional amounts in respect of such payments.
Should withholding taxes be imposed on future dividends or distributions with respect to our common shares, whether such withholding taxes are creditable against a tax liability to which a shareholder is otherwise subject depends on the laws of such shareholder’s jurisdiction and such shareholder’s particular circumstances. Shareholders are urged to consult their tax advisors in respect of the consequences of the potential imposition of withholding taxes.
We may incur additional tax expense or become subject to additional tax exposure
We are subject to income taxes in many jurisdictions around the world. Our tax liabilities are dependent upon the location of earnings among these different jurisdictions. Our future results of operations could be adversely affected by changes in the effective tax rate as a result of a change in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in our overall profitability, changes in tax legislation and rates, changes in generally accepted accounting principles and changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities. If our effective tax rates were to increase, or if the ultimate determination of our taxes owed is for an amount in excess of amounts previously accrued or paid, our operating results, cash flows, and financial position could be adversely affected. For further information, see Note 10 “Income Taxes” to the Consolidated Financial Statements at December 31, 2019.
We intend for the On-Highway separation to qualify as a tax-free allocation of shares to our shareholders in some jurisdictions, but no assurance can be given that the separation will receive such tax-free treatment in any specific jurisdiction
It is our intention to structure the spin-off of our "On-Highway" business (commercial vehicles and powertrain) in a tax efficient manner, taking appropriate account of the potential impact on shareholders, but no assurance can be given that the intended tax treatment will be achieved, or that shareholders, and/or persons that receive the allocation of On-Highway shares, will not incur tax liabilities in connection with the separation and allocation. In particular, the requirements for favorable tax treatment differ (and may conflict) from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and the relevant requirements are often complex. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that any ruling (or similar guidance) from any taxing authority would be sought or, if sought, granted.
Our maintenance of two exchange listings may adversely affect liquidity in the market for our common shares and could result in pricing differentials of our common shares between the two exchanges
The dual listing of our common shares on the NYSE and the MTA may split trading between the two markets and adversely affect the liquidity of the shares in one or both markets and the development of an active trading market for our common shares on the NYSE and may result in price differentials between the exchanges. Differences in the trading schedules,

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trading volume and investor bases, as well as volatility in the exchange rate between the two trading currencies, among other factors, may result in different trading prices for our common shares on the two exchanges or otherwise adversely affect liquidity and trading prices of our shares.
The loyalty voting program may affect the liquidity of our common shares and reduce our share price
CNH Industrial’s loyalty voting program is intended to reward shareholders for maintaining long-term share ownership by granting initial shareholders and persons holding shares continuously for at least three years at any time following the effectiveness of the merger, of Fiat Industrial S.p.A. and CNH Global N.V. with and into CNH Industrial (the “Merger”), the option to elect to participate in the loyalty voting program and have their common shares registered in the Company's Loyalty Register and receive special voting shares. Special voting shares cannot be traded and, immediately prior to the transfer of our common shares from the CNH Industrial Loyalty Register, any corresponding special voting shares shall be transferred to CNH Industrial for no consideration (om niet). This loyalty voting program is designed to encourage a stable shareholder base and, conversely, it may deter trading by those shareholders who are interested in gaining or retaining special voting shares. Therefore, the loyalty voting structure may reduce liquidity in our common shares and adversely affect their trading price.
The loyalty voting program may prevent or frustrate attempts by our shareholders to change our management and hinder efforts to acquire a controlling interest in us, and the market price of our common shares may be lower as a result
The provisions of our Articles of Association establishing the loyalty voting program may make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or attempt to acquire, control of us, even if a change of control is considered favorably by shareholders holding a majority of our common shares. As a result of the loyalty voting program, a relatively large proportion of the voting power of our common shares could be concentrated in a relatively small number of shareholders who would have significant influence over us. As of December 31, 2019, EXOR N.V. had a voting interest in CNH Industrial of approximately 42.2%. For further information, see section “Major Shareholders”. Such shareholders participating in the loyalty voting program could effectively prevent change of control transactions that may otherwise benefit our shareholders.
The loyalty voting program may also prevent or discourage shareholders’ initiatives aimed at changes in our management.

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BUSINESS OVERVIEW
GENERAL
We are a leading global capital goods company engaged in the design, production, marketing, sale and financing of agricultural and construction equipment, trucks, commercial vehicles, buses and specialty vehicles for firefighting, defense and other uses, as well as engines, transmissions and axles for those vehicles and engines for marine and power generation applications. We have industrial and financial services companies located in 44 countries and a commercial presence in approximately 180 countries.
CNH Industrial has five operating segments:
Agriculture designs, manufactures and distributes a full line of farm machinery and implements, including two-wheel and four-wheel drive tractors, crawler tractors (Quadtrac®), combines, cotton pickers, grape and sugar cane harvesters, hay and forage equipment, planting and seeding equipment, soil preparation and cultivation implements and material handling equipment. Agricultural equipment is sold under the New Holland Agriculture and Case IH brands, as well as the STEYR, Kongskilde and Överum brands in Europe and the Miller brand, primarily in North America and Australia.
Construction designs, manufactures and distributes a full line of construction equipment including excavators, crawler dozers, graders, wheel loaders, backhoe loaders, skid steer loaders, and compact track loaders. Construction equipment is sold under the CASE Construction and New Holland Construction brands.
Commercial and Specialty Vehicles designs, manufactures and distributes a full range of light, medium, and heavy vehicles for the transportation and distribution of goods under the IVECO brand, commuter buses and touring coaches under the IVECO BUS (previously Iveco Irisbus) and Heuliez Bus brands, quarry and mining equipment under the IVECO ASTRA brand, firefighting vehicles under the Magirus brand, and vehicles for civil defense and peace-keeping missions under the Iveco Defence Vehicles brand.
Powertrain designs, manufactures and distributes, under the FPT Industrial Brand, a range of engines, transmission systems and axles for on- and off-road applications, as well as for marine and power generation.
Financial Services offers a range of financial services to dealers and customers. Financial Services provides and administers retail financing to customers for the purchase or lease of new and used industrial equipment or vehicles and other equipment sold by CNH Industrial dealers. In addition, Financial Services provides wholesale financing to CNH Industrial dealers. Wholesale financing consists primarily of floor plan financing and allows the dealers to purchase and maintain a representative inventory of products. Financial Services also provides trade receivables factoring services to CNH Industrial companies.
Net revenues by segment in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 were as follows:
($ million)
2019

2018

Agriculture
10,958

11,786

Construction
2,768

3,021

Commercial and Specialty Vehicles
10,440

10,933

Powertrain
4,114

4,557

Eliminations and Other
(2,111
)
(2,370
)
Total of Industrial Activities
26,169

27,927

Financial Services
1,996

1,996

Eliminations and Other
(141
)
(187
)
Total for the Group
28,024

29,736




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Net revenues by region in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 were as follows:
($ million)
2019

2018

Europe
14,196

14,910

North America
6,794

6,937

South America
2,876

3,074

Rest of World
4,158

4,815

Total
28,024

29,736



INDUSTRY OVERVIEW
Agriculture
The operators of dairy, livestock and row crop producing farms, as well as independent contractors that provide services to such farms, purchase most agricultural equipment. Row crop farmers typically purchase tractors at the mid-to-upper end of the horsepower ("hp") range, combines and harvesting equipment and crop production equipment. Dairy and livestock farmers typically utilize tractors in the mid-to-lower hp range and crop preparation and crop packaging implements. The key factors influencing sales of agricultural equipment are the level of net farm income and, to a lesser extent, general economic conditions, interest rates and the availability of financing and related subsidy programs, farm land prices and farm debt levels. Net farm income is primarily impacted by the volume of acreage planted, commodity and/or livestock prices and stock levels, the impacts of fuel ethanol demand, crop yields, farm operating expenses (including fuel and fertilizer costs), fluctuations in currency exchange rates, government subsidies, tax incentives and trade policies. Farmers tend to postpone the purchase of equipment when the farm economy is declining and to increase their purchases when economic conditions improve. The availability, quality, and cost of used equipment for sale also affect the level of new equipment sales. Weather conditions are a major determinant of crop yields and therefore affect equipment-buying decisions. In addition, geographical variations in weather from season to season may affect sales volumes differently in different markets. Government policies may affect the market for agricultural equipment by regulating the levels of acreage planted, with direct subsidies affecting specific commodity prices, or with other payments made directly to farmers. Global organization initiatives, such as those of the World Trade Organization, also can affect the market with demands for changes in governmental policies and practices regarding agricultural subsidies, tariffs and acceptance of genetically modified organisms such as seed, feed and animals.
Demand for agricultural equipment also varies seasonally by region and product, primarily due to differing climates and farming calendars. Peak retail demand for tractors and planting, seeding, and application equipment typically occurs in March through June in the Northern hemisphere and in September through December in the Southern hemisphere. Dealers order equipment year-round but harvesting equipment orders in the Northern hemisphere generally increase in the late fall and winter so that the dealers can receive inventory prior to the peak retail selling season, which generally extends from March through June. In the Southern hemisphere, dealers generally order between August and October so they can receive inventory prior to the peak retail-selling season, which extends from November through February. Agriculture's production levels are based upon estimated retail demand, which takes into account, among other things, the timing of dealer shipments (which occur in advance of retail demand), dealer and Company inventory levels, the need to retool manufacturing facilities to produce new or different models, and the efficient use of labor and facilities. Production levels are adjusted to reflect changes in estimated demand and dealer inventory levels. However, because production and wholesale shipments adjust throughout the year to take into account the factors described above, wholesale sales of agricultural equipment products in any given period may not reflect the timing of dealer orders and retail demand for that period.
Customer preferences regarding farming practices, and thus product types and features, vary by region. In North America, Australia and other areas where soil conditions, climate, economic factors and population density allow for intensive mechanized agriculture, farmers demand high capacity, sophisticated machines equipped with the most advanced technology. In Europe, where farms are generally smaller in size than those in North America and Australia, there is greater demand for somewhat smaller, yet equally sophisticated, machines. In the developing regions of the world where labor is more abundant and infrastructure, soil conditions and/or climate are not conducive to intensive agriculture, customers generally prefer simple, robust and durable machines with relatively lower acquisition and operating costs. In many developing countries, tractors are the primary, if not the sole, type of agricultural equipment used, and much of the agricultural work in such countries that cannot be performed by tractors is carried out by hand. A growing number of part-time farmers, hobby farmers and customers engaged in landscaping, municipality and park maintenance, golf course and roadside mowing in Western Europe and North America prefer relatively simple, low-cost agricultural equipment. Our position as a geographically diversified manufacturer of agricultural equipment and our broad geographic network of dealers allows us to provide customers in each significant market with equipment that meets their specific requirements.

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Major trends in the North American and Western European agricultural industries include a reduction in number but growth in size of farms, supporting increased demand for higher capacity agricultural equipment. In addition, we believe that the use of technology and other precision farming solutions (including the development of autonomously operated equipment) to enhance productivity and profitability are becoming more important in the buyers’ purchasing decision. Failure to design, develop and implement this technology may affect the prospects of our Company. In South America and in other emerging markets, the number of farms is growing, and mechanization is replacing manual labor. In Rest of World, long-term demographic trends, increasing urbanization, and low level of farm mechanization represent the key drivers of demand for agricultural equipment. Government farm programs, including the amount and timing of government payments, are a key income driver for farmers raising certain commodity crops in the United States (the "U.S.") and the European Union. The existence of a high level of subsidies in these markets for agricultural equipment reduces the effects of cyclicality in the agricultural equipment business. The effect of these subsidies on agricultural equipment demand depends largely on the U.S. Farm Bill and programs administered by the United States Department of Agriculture, the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union and World Trade Organization negotiations. Additionally, the Brazilian government subsidizes the purchase of agricultural equipment through low-rate financing programs administered by the Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Economico e Social (“BNDES”). These programs have a significant influence on sales.
Agricultural equipment manufacturers are subject to, among other things, continuous changes in engine emission regulations and restrictions. These changes require frequent changes in engine technology, which can involve significant research and development investments. Manufacturers generally attempt to pass these incremental costs to their customers, but these price increases must be balanced with the affordability of the equipment. Each market may have its own unique regulations, which adds a level of complexity required to meet global product needs.
Global demand for renewable fuels increased considerably in recent years driven by consumer preference, government renewable fuel mandates, renewable fuel tax and production incentives. Biofuels, which include fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, have become one of the most prevalent types of renewable fuels. The primary type of biofuel supported by government mandates and incentives varies by region. North America and Brazil are promoting ethanol first and then biodiesel, while Europe is primarily focused on biodiesel.
The demand for biofuels has created an associated demand for agriculturally based feedstocks, which are used to produce biofuels. Currently, most of the ethanol in the U.S. and Europe is extracted from corn, while in Brazil it is extracted from sugar cane. Biodiesel is typically extracted from soybeans and rapeseed oil in the U.S. and Brazil, and from rapeseed and other oil seeds as well as food waste by-products in Europe. The use of corn and soybeans for biofuel has been one of the main factors affecting the supply and demand relationships, as well as price for these crops. The economic feasibility of biofuels is significantly impacted by the price of oil. As the price of oil falls, biofuels become a less attractive alternative energy source. This relationship will, however, be impacted by government policy and mandates as governments around the world consider ways to combat global warming and avoid potential energy resource issues in the future.
The increase in crop production for biofuels has also driven changes in the type of crops grown and in crop rotations. The most significant change in U.S. crop production was the increase in acreage devoted to corn, typically using land previously planted with soybeans and cotton. In addition, a change in crop rotation resulted in more acres of corn being planted. As a result, agricultural producers are faced with new challenges for managing crop residues and are changing the type of equipment they use and how they use it.
Although the demand for new agricultural equipment tends to decrease during periods of economic stagnation or recession, the aftersales market is historically less volatile than the new equipment market and, therefore, helps limit the impact of declines in new equipment sales on the operating results of full-line manufacturers, such as Agriculture.
Construction
The construction equipment market consists of two principal segments: heavy construction equipment (excluding the mining and the specialized forestry equipment markets in which we do not participate), with equipment generally weighing more than 12 metric tons, and light construction equipment, with equipment generally weighing less than 12 metric tons.
In developed markets, customers tend to prefer more sophisticated machines equipped with the latest technology and features to improve operator productivity. In developing markets, customers tend to prefer equipment that is relatively less costly and has greater perceived durability. In North America and Europe, where the cost of machine operators is higher relative to fuel costs and machine depreciation, customers typically emphasize productivity, performance and reliability. In other markets, where the relative costs for machine operators is lower, customers often continue to use equipment after its performance and efficiency have begun to diminish.
Customer demand for power and operating capacity does not vary significantly from market to market. However, in many countries, restrictions on equipment weight or dimensions, as well as road regulations or job site constraints can limit demand for larger machines.

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Although the demand for new construction equipment tends to decrease during periods of economic stagnation or recession, the aftersales market is historically less volatile than the new equipment market and, therefore, helps limit the impact of declines in new equipment sales on the operating results of full-line manufacturers, such as Construction.
Heavy Construction
Heavy construction equipment typically includes general construction equipment such as large wheel loaders and excavators, and road building and site preparation equipment such as graders, compactors and dozers. Purchasers of heavy construction equipment include construction companies, municipalities, local governments, rental fleet owners, quarrying and mining companies, waste management companies and forestry-related concerns.
Sales of heavy construction equipment depend on the expected volume of major infrastructure construction and repair projects such as highway, tunnel, dam and harbor projects, which depend on government spending and economic growth. Demand for aggregate mining and quarrying equipment is more closely linked to the general economy and commodity prices, while growing demand for environmental equipment is becoming less sensitive to the economic cycle. In North America, a portion of heavy equipment demand has historically been linked to the development of new housing subdivisions, where the entire infrastructure needs to be created, thus linking demand for both heavy and light construction equipment. The heavy equipment industry generally follows macroeconomic cyclicality, linked to growth in gross domestic product.
Light Construction
Light construction equipment is also known as compact and service equipment, and it includes skid-steer loaders, compact track loaders, tractor loaders, rough terrain forklifts, backhoe loaders, small wheel loaders and excavators. Purchasers of light construction equipment include contractors, residential builders, utilities, road construction companies, rental fleet owners, landscapers, logistics companies and farmers. The principal factor influencing sales of light construction equipment is the level of residential and commercial construction, remodeling and renovation, which is influenced by interest rates and the availability of financing. Other major factors include the construction of light infrastructure, such as utilities, cabling and piping and maintenance expenditures. The principal use of light construction equipment is to replace relatively high-cost, slower manual work. Product demand in the United States and Europe has generally tended to mirror housing starts, but with lags of six to twelve months. In areas where labor is abundant, and the cost of labor is inexpensive relative to other inputs, such as in India, Africa and South America, the light construction equipment market is generally smaller. These regions represent potential areas of growth for light construction equipment in the medium to long-term as labor costs rise relative to the cost of equipment.
Equipment rental is a significant element of the construction equipment market. Compared to the U.K. and Japan, where there is an established market for long-term equipment rentals as a result of favorable tax treatment, the rental market in North America and Western Europe (except for the U.K.) consists mainly of short-term rentals of light construction equipment to individuals or small contractors for which the purchase of equipment is not cost effective or that need specialized equipment for specific jobs. In North America, the main rental product has traditionally been the backhoe loader and, in Western Europe, it has been the mini-excavator. As the market has evolved, a greater variety of light and heavy equipment products have become available to rent. In addition, rental companies have allowed contractors to rent machines for longer periods instead of purchasing the equipment, enabling contractors to complete specific job requirements with greater flexibility and cost control. Large, national rental companies can significantly impact the construction equipment market, with purchase volumes being driven by their decisions to increase or decrease the sizes of their rental fleets based on rental utilization rates.
Seasonal demand for construction equipment fluctuates somewhat less than for agricultural equipment. Nevertheless, in North America and Western Europe, housing construction generally slows during the winter months. North American and European industry retail demand for construction equipment is generally strongest in the second and fourth quarters.
In markets outside of North America, Western Europe and Japan, equipment demand may also be partially satisfied by importing used equipment. Used heavy construction equipment from North America may fulfill demand in the Latin American market and equipment from Western Europe may be sold to Central and Eastern European, North African and Middle Eastern markets. Used heavy and light equipment from Japan is mostly sold to other Southeast Asian markets, while used excavators from Japan are sold to almost every other market in the world. This flow of used equipment is highly influenced by exchange rates, the weight and dimensions of the equipment and the different local regulations in terms of safety and/or engine emissions.
The construction equipment industry has seen an increase in the use of hydraulic excavators and wheel loaders in earth-moving and material handling applications. In addition, the light equipment sector has grown as more manual labor is being replaced on construction sites by machines with a variety of attachments for specialized applications, such as skid steer loaders, compact track loaders and mini-crawler excavators.



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Commercial and Specialty Vehicles
Trucks and Commercial Vehicles
The world truck market is generally divided into two segments: Light Commercial Vehicles (“LCV”) market (gross vehicle weight (“GVW”) 3.5-7.49 metric tons), and Medium and Heavy (“M&H”) truck market (GVW above 7.5 metric tons). The M&H segment is characterized by a higher level of engineering specialization due to the technologies and production systems utilized, while the LCV segment has many engineering and design characteristics in common with the automobile industry. In addition, operators of M&H trucks often require vehicles with a higher degree of customization than the more standardized products that serve the LCV market. Customers generally purchase heavy trucks for one of three primary uses: long distance haulage, construction haulage, and/or distribution.
The regional variation in demand for commercial vehicles is influenced by differing economic conditions, levels of infrastructure development and geographic region, all of which lead to differing transport requirements.
M&H truck demand tends to be closely aligned with the general economic cycle and the capital investment cycle including the general level of interest rates and, in certain countries, governmental subsidy programs, particularly in more developed markets such as Europe, North America and Japan, as economic growth provides increased demand for haulage services and an incentive for transporters to invest in more efficient, higher capacity vehicles and renew vehicle fleets. The product life cycle for M&H trucks typically covers a seven to ten-year period.
Although economic cycles have a significant influence on demand for M&H trucks in emerging economies, the processes of industrialization and infrastructure development have generally driven long-term growth trends in these countries. As a country’s economy becomes more industrialized and its infrastructure develops, transport needs tend to grow in response to increases in production and consumption. Developing economies, however, tend to display volatility in short-term demand resulting from government intervention, changes in the availability of financial resources and protectionist trade policies. In developing markets, demand for M&H trucks increases when it becomes more cost-effective to transport heavier loads, especially as the infrastructure, primarily roads and bridges, becomes capable of supporting heavier trucks. At the same time, the need to transport goods tends to increase in these markets, resulting in increased demand for LCV.
Industry forecasts indicate that transportation of goods by road, currently the predominant mode of transport, will remain so for the foreseeable future. Demand for services and service-related products, including parts, is a function of the number of vehicles in use. Although demand for new commercial vehicles tends to decrease during periods of economic stagnation or recession, the aftersales market is historically less volatile than the new vehicle market and, therefore, helps limit the impact of declines in new vehicle sales on the operating results of full-line manufacturers, such as Commercial and Specialty Vehicles.
Commercial vehicles markets are subject to intense competition based on initial sales price, cost and performance of vehicles over their life cycle (i.e., purchase price, operating and maintenance costs and residual value of the vehicle at the end of its useful life), services and service-related products and the availability of financing options. High reliability and low variable costs contribute to customer profitability over the life of the vehicle and are usually important factors in an operator’s purchase decision. Additional competitive factors include the manufacturer’s ability to address customer transport requirements, driver safety, comfort, and brand loyalty through vehicle design.
Demand for trucks varies seasonally by region and by product class. In Europe, the peak retail demand occurs in the second and fourth quarters due to key fleet customer demands and customer budgetary cycles. In South America, demand is relatively stable throughout the year except for increased demand for heavy trucks in the first and fourth quarters from customers who transport foodstuffs. In Rest of World, sales tend to be higher in the second and fourth quarters due to local holiday periods.
Although we believe that diesel remains, for the foreseeable future, the primary fuel source for commercial vehicles and industrial equipment in general, the adoption of new engine technological solutions and growing public opinion in favor of more environmentally friendly solutions are pushing for increased penetration of both alternative and renewable fuels (such as compressed natural gas (“CNG”), liquefied natural gas (“LNG”), and methane) and full electric vehicles.
The car industry is leading autonomous vehicle development, but commercial vehicles are also making advances in platooning and autonomous technologies. We expect this development to intensify. We believe that the growing automation in transportation and infrastructure solutions through the use of self-driving vehicles will also allow the industry to provide greater safety, fuel savings, and transport efficiency.
Buses
The global bus business is organized by mission, from city and intercity transport to tourism purposes, with a capacity ranging from 7 to 150 seated/standing passengers. IVECO BUS (previously Iveco Irisbus) and Heuliez Bus target markets include urban, intercity buses and long-distance touring coaches. Operators in this industry include three types of manufacturers: those specialized in providing chassis to bodybuilders, those that build bodies on chassis produced by third parties, and those, like IVECO BUS, that produce the entire vehicle.

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The principal customers of the bus segment are tour and intercity bus service operators, while the principal customers of the city bus segment are the transport authorities in urban areas.
Deregulation and privatization of transport services in many markets has favored concentration towards large private companies operating in one country, in more than one neighboring country, or at an international level. Demand has increased for highly standardized, high-use products for large fleets, with financing and maintenance agreements or kilometric pricing. Deregulation and privatization have also increased competition between large transport service companies, raising the level of vehicle use and increasing the choice of brands for operators in the market.
Sales for urban and intercity buses are generally higher in the second half of the year, due to public entities budgeting processes, tender rules and bus production lead-time.
Powertrain
The dynamics of the industrial powertrain business vary across the different market segments in which the various propulsion systems are used. For vehicle and equipment applications, product development is driven by regulatory requirements (i.e., legislation on emissions and, increasingly, CO2 emissions), as well as the need to reduce total operating costs: customers are seeking more efficient propulsion systems that enable lower total cost of ownership and higher productivity.
For on-road applications in developed markets, where economy and infrastructure drive demand for local and haulage transportation, demand for engines is driven by general economic conditions, capital investment, industrialization and infrastructure developments.
In the bus market, engine demand is increasingly influenced by the environmental policies of governments and local authorities (i.e., requirements for natural gas, hybrid and electric solutions).
Demand for off-road applications in the agricultural industry is influenced by many factors, including the price of agricultural commodities and the relative level of new and used inventories, the profitability of agricultural enterprises, net farm income, the demand for food products, agricultural policies, as well as climatic conditions. At the same time, the heavy construction equipment business is driven by general economic factors and the level of public investment in infrastructure, which affects the need for replacement of old equipment and investment in more innovative solutions to boost productivity.
Increasingly stringent emission regulations in Europe, the U.S. and Asia represent an opportunity for Powertrain to gain a competitive advantage through technological solutions developed for engines and after-treatment systems (such as our High Efficiency SCR technology). Alternative fuel engines have become an attractive alternative solution to diesel for transport vehicles, as they are perceived as more environmentally friendly and offer better fuel economy than diesel while performing comparably to diesel engines (e.g. LNG for Buses and Commercial Vehicles). Increasing demand for alternative propulsion systems (such as electrified powertrain or fuel cell) is expected to continue, as related technologies are growing quickly and will offer business opportunities in the industrial sector. The increasing trend among mid-sized original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs") to outsource engine development, due to the significant research and development expenditures required to meet the new emission requirements, presents an opportunity for Powertrain to increase sales to third party customers.
The Company believes that FPT Industrial provides the Company, as a whole, with strategic independence in a key area where competition is particularly intense and further challenges, driven by increasingly stringent regulations, are expected.
COMPETITION
The industries in which we operate are highly competitive. We believe that we have many competitive strengths that will enable us to improve our position in markets where we are already well established while we direct additional resources to markets and products with high growth potential.
We compete with: (i) large global full-line equipment manufacturers with a presence in every market and a broad range of products that cover most customer needs, (ii) manufacturers who are product specialists focused on particular industry segments on either a global or regional basis, (iii) regional full-line manufacturers, some of which are expanding worldwide to build a global presence, and (iv) local, low-cost manufacturers in individual markets, particularly in emerging markets such as Eastern Europe, India and China.
Our competitive strengths include well-recognized brands, a full range of competitive products and features, and a strong global presence and distribution and customer service network. There are multiple factors that influence a buyer’s choice of industrial equipment. These factors include the strength and quality of the distribution network, brand loyalty, product features and performance, availability of a full product range, the quality and pricing of products, technological innovations, product availability, financing terms, parts and warranty programs, resale value and customer service and satisfaction. The ability to meet or exceed applicable engine emissions standards as they take effect is also a key competitive factor, particularly in those markets where such standards are the subject of frequent legislative or regulatory scrutiny and change, such as Europe and North America. We continually seek to improve in each of these areas but focus primarily on providing high-quality and high-value products and supporting those products through our dealer networks. Buyers tend to favor

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brands based on experience with the product and the dealer. Customers’ perceptions of product value in terms of productivity, reliability, resale value and dealer support are formed over many years.
The efficiency of our manufacturing, logistic and scheduling systems are dependent on forecasts of industry volumes and our anticipated share of industry sales, which is predicated on our ability to compete successfully with others in the marketplace. We compete based on product performance, customer service, quality, innovation and price. The environment remains competitive from a pricing standpoint, but actions taken to maintain our competitive position in the current challenging economic environment could result in lower than anticipated price realization.
Our main competitors in the agricultural equipment market are Deere, AGCO, Claas, the Argo Group, the Same Deutz Fahr Group and Kubota.
Our principal competitors in the construction equipment market are Caterpillar, Komatsu, JCB, Hitachi, Volvo, Liebherr, Doosan, Kubota and Deere.
Our principal competitors in the commercial vehicles market are Daimler; the Traton (previously Volkswagen) Group; Paccar; the Volvo Group; Rosenbauer International AG; Rheinmetall; Oshkosh; Nexter; General Dynamics; BAE Systems; Caterpillar; and Navistar.
The principal competitors of Powertrain include Cummins, Daimler, Deutz, Perkins, Deere, Volvo, and Yanmar.
PRODUCTS
Agriculture
Agriculture’s product lines are sold primarily under the Case IH and New Holland brands as well as the STEYR brand in Europe and the Miller brand, primarily in North America and Australia. Certain agricultural equipment products are also sold under the Kongskilde, Överum, and JF brands. To capitalize on customer loyalty to dealers and the segment’s brands, relative distribution strengths and historical brand identities, we sell our agricultural equipment products under the Case IH (and STEYR for tractors in Europe only) and New Holland brands. We believe that these brands enjoy high levels of brand identification and loyalty among both customers and dealers.
Although newer generation tractors have a high percentage of common mechanical components, each brand and product remains differentiated by features, color, interior and exterior styling, warranty terms, technology offering and model designation. Flagship products such as row crop tractors and large combine harvesters may have significantly greater differentiation.
Distinctive features that are specific to a particular brand such as the Supersteer® tractor axle or Twin Rotor combine threshing technology for New Holland, the Case IH tracked four-wheel drive tractor, Quadtrac®, and the front axle mounted hitch for STEYR remain an important part of each brand’s unique identity.
Agriculture’s product lines include tractors, combine harvesters, hay and forage equipment, seeding and planting equipment, and self-propelled sprayers. Agriculture also specializes in other key market segments like cotton picker packagers and sugar cane harvesters, where Case IH is a worldwide leader, and in self-propelled grape harvesters, where New Holland is a worldwide leader. These brands each offer parts and support services for all of their product lines. Our agricultural equipment is sold with a limited warranty that typically runs from one (1) to three (3) years.
Case IH and New Holland brands enable their customers to share in-depth real-time machine information with AgDNA, FieldView, and Farmers Edge digital management systems. In the fourth quarter of 2018, Agriculture launched AGXTENDTM brand, focused exclusively on aftermarket precision farming technology solutions. AGXTENDTM will provide our dealers and customers access to exclusive productivity enhancing precision farming technologies.
In 2019, the Company acquired AgDNA, which forms part of CNH Industrial’s long-term roadmap to enhance and extend its precision farming offering, in line with its commitment to delivering increasing digitalization and servitization in agriculture to add value for both customers and shareholders. AgDNA is an industry leading Farm Management Information System (FMIS) that automatically collects and analyzes data from CNH Industrial’s agricultural brands and other third-party agricultural equipment. The cloud-based platform analyzes equipment, agronomic and environmental data to deliver actionable insights directly to producer’s smartphones and tablets to help them maximize the agronomic performance of their CNH Industrial and other equipment and increase farm profitability.
Further, the Company's 2019 acquisition of agricultural implement manufacturer K-Line Ag adds key tillage and residue management equipment, which is critical to ensuring optimal seedbed preparation, fundamental to productive yields, and will further enhance the crop production portfolios of Case IH and New Holland Agriculture. K-Line became the number one tillage manufacturer in Australia by designing robust and reliable products for some of the world’s harshest soil conditions. The Speed-Tiller high-speed disk, being offered as a Case IH branded product in North America in 2020, is a dual-season tool that cuts, sizes and incorporates high levels of crop residue, improving soil quality and maximizing crop yields.

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In 2019, the Company also acquired ATI, which manufactures track systems for combines and tractors. The combining of CNH Industrial and ATI’s track experience provides a pipeline of track options and designs to maximize power to the ground while maintaining flotation. Beginning in 2020, Case IH will offer the innovative PowerFlexTM track systems for both new combine orders and already owned combines to give flexibility to customers. PowerFlex has a fully suspended track system that improves flotation and ride while increasing speeds. ATI also manufactures track systems for the New Holland 4WD tractors.
Construction
Construction’s product lines are sold primarily under the CASE and New Holland Construction brands. CASE provides a wide range of products on a global scale, including crawler excavators that utilize technology from Sumitomo (S.H.I.) Construction Machinery Co. Ltd. and mini-excavators that use technology from Hyundai Construction Equipment, Inc. The New Holland Construction brand family also markets a full product line of construction equipment in Latin America and focusses on light equipment in the other regions.
Construction's products often share common components to achieve economies of scale in manufacturing, purchasing and development. Construction differentiates these products based on the relative product value and volume in areas such as technology, design concept, productivity, product serviceability, color and styling to preserve the unique identity of each brand.
Heavy construction equipment product lines include general construction equipment such as large excavators and wheel loaders, and road building and site preparation equipment such as compactors, graders and dozers. Light construction equipment is also known as compact and service equipment, and its product lines include backhoe loaders, skid steer and tracked loaders, mini- and midi- excavators and compact wheel loaders. The brands each offer parts and support services for all of their product lines. Our construction equipment is generally sold with a limited warranty that typically runs from one (1) to two (2) years.
We continue to evaluate our Construction business with a view toward increasing efficiencies and profitability as well as evaluating its strategic alliances to leverage its position in key markets.
Commercial and Specialty Vehicles
Trucks and Commercial Vehicles (IVECO AND IVECO ASTRA)
Under the IVECO brand, we produce a range of light, medium, and heavy trucks and commercial vehicles for both on-road and off-road use. Our key products include the Daily, a vehicle that covers the 3.5 – 7.2 ton vehicle weight range, the Eurocargo, a vehicle that covers the 6 – 16 tons range, the Trakker, a vehicle dedicated to off-road transport, and the Stralis, dedicated to on road. In July 2019, Iveco started a process of complete renewal of the heavy product offering with the launch of the S-Way (the new range for long haulage and distribution) and X-Way (dedicated to construction logistics and municipalities); the new T-Way for off road is expected to be introduced in 2020. The product offering is complemented by a series of aftersales and used vehicle assistance services.
Light vehicles include on-road vans and chassis cabs used for short and medium distance transportation and distribution of goods, and off-road trucks for use in quarries and other work sites. We also offer shuttle vehicles used by public transportation authorities, tourist operators, hotels and sports clubs and campers for holiday travel.
The M&H vehicles product lines include on-road chassis cabs designed for medium and long-distance hauling and distribution. Medium GVW off-road models are typically used for building roads, winter road maintenance, construction, transportation, maintenance of power lines and other installations in off-road areas, civil protection and roadside emergency service. Heavy GVW off-road models are designed to operate in virtually any climate and on any terrain and are typically used to transport construction plant materials, transport and mix concrete, maintain roads in winter and transport exceptionally heavy loads.
We offer ecological diesel and natural gas engines on our entire range of vehicles. We continue to develop engines with specific components and configurations optimized for use with CNG and LNG and we have developed a comprehensive roadmap for the introduction in the market of a complete range of zero emission vehicles (from Light to Heavy).
Under the IVECO ASTRA brand, we build vehicles that can enter otherwise inaccessible quarries and mines and move large quantities of material, such as rock or mud, and perform heavy-duty tasks in extreme climatic conditions. Our product range for IVECO ASTRA includes mining and construction vehicles, rigid and articulated dump trucks and other special vehicles.
On September 3, 2019, CNH Industrial announced a strategic and exclusive Heavy-Duty Truck partnership with Nikola Corporation, a U.S. based leader in fuel cell truck technology. In this context, CNH Industrial made an initial subscription to Nikola's share capital (approximately 2.5% shareholding) through a cash contribution of $50 million and an in-kind contribution of $50 million, granting Nikola access to certain Iveco technology.

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Buses (IVECO BUS and Heuliez Bus)
Under the IVECO BUS and Heuliez Bus brands, we offer local and inter-city commuter buses, minibuses, school buses and tourism coaches. IVECO BUS is one of the major European manufacturers in the passenger transport sector and is expanding its activities globally. Heuliez Bus produces city buses for public transportation and is a leader in France for the urban bus market.
Specialty Vehicles (Magirus and Iveco Defence Vehicles)
Under the Magirus brand, we manufacture vehicles designed to respond to natural disasters and civil emergencies, such as fires, floods, earthquakes and explosions. Iveco Defence Vehicles develops and manufactures specialized vehicles for defense missions and civil protection.
Powertrain
Powertrain is dedicated to the design, development, manufacture and sale of engines, transmissions, and axles under the FPT Industrial brand.
Our product range features engines ranging from 2.2 to 20 liters with an output of 42 to 1,006 hp Our product portfolio includes engines for buses and for light, medium and heavy commercial vehicles, engines for industrial machinery including construction, agricultural and irrigation equipment, engines for special-purpose vehicles and engines for power generation units and marine applications.
FPT Industrial’s product line-up is completed by versions that use alternative fuels, including engines that run on natural gas and engines compatible with biodiesel and hydrotreated vegetable oil ("HVO"). With more than 20 years of experience in the research, development and production of natural gas engine technologies for industrial applications, FPT Industrial is an industry leader in this field. During 2019, FPT Industrial presented different leading engines, such as the N67 Natural Gas specifically designed for off-road applications; the F28, an engine also for the off-road segment designed to be small, productive and environmentally-friendly, with Diesel and Natural Gas versions; and the C16 600 marine engine to support heavy commercial missions in the marine sector. FPT Industrial also presented Red Horizon, its premium integrated marine control system, and developed an innovative propulsion architecture for STEYR’s hybrid tractor concept, which further advanced the Brand’s efforts in E-Powertrain. This architecture consisted of a 4.5-liter engine for battery charging and, for traction, four independent electric motors installed in the wheel hubs. 
While meeting the strict emission regulations for both on-road (Euro VI) and off-road vehicles (Stage V and Tier 4B), Powertrain’s technological solutions aim to provide enhanced results in terms of cost, packaging and fuel consumption for each segment of the market.
Additionally, FPT Industrial produces six speed manual transmissions for light commercial vehicles, with input torque up to 500 Nm and completes its product lineup with front and rear axles reaching 32 tons gross axle weight designated to cover Commercial and Specialty Vehicles’ demand, including specialty vehicles (military and fire-fighting).
In the fourth quarter of 2019, CNH Industrial announced its acquisition of Dolphin N2, a startup specializing in innovative combustion engine technology and its partnership with Microvast to develop and offer battery power systems.
SALES AND DISTRIBUTION
Agriculture and Construction
Agriculture sells and distributes products through approximately 2,300 full-line dealers and distributors with over 5,600 points of sale. Construction sells and distributes products through approximately 400 full-line dealers and distributors with over 1,200 points of sale. Agriculture’s and Construction’s dealers are almost all independently owned and operated. Some Agriculture dealers also sell construction equipment. In the United States, Canada, Mexico, most of Western Europe, Brazil, India, China, Russia and Australia, products are generally distributed directly through the independent dealer network. In the rest of the world, products are either sold to independent distributors who then resell to dealers, or to importers who have their own branches to sell product to retail customers. In both cases, the importers/distributors can take advantage of their size and knowledge of the market to minimize their marketing costs.
Consistent with our brand promotion program, we generally seek to have dealers sell a full range of our products. Typically, greater market penetration is achieved where each dealer sells the full line of products from only one of the brands. Although appointing dealers to sell more than one brand is not part of our business model, some joint dealers exist, either for historic reasons or in limited markets where it is not feasible to have a separate dealer for each brand. In some cases, dealerships are operated under common ownership but with separate points of sale for each brand. In each region, we seek to optimize our distribution strategy to reduce structural costs, while maximizing sales and customer satisfaction.
In North America and Australia, a trade-in of used equipment typically accompanies the sale of new equipment to end-users. We often provide marketing assistance to our dealers to support the sale of used, trade-in equipment through subsidized financing incentives, inventory carrying cost defrayment, or other methods.

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Exclusive, dedicated dealers generally provide a higher level of market penetration. Some dealers may sell complementary products manufactured by other suppliers to complete their product offerings or to satisfy local demand for a particular specialty application or segment.
A strong dealer network with wide geographic coverage is a critical element in the success of Agriculture and Construction. We work to enhance our dealer network through the expansion of our product lines and customer services, including enhanced financial services offerings, and an increased focus on dealer support. To assist dealers in building rewarding relationships with their customers, focused customer satisfaction programs have been introduced and they are expected to incorporate customer input into the relevant product development and service delivery processes.
As the equipment rental business becomes a more significant factor in both the agricultural and construction equipment markets, Agriculture and Construction are continuing to support their dealer network by facilitating sales of equipment to the local, regional and national rental companies through their dealers as well as by encouraging dealers to develop their own rental activities. A strong dealer service network is required to maintain the rental equipment, and to help ensure that the equipment remains at peak performance levels both during its life as rental equipment and afterward when resold into the used equipment market. Agriculture and Construction have launched several programs to support their dealer service and rental operations, including training, improved dealer standards, financing, and advertising. As the rental market is a capital-intensive sector and sensitive to cyclical variations, we expand such activities gradually, with special attention to managing the resale of rental units into the used equipment market by our dealers, who can utilize this opportunity to improve their customer base and generate additional parts business.
We believe that it is generally more cost-effective to distribute our agricultural and construction equipment products through independent dealers, although Agriculture and Construction maintain a limited number of company-owned dealerships in some markets. As of December 31, 2019, we operated two and five company-owned Agriculture and Construction dealerships, respectively, primarily in North America and Europe. We also operate a selective dealer development program, in territories with growth potential but underdeveloped representation by our agricultural and construction equipment brands, that typically involves a transfer of ownership to a qualified operator through a buy-out or private investment after a few years.
Commercial and Specialty Vehicles
Commercial and Specialty Vehicles’ worldwide distribution strategy is based on a network of independent dealers, in addition to its own dealerships and branches. As of December 31, 2019, Commercial and Specialty Vehicles had approximately 700 dealers globally (of which 22 were directly owned by us and 15 were branches). All of these dealers sell spare parts for the relevant vehicles. Commercial and Specialty Vehicles bolsters its distribution strategy by offering incentives to its dealers based on target achievements for sales of new vehicles and parts and providing high quality aftersales services.
A key element of Commercial and Specialty Vehicles’ growth strategy is its distribution network. In Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Turkey, Russia, Australia and Latin America, continued consolidation of the distribution network is aimed at improving service to customers (such as the implementation of the Truck Stations network of specialized workshops), increasing profitability and reducing overall distribution costs. In Africa and the Middle East, the distribution network is being expanded to fully exploit growth in these markets.
In the U.K., Commercial and Specialty Vehicles is one of the few OEMs that sells trucks and other commercial vehicles to companies which offer commercial vehicle rental solutions, such as Ryder, Fraikin and Burntree, among others.
In accordance with European legislation, Commercial and Specialty Vehicles’ dealers have a specific sales territory. Additionally, European law allows our Commercial and Specialty Vehicles’ dealers to carry multiple brands.
Powertrain
Powertrain provides propulsion solution products for Agriculture, Construction, and Commercial and Specialty Vehicles. Additionally, Powertrain’s commercial strategy and business model are focused on the development of a portfolio of medium-to-large OEM customers. Powertrain has entered into long-term supply agreements with a growing number of third-party customers.
Powertrain has a network of approximately 73 dealers and 800 service points in 100 countries that cover its entire product range and related market sectors. Large OEMs use their own internal networks to obtain parts and services for purchased equipment, while small OEMs frequently rely on us for delivery of parts and services through Powertrain’s worldwide network.
PRICING AND PROMOTION
The retail price of any particular piece of equipment or vehicle is determined by the individual dealer or distributor and generally depends on market conditions, features, options and, potentially, regulatory requirements. Retail sale prices may differ from the manufacturer-suggested list prices. We sell equipment and vehicles to our dealers and distributors at wholesale prices that reflect a discount from the manufacturer-suggested list price. In the ordinary course of business, we

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engage in promotional campaigns that may include price incentives or preferential financing terms with respect to the purchase of certain products in certain areas.
We regularly advertise our products to the community of farmers, builders, transporters and agricultural and construction contractors, as well as to distributors and dealers in each of our major markets. To reach our target audience, we use a combination of general media, specialized design and trade magazines, the Internet and direct mail. We also regularly participate in major international and national trade shows and engage in co-operative advertising programs with distributors and dealers. The promotion strategy for each brand varies according to the target customers for that brand.
PARTS AND SERVICES
The quality and timely availability of parts and services are important competitive factors for each of our businesses, as they are significant elements in overall dealer and customer satisfaction and important considerations in a customer’s original equipment purchase decision. We supply parts, many of which are proprietary, to support items in the current product line as well as for products we have sold in the past. In certain markets, we also offer personalized aftersales customer assistance programs that provide a wide range of modular and flexible maintenance and repair contracts, as well as warranty extension services, to meet a variety of customers’ needs and to support the vehicle’s value over time. Many of our products can have economically productive lives of up to 20 years when properly maintained, and each unit has the potential to produce a long-term parts and services revenue stream for us and our dealers.
As of December 31, 2019, we operated and administered 46 parts depots worldwide either directly, through a joint venture, or through arrangements with warehouse service providers. This network includes 10 parts depots in North America, 13 in Europe, 3 in South America, and 20 in Rest of World. The network includes 33 parts depots that support Agriculture, 27 that support Construction, 19 that support Commercial and Specialty Vehicles and 5 that support Powertrain. These depots supply parts to dealers and distributors, which are responsible for sales to retail customers. Our parts depots and parts delivery systems provide customers with access to substantially all the parts required to support our products.
As of December 31, 2019, Commercial and Specialty Vehicles had approximately 5,000 Sales and/or Service Network points. In addition to Commercial and Specialty Vehicles' standard one-year full vehicle warranty and two-year powertrain warranty, Commercial and Specialty Vehicles offers personalized aftersales customer assistance programs.
JOINT VENTURES
As part of a strategy to enter and expand in new markets, we are also involved in several commercial and/or manufacturing joint ventures, including the following:
in Japan, we own 50.0% of New Holland HFT Japan Inc. (“HFT”), which distributes its products in Japan. HFT imports and sells the full range of New Holland agricultural equipment;
in Pakistan, we own 43.2% of Al Ghazi Tractors Ltd., which manufactures and distributes New Holland tractors;
in Turkey, we own 37.5% of Turk Traktor ve Ziraat Makineleri A.S., which manufactures and distributes various models of both New Holland and Case IH tractors;
in Mexico, we own 50.0% of CNH de Mexico S.A. de C.V., which manufactures New Holland agricultural equipment and distributes our agricultural equipment through one or more of its wholly-owned subsidiaries;
in China, we own 50.0% of Naveco (Nanjing Iveco Motor Co.) Ltd., a company that manufactures light and other commercial vehicles in China;
in China, we control 60.0% of SAIC Fiat Powertrain Hongyan Ltd (“SFH”), a manufacturing company located in Chongqing, which produces diesel engines under license from us to be sold in the Chinese market and to be exported to Europe, the U.S. and Latin America; and
in South Africa, we own 60.0% of Iveco South Africa Works (Pty) Ltd., which manufactures medium and heavy-duty commercial vehicles and buses.
FINANCIAL SERVICES
Financial Services offers a range of financial products and services to dealers and customers in the various regions in which it operates. The principal products offered are retail loan and lease financing for the purchase or lease of new and used equipment and vehicles and wholesale financing to dealers and factoring of trade receivables from CNH Industrial companies. Wholesale financing consists primarily of dealer floor plan financing and gives the dealers the ability to maintain a representative inventory of new products. In addition, Financial Services provides financing to dealers for used equipment and vehicles taken in trade, equipment utilized in dealer-owned rental yards, parts inventory, working capital and other financing needs. As a captive finance business, Financial Services is reliant on the operations of Agriculture, Construction, Commercial and Specialty Vehicles and Powertrain, their dealers, and customers.

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Financial Services supports the growth of Industrial Activities by developing and structuring financial products with the objective of increasing equipment and vehicle sales as well as profitability and customer loyalty. Financial Services’ strategy is to grow a core financing business to support the sale of our equipment and vehicles while at the same time maintaining its portfolio credit quality, service levels, operational effectiveness and customer satisfaction. Financial Services also offers products to finance third party equipment and vehicles sold through our dealer network or within our core businesses. Financed third party equipment and vehicles include used equipment and vehicles taken in trade on our products or equipment used in conjunction with or attached to our products.
In North America, customer and dealer financing activities, which support the sales of Agriculture and Construction, are managed through our wholly-owned financial services companies.
In Europe, there are two joint ventures that provide customer financing of Agriculture, Construction, and Commercial and Specialty Vehicles, depending on the country of origin. CNH Industrial Capital Europe S.a.S., a joint venture with BNP Paribas Group, is 49.9% owned by CNH Industrial N.V. and accounted for under the equity method. Transolver Finance Establecimiento Financiero de Credito S.A. (“Transolver Finance”), a joint venture with the Santander Group, is 49% owned by CNH Industrial N.V. and accounted for under the equity method. Transolver Finance also provides dealer financing. Additionally, there are vendor programs with banking partners that provide customer financing of Agriculture, Construction, and Commercial and Specialty Vehicles, depending on the country of origin. Customer and dealer financing activities not included in the joint ventures or vendor programs, such as factoring of trade receivables, are managed through our wholly-owned financial services companies.
For South America, customer and dealer financing activities in Brazil, which support the sales of Agriculture, Construction, and Commercial and Specialty Vehicles, are managed through our wholly-owned financial services company, Banco CNH Industrial Capital S.A. (“Banco CNH Industrial Capital”). For customer financing, Banco CNH Industrial Capital mainly serves as intermediary for funding provided by BNDES, a federally-owned financial institution linked to the Brazilian Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade. In Argentina, customer and dealer financing activities, which support the sales of Agriculture, Construction, and Commercial and Specialty Vehicles, are managed through a wholly-owned financial services company. Vendor programs with banking partners are also in place in Argentina.
For Rest of World, customer and dealer financing activities in Australia and India, which support the sales of Agriculture, Construction, and Commercial and Specialty Vehicles, are managed through wholly-owned financial services companies. In China and Russia, dealer financing activities are managed through wholly-owned financial services companies.
Customer Financing
Financial Services has certain retail underwriting and portfolio management policies and procedures that are specific to Agriculture, Construction, and Commercial and Specialty Vehicles. This distinction allows Financial Services to reduce risk by deploying industry-specific expertise in each of these businesses. We provide retail financial products primarily through our dealers, who are trained in the use of the various financial products. Dedicated credit analysis teams perform retail credit underwriting. The terms for financing equipment and vehicle retail sales typically provide for retention of a security interest in the equipment or vehicles financed.
Financial Services’ guidelines for minimum down payments for equipment and vehicles generally range from 5% to 30% of the actual sales price, depending on equipment types, repayment terms and customer credit quality. Finance charges are sometimes waived for specified periods or reduced on certain equipment sold or leased in advance of the season of use or in connection with other sales promotions. For periods during which finance charges are waived or reduced on the retail notes or leases, Financial Services generally receives compensation from the applicable Industrial Activities segment based on Financial Services’ estimated costs and a targeted return on equity. The cost is recognized as a reduction in net sales for the applicable Industrial Activities segment.
Dealer Financing
Financial Services provides wholesale floor plan financing for nearly all our dealers, which allows them to acquire and maintain a representative inventory of products. Financial Services also provides financing to dealers for used equipment taken in trade, equipment utilized in dealer-owned rental yards, parts inventory, working capital and other financing needs. For floor plan financing, Financial Services generally provides a fixed period of “interest free” financing to the dealers. This practice helps to level fluctuations in factory demand and provides a buffer from the impact of sales seasonality. During the “interest-free” period, the applicable Industrial Activities segment compensates Financial Services based on Financial Services’ estimated costs and a targeted return on equity. After the expiration of any “interest-free” period, interest is charged to dealers on outstanding balances until Financial Services receives payment in full. The cost is recognized as a reduction in net sales for the applicable Industrial Activities segment.
A wholesale underwriting group reviews dealer financial information and payment performance to establish credit lines for each dealer. In setting these credit lines, Financial Services seeks to meet the reasonable requirements of each dealer while managing its exposure to any one dealer. The credit lines are secured by the equipment or vehicles financed. Dealer credit agreements generally include a requirement to repay the particular financing at the time of the retail sale of the unit. Financial Services leverages employees, third party contractors and new digital technologies like “geo-fencing” to conduct

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periodic stock audits at each dealership to confirm that the financed equipment or vehicle is maintained in inventory. These audits are unannounced, and their frequency varies by dealer and depends on the dealer’s financial strength, payment history and prior performance.
Factoring
Financial Services also provides intragroup factoring of trade and other receivables. This activity involves the purchase (without recourse) of receivables of CNH Industrial companies, originating from the different Industrial Activities segments, and due from third or related parties.
Sources of Funding
The long-term profitability of Financial Services’ activities largely depends on the cyclical nature of the industries in which we operate, interest rate volatility and the ability to access funding on competitive terms. Financial Services funds its operations and lending activity through a combination of term receivable securitizations, committed secured and unsecured facilities, uncommitted lines of credit, unsecured bonds, unsecured commercial paper, affiliated financing and retained earnings. Financial Services’ current funding strategy is to maintain sufficient liquidity and flexible access to a wide variety of financial instruments and funding options.
Financial Services has periodically accessed the asset-backed securitization (“ABS”) markets in the United States, Canada, and Australia, as part of its retail and wholesale financing programs when those markets offer funding opportunities on competitive terms. Financial Services has also accessed the unsecured bond market in the United States, Brazil and Australia and commercial paper market in the United States and France to add more diversity to its funding structure. Financial Services’ ability to access these markets will depend, in part, upon general economic conditions and Financial Services’ financial condition and portfolio performance. These factors can be negatively affected by cyclical swings in the industries in which we operate.
Competition
The financial services industry is highly competitive. Financial Services competes primarily with banks, equipment finance and leasing companies and other financial institutions. Typically, this competition is based upon the financial products and services offered, customer service, financial terms and interest rates charged. Financial Services’ ability to compete successfully depends upon, among other things, the availability and competitiveness of funding resources, the development of competitive financial products and services, and licensing or other governmental regulations.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
As a global company with a diverse business portfolio, we are exposed to numerous legal risks, including dealer and supplier litigation, intellectual property right disputes, product warranty and defective product claims, product performance, asbestos, personal injury, emissions and/or fuel economy regulatory and contractual issues and environmental claims that arise in the ordinary course of our business. The most significant of these matters are described in Note 28 “Commitments and contingencies” to the Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2019.
The outcome of any current or future proceedings, claims or investigations cannot be predicted with certainty. Adverse decisions in one or more of these proceedings, claims or investigations could require CNH Industrial to pay substantial damages, or undertake service actions, recall campaigns or other costly actions. It is therefore possible that legal judgments could give rise to expenses that are not covered, or not fully covered, by insurers’ compensation payments and could affect our financial position and results of operations.
Although the ultimate outcome of legal matters pending against us and our subsidiaries cannot be predicted, management believes the reasonable possible range of losses for these unresolved legal actions in addition to the amounts accrued would not have a material effect on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Follow-up on Damages Claims: Iveco S.p.A., the Company’s wholly owned subsidiary, and its competitors were subject to an investigation by the European Commission (the “Commission”) into certain business practices in the European Union in relation to M&H trucks. On July 19, 2016, the Commission announced a settlement with Iveco. Following the settlement, CNH Industrial has been named as defendant in private litigation commenced in various European jurisdictions and Israel by customers and other third parties, either acting individually or as part of a wider group or class of claimants. These claims remain at an early stage. Further, on the basis of the letters issued by a significant number of customers indicating that they may commence proceedings in the future, CNH Industrial expects to face further claims based on the same legal grounds in the same and various other jurisdictions. The extent and outcome of these claims cannot be predicted at this time.
INSURANCE
We maintain insurance with third party insurers to cover various risks arising from our business activities including, but not limited to, risk of loss or damage to our assets or facilities, business interruption losses, general liability, automobile liability, product liability and directors' and officers' liability insurance. We believe that we maintain insurance coverage that

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is customary in our industry. We use a broker that is a subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. to place a portion of our insurance coverage.
PLANTS AND MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
As of December 31, 2019, we owned 67 manufacturing facilities. We also own other significant properties including spare parts depots, research laboratories, test tracks, warehouses and office buildings.
A number of our manufacturing facilities (land and industrial buildings) are subject to mortgages and other security interests granted to secure indebtedness to certain financial institutions. The carrying amount of these assets was approximately $4 million and $61 million at December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
We make capital expenditures in the regions in which we operate principally related to initiatives to introduce new products, enhance manufacturing efficiency and improve capacity, and for maintenance and engineering. In 2019, our total capital expenditures in long-lived assets, excluding assets sold with buy-back commitments and equipment on operating leases, were $1,063 million of which 68% was spent in Europe, 21% in North America, 6% in South America and 5% in Rest of World. These capital expenditures were funded through a combination of cash generated from operating activities and borrowings under short-term facilities. In 2018, our total capital expenditures were $1,033 million. The increased capital expenditures in 2019 from 2018 is related to our investment cycles, particularly for product enhancements, and primarily to our efforts on sustainability programs which include investments in digitalization, alternative propulsion, and automation.
The following table provides information about our manufacturing and engineering facilities as of December 31, 2019:
Location
Primary Functions
Approximate Covered Area (Sqm/000)
Italy
Modena
Components (Agriculture and Construction)
102
 
S. Matteo
R&D center (Agriculture)
51
 
Jesi
Tractors
77
 
Lecce
Wheel loaders, compact track loaders, telehandlers; graders; R&D center
130
 
Piacenza
Quarry and construction vehicles; R&D center
64
 
Brescia
Medium vehicles, cabs, chassis; R&D center
276
 
Suzzara
Light vehicles; R&D center
170
 
Brescia
Firefighting vehicles; R&D center
28
 
Bolzano
Defense vehicles; R&D center
83
 
Torino
R&D center (Commercial and Specialty Vehicles)
41
 
Torino
R&D center (Powertrain)
28
 
Torino
Engines (marine & powertrain)
142
 
Torino
Transmissions and axles
239
 
Foggia
Engines; drive shafts; R&D center
151
 
Pregnana Milanese
Engines
31
 
S. Mauro
Excavators; R&D center
57
 
United States
New Holland
Hay & Forage; R&D center
104
 
Grand Island
Tractors and combines
128
 
Benson
Sprayers, cotton pickers; R&D center
41
 
Burlington
Backhoe loaders, forklift trucks; R&D center
91
 
Fargo
Tractors, wheeled loaders; R&D center
88
 
Goodfield
Soil management equipment; R&D center
39
 
Racine
Tractors, transmissions
105
 
Mt. Joy
R&D center (Agriculture)
11
 
Wichita
Skid steer loaders; R&D center
46
 
Burr Ridge (Hinsdale)
R&D center (Agriculture, Construction and Diesel engines)
44
 
St. Nazianz
Self-propelled sprayers
24
 
Mt. Vernon
Tracks
7
 
France
Coex
Grape Harvesters; R&D center
26
 
Croix
Cabins (Agriculture)
12
 

Board Report Business Overview     44



Location
Primary Functions
Approximate Covered Area (Sqm/000)
Tracy-Le-Mont
Hydraulic cylinders (Agriculture and Construction)
16
 
Annonay
Buses (Coaches & City); R&D center
114
 
Venissieux
R&D center (Commercial and Specialty Vehicles)
18
 
Rorthais
Buses (City); R&D center
29
 
Fourchambault
Engines (remanufacturing)
29
 
Bourbon Lancy
Engines; R&D center
107
 
Fecamp
Engines (power generation units)
16
 
Brazil
Belo Horizonte
Crawler excavators, crawler dozers, wheel loaders, graders, backhoe loaders; R&D center
70
 
Curitiba
Combines and tractors; R&D center
103
 
Piracicaba
Sugar cane harvesters, coffee harvesters, sprayers; R&D center
21
 
Sorocaba
Combines and other Agriculture; R&D center
160
 
Sete Lagoas
Heavy, medium and light vehicles; R&D center
100
 
Sete Lagoas
Defense vehicles
19
 
Sete Lagoas
Engines; R&D center
14
 
Germany
Ulm
Firefighting vehicles; R&D center
35
 
Ulm
R&D center (Commercial and Specialty Vehicles)
144
 
China
Harbin
Combines, tractors, balers; R&D center
121
 
Chongqing
Engine; R&D centers
76
 
Urumqi
Cotton pickers
10
 
Argentina
Cordoba
Engines
20
 
Cordoba
(Medium/Heavy) Trucks and buses; R&D center
94
 
Cordoba
Tractors and combines
30
 
Belgium
Antwerp
Components (Agriculture)
77
 
Zedelgem
Combines, forage harvesters and balers; R&D center
154
 
Spain
Madrid
Heavy vehicles; R&D center
134
 
Valladolid
Light vehicles, heavy cab components
81
 
India
Pithampur
Backhoe loaders, earth compactors; R&D center
29
 
Pune
Sugar cane harvesters and combines; R&D center
77
 
Noida
Tractors; R&D center
82
 
Poland
Plock
Combines, balers and headers; R&D center
129
 
Kutno
Row crop, cultivators, harvesters; R&D center
33
 
Australia
Dandenong
Trucks (heavy); R&D center
42
 
Cowra
Tillage; R&D center
5
 
Others
Basildon (U.K.)
Tractors; R&D center
129
 
Överum (Sweden)
Ploughs; R&D center
49
 
Saskatoon (Canada)
Sprayers, seeders; R&D center
61
 
St. Valentin (Austria)
Tractors; R&D center
53
 
Vysoke Myto (Czech Republic)
Buses (City & Intercity); R&D center
125
 
Queretaro (Mexico)
Components (Agriculture and Construction)
15
 
Naberezhnye Chelny (Russia)
Tractors and combines
50
 
Rosslyn (South Africa)
Trucks and buses (Intercity); R&D center
55
 
Arbon (Switzerland)
R&D center (Powertrain)
6
 

Board Report Business Overview     45



World Class Manufacturing
In striving to consolidate and maintain high standards of excellence in its manufacturing systems, CNH Industrial applies principles of World Class Manufacturing (“WCM”), the innovative program for continuous improvement that encompasses the most effective manufacturing methodologies. These include: Total Quality Control (“TQC”), Total Productive Maintenance (“TPM”), Total Industrial Engineering (“TIE”), and Just In Time (“JIT”). Applying rigorous methods and procedures, WCM aims to eliminate all types of waste and loss, including zero injuries, zero defects, zero breakdowns, zero waste, reduced inventories, and punctual delivery of parts by suppliers to plants, and thereafter to dealers and end users. The WCM system is applied to all departments, embracing numerous topics including safety in the workplace, the environment, quality, logistics, in-house and specialist maintenance, human resources, and process and product engineering (involving the reorganization of work stations, the installation of new machinery, and new product launches). Actions for continuous improvement are driven by the Cost Deployment pillar of WCM, which precisely identifies all plant wastes and losses, guides the activities of the corporate functions in charge of containing and eliminating the sources of waste, evaluates project feasibility, and assesses and certifies the results achieved by carefully monitoring specific performance indicators.
One of the main features of WCM is the way it incentivizes employees to engage and take responsibility, contributing directly to process optimization through a consistent system for collecting suggestions. This allows individuals to acquire and develop skills and good practices that are then shared across plants, forming a network of expertise and knowledge for the benefit of the Group. In 2019, approximately 446,500 suggestions were collected across the plants where WCM principles are applied, with an average of 14 per employee. The projects implemented in 2019 within WCM generated savings of approximately $96.2 million.
Each WCM pillar involves a seven-step approach and auditing process, culminating in several awards (bronze, silver, gold, and world class). As of December 31, 2019, 55 plants were participating in the program, representing 99% of revenues from sales of products manufactured in Group’s plants. By the end of 2019, 2 plants have gold awards, 17 plants have silver awards and 26 plants have bronze awards.
Environmental impacts of manufacturing processes
The Group’s manufacturing facilities are subject to a variety of laws designed to protect the environment, particularly with respect to solid and liquid wastes, air emissions, energy usage and water consumption. CNH Industrial is committed to continuously improving the environmental performance of its manufacturing processes, beyond the requirements of legislation, adopting the best technologies available and acting responsibly to preserve natural resources and to fight climate change. These are important priorities due to the nature and extent of their environmental and economic impact, and highlighted by their political, technological, and economic implications, in terms of both sustainable procurement and impact mitigation. Environmental protection at CNH Industrial is focused on prevention, conservation, information, and people engagement, thus facilitating long-term management. CNH Industrial has adopted an Environmental Policy that describes the short, medium, and long-term commitments toward responsible management of environmental aspects, such as: energy, natural resources, raw materials, hazardous substances, polluting emissions, waste, natural habitats and biodiversity.
These aspects are included in CNH Industrial's environmental management system and energy management system and in the environmental pillar of WCM; the systems require compliance with guidelines, procedures, and operating instructions, and regular internal audits and reviews by management. This dual approach facilitates the effective management of all environmental aspects deriving from manufacturing processes, the adequate evaluation of outcomes and the achievement of challenging targets set within the Sustainability Plan.
The materiality analysis identified air emissions (covered by the material topic CO2 and other air emissions), the use of renewable energy, the consumption of water, and the management of waste as the most significant environmental aspects for both the Company and its stakeholders.
The highest responsibility for initiatives focusing on energy efficiency, management of CO2 emissions and environmental protection lies with the GEC.
Receipt of a certification for environmental or energy management confirms that an organization has a system capable of keeping the impacts of its operations under control, and that it systematically seeks to improve this system in a way that is coherent, effective and, above all, sustainable. The participation in the ISO 14001 and ISO 50001 certification process is on a voluntary basis. As of December 31, 2019, 61 plants were ISO 14001 certified, while ISO 50001 energy management systems were implemented in 55 plants, representing about 99.6% of energy consumption.
Consolidated monitoring and reporting systems are used to keep track of environmental performance, measure the effectiveness of actions taken to achieve targets, and plan new initiatives for continuous improvement, through the management of appropriate Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). These indicators can be analyzed at different aggregate levels (plant, segment, geographic area, or Group), which allows for the simultaneous and parallel engagement of different corporate functions at various levels to meet targets.

Board Report Business Overview     46



In 2019, the main environmental KPIs maintained the positive trend recorded in recent years, in line with the targets set in the Sustainability Plan, reconfirming CNH Industrial’s significant commitment to environmental protection.
Environmental and energy targets
Target year
Target

Energy consumption (GJ per hour of production)
2030
-30% vs.2014

CO2 emissions (tons per hour of production)
2024
-46% vs.2014

2030
-60% vs.2014

Electric energy consumption from renewable sources (%)
2024
80
%
2030
90
%
VOC emissions (g/m2)
2022
-27% vs. 2014

Water withdrawals (m3 per hour of production)
2022
-24% vs. 2014

Hazardous waste generation (kg per hour of production)
2022
-36% vs. 2014

Waste recovered (%)
2024
94
%

Environmental and energy performance(1)
2019/2018(%)

2019

2018

Energy consumption (GJ per hour of production)
-7.8
 %
0.10050

0.10898

CO2 emissions (tons per hour of production)
-14.7
 %
0.00509

0.00597

Electric energy consumption from renewable sources (%)

71.8

70.4

VOC emissions (g/m2)(2)
-8.1
 %
42.0

45.7

Water withdrawals (m3 per hour of production)
-4.5
 %
0.075

0.079

Hazardous waste generation (kg per hour of production)
-5.1
 %
0.26

0.27

Waste recovered (%)

93.3

92.4


(1) 
Environmental performance relates to 56 fully consolidated plants, representing 99% of revenues from sales of products manufactured in Group’s plants. Energy performance relates to 57 fully consolidated plants, representing 99% of revenues from sales of products manufactured in Group’s plants.
CO2 emissions were calculated according to GHG Protocol standards, implemented through CNH Industrial guidelines. The indicator includes scope 1 and scope 2 emissions, as per the market-based methodology of the GHG Protocol.
The hours of production refer to the number of manufacturing hours, defined as hours of presence of hourly employees within the manufacturing scope required to manufacture a product.
The performance of the indicators is in line with the targets set.
(2) 
2018 data restated with respect to the 2018 EU-IFRS Annual Report, following a change in 2019 to the way of calculating the painted surfaces of vehicles manufactured at 3 plants in South America. 


CNH Industrial’s expenditure on environmental protection measures totaled approximately $44 million in 2019 and included: $33 million on waste disposal and emissions treatment and $11 million for prevention and management of environmental impacts and hazards. In 2019, over $12.8 million was invested in improving energy performance, leading to a reduction in energy consumption of approximately 254 TJ and a corresponding reduction in CO2 emissions of over 18,000 tons.
Numerous projects were implemented in 2019 to optimize environmental and energy management. For example, the Modena plant (Italy) started to reuse the water for cooling the cataphoresis oven to produce industrial water for its washing machines, instead of discharging it following treatment. This enabled the plant to reduce its industrial water consumption by about 5,000 cubic meters per month. Overall, the plant cut its yearly water withdrawal by approximately 20%, saving about $27,000.
SUPPLIERS
CNH Industrial adopts a responsible approach to the management of its supply chain, establishing relationships that go beyond commercial transactions, fostering long-lasting and mutually satisfying collaborations with qualified partners that share the Group’s principles. CNH Industrial has adopted the Supplier Code of Conduct that provides the framework for responsible supply chain management. In addition to compliance with local legislation, the Supplier Code of Conduct calls for observance of human rights and working conditions, respect for the environment and business ethics. All suppliers carrying on business with CNH Industrial are deemed to agree and accept the contents of the Supplier Code of Conduct and such agreement and acceptance is evidenced by the supplier continuing to do business with CNH Industrial.
At December 31, 2019, CNH Industrial had approximately 4,175 global direct materials suppliers.
CNH Industrial’s standards of environmental and social responsibility have been fully integrated into its supply chain management. Supplier selection is an operational phase of the procurement process and is regulated by specific procedures. Supplier selection is based not only on cost, product innovation, production flexibility, and the quality and competitiveness of their products and services, but also on their compliance with CNH Industrial’s social, ethical and environmental principles. The assessment process is built on objective criteria and tools aimed at ensuring fairness and equal opportunities for all parties involved.

Board Report Business Overview     47



Furthermore, to assess whether suppliers meet the sustainability standards set by CNH Industrial and, where necessary, take steps towards improvement and realignment, a monitoring process has been designed and implemented. During the first step of the process, suppliers are requested to self-assess their policies and practices on sustainability through a questionnaire, mainly focused on the following issues: human rights, environment, compliance and ethics, diversity, and health and safety. The questionnaires are analyzed and used to perform a risk assessment, which allows the Company to identify critical suppliers whose compliance with sustainability criteria requires assessment, through follow-up, on-site audits. The audits are performed at suppliers’ plants by either CNH Industrial Supplier Quality Engineers (SQEs) or independent external auditors. In 2019, 790 suppliers were assessed through the questionnaire and 85 audits were performed worldwide. The analysis of the results highlighted the widespread implementation of sustainability initiatives, with a significant number of suppliers adopting their own social and environmental systems, setting specific targets and drafting periodic reports. In some cases, corrective action plans for areas in need of improvement were formulated in collaboration with suppliers; they are monitored through follow-ups discussions and meetings between supplier and auditor. The monitoring process is considered also as a way to promote continuous improvement along the supply chain. The challenging target set for 2024 is to assess 100% of direct suppliers for sustainability matters.
In line with previous years, several initiatives continued to promote the exchange of ideas and information, including Technology Days (31 events organized in 2019) attended by approximately 1,100 people where suppliers that are industry-leaders in innovation, technology and quality discussed specific topics and shared information on recent technological developments.
Continuous improvement is also seen in WCM Purchasing, which has continued providing its advice to suppliers intending to implement the WCM system. During the year, WCM was implemented at additional supplier plants, reaching a total of 215 supplier sites. This means they now apply what is considered to be one of the world’s leading set of manufacturing standards.
In addition, another important supplier engagement activity carried out in 2019, the CDP Supply Chain initiative, concerns the mitigation of environmental impacts. In keeping with the previous year, 139 suppliers were selected to fill out the CDP questionnaire, to get a clear picture of their strategies to tackle climate change and of their current, or still to be implemented, initiatives to reduce CO2 emissions.
Moreover, CNH industrial has implemented a compliance program and policy intended to promote responsible sourcing of tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold (“3TG”) from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and surrounding region (conflict minerals), where revenues from the extraction of natural resources have historically funded armed conflict and human rights abuses. CNH Industrial’s Conflict Minerals Policy was adopted in 2013 and is available on the Company website. The Policy is intended to promote sourcing 3TG from responsible sources in the Democratic Republic of Congo and surrounding region. The Company annually performs its supply chain due diligence consistent with OECD guidelines. CNH Industrial is committed to making reasonable efforts to establish, and to require each supplier to disclose, whether 3TG are used or contained in products purchased by the Company and the source of that 3TG.



Board Report Business Overview     48



RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
In a continuously and rapidly changing competitive environment, CNH Industrial’s research activities are a vital component in its strategic development. Each year the Company makes substantial investments in research and development. Such continuous investment and development activities are critically important to the long-term success of the Group.
Research and development times are reduced, where possible, to accelerate time-to-market, while taking advantage of specialization and experience in different markets. Technical and operational synergies and rapid technical communication form the basis of our research and development process. CNH Industrial’s innovation process consists of a series of clear-cut steps, from the evaluation of innovative concepts up to the final step before product development. CNH Industrial believes innovation is essential to offering customers highly technological, eco-friendly, safe, and ergonomic products with a low Total Cost of Ownership (“TCO”). In this spirit, research activities focus primarily on the development of products that can: reduce polluting emissions; optimize energy consumption and efficiency; use alternative fuels; adopt alternative traction systems; incorporate advanced telematics systems and precision farming functionality. The Company’s Research and Development activities focus on four main areas: decarbonization, electrification, automated driving, and connectivity and data management.
In 2019, our expenditure on research and development (including capitalized development costs and costs charged directly to operations during the year) totaled $1,050 million, or 4.1% of net revenues from Industrial Activities.
Research and development activities involved approximately 5,700 employees at 56 sites around the world of which approximately 800 employees were located at 13 sites in emerging countries(1).
The following table shows our total research and development expenditures, including capitalized development costs and costs charged directly to operations during the year, by segment for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018:
($ million)
2019

2018

Agriculture
470

485

Construction
87

85

Commercial and Specialty Vehicles
316

332

Powertrain
177

178

Eliminations and Other


Total of Industrial Activities
1,050

1,080

Financial Services


Eliminations


Total for the Group
1,050

1,080

We own a significant number of patents, trade secrets, and trademarks related to our products and services, and that number is expected to grow as our research and development activities continue. At year end, we had 11,984 active patents, including 1,765 new patents registered during the year (in addition to 4,402 applications pending). We file patent applications in Europe, the United States and in other jurisdictions around the world to protect technology and improvements considered important to our businesses. Certain trademarks contribute to our identity and the recognition of our products and services are an integral part of our business, and their loss could have a material adverse effect on us.









(1) Emerging Markets are defined as low, lower-middle or upper-middle income countries as per the World Bank list of economies as at June 2019.


Board Report Research and Development    49



HUMAN RESOURCES
EMPLOYEES
The ability to attract, retain, and further develop qualified employees is crucial to the success of CNH Industrial’s businesses and its ability to create value over the long-term. CNH Industrial’s business is, by its nature, labor intensive and this is reflected in the high number of Group hourly employees.
The following tables show the breakdown of the number of employees by segment and by region at December 31, 2019 and 2018:
(number)
2019

2018

Agriculture
25,163

25,711

Construction
5,318

5,424

Commercial and Specialty Vehicles
23,692

23,933

Powertrain
8,064

8,265

Other Activities
134

143

Total of Industrial Activities
62,371

63,476

Financial Services
1,128

1,149

Total
63,499

64,625

(number)
2019

2018

Europe
41,499

41,982

North America
8,447

8,856

South America
7,997

8,001

Rest of World
5,556

5,786

Total
63,499

64,625

As of December 31, 2019, CNH Industrial had 63,499 employees, a decrease of 1,126 from the 64,625 employees at year-end 2018. The change was mainly attributable to the difference between new hires (approximately 5,200) and departures (approximately 6,300) during the year. A further decrease of approximately 40 employees was due to changes in the scope of operations, mainly related to the sale of the Companys Truckline parts business (retailer and distributor of aftermarket commercial vehicle parts and accessories in Australia), partially offset by three acquisitions - AgDNA, ATI Inc., and K-Line Ag - in Australia and North America. These acquisitions are part of CNH Industrials commitment to growing its global agriculture business by ensuring its brands global customers have access to technological advancements. Excluding the changes in the scope of operations, the decrease compared to year-end 2018 is attributable to the drop in permanent and fixed-term workers in manufacturing, primarily in the Agriculture segment in Europe and North America and in the Powertrain segment in Europe, and to the decrease in salaried employees (due to optimizations linked to market trends) in the Agriculture segment, mainly in North America, and in the Commercial and Specialty Vehicles and Construction segments, mainly in Europe. The decrease was partially offset by a moderate workforce increase in Research and Development personnel to strengthen the pool of skills and competencies in view of technology transitions, particularly electrification, autonomous driving, and alternative propulsion solutions.
As stated in CNH Industrial's Code of Conduct, occupational health and safety is an employee's fundamental right and a key part of Group’s sustainability model and included in the Materiality Matrix as one of the most material topics for CNH Industrial and its stakeholders. Safety management engages all employees in creating a culture of accident prevention and risk awareness, sharing common occupational health and safety ethical principles to achieve improvement targets. One of the initiatives developed by CNH Industrial is an effective health and safety management system that conforms to OHSAS 18001 standards. As demonstration of its commitment in this area, 60 plants are OHSAS 18001 certified. In 2019, approximately $77.6 million was spent on improving health and safety protection. The investments in health and safety allowed saving on the insurance premiums paid to the Italian National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work (INAIL) for a total of approximately $2.4 million in 2019. To achieve the challenging targets that the Group has set, all employees are involved in informational activities and in classrooms and hands-on training consistent with their roles and responsibilities. CNH Industrial provided approximately 229,600 hours of training on occupational health and safety in 2019. Approximately 33,100 employees were engaged in training on the job activities on occupational health and safety, 80% of whom were hourly. Owing to the Group’s many initiatives, the overall accident frequency rate in 2019 was 0.205 injuries per 100,000 hours worked, a 4% decrease compared to the previous year. The target set for 2024 is to reduce by 50% the employee accident frequency rate compared to 2014 data.
The Group realizes that the nature of today’s socio-economic context calls for leaders with the ability to evolve. A solid people management process is the key to success, as it includes employees in the Group’s business goals, takes advantage


Board Report Human Resources 50



of employee talent and fuels workforce motivation. CNH Industrial is committed to supporting its employees with development opportunities and recognizing and rewarding their achievements and contribution to business results. In 2019, CNH Industrial spent approximately $3.9 million on employee training. In total, approximately 653,200 training hours were provided to approximately 50,200 individuals. The target set for 2022 is to involve 100% of employees worldwide in training activities.
As evidenced by the materiality analysis, both employee engagement in sustainability matters and digital workplaces are key contributors to being a more sustainable Company. These material topics affect, both directly and indirectly, how employees adapt their approach to the changing workplace environment. Employee engagement, leveraged to increase employee awareness of sustainability topics (especially in terms of environmental protection, health and proper nutrition, and food security and waste), plays an important role in reaching the Company’s goals, as reflected in the targets set in terms of training, employee volunteering, and wellbeing initiatives promoting healthy lifestyles. As regards digital workplaces, the Company promotes the use of new technologies to improve work quality and efficiency, employee work-life balance (remote work), and the exchange of information, in part to foster innovation. To further its commitment to digital workplaces, the Company has set a target to involve 40% of its employees (excluding hourlies) in the flexible work location scheme by 2022.

COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
In the United States, unions represent a small portion of our production and maintenance employees. The collective bargaining agreement with the United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, which represents approximately 830 hourly production and maintenance employees in Burlington, Iowa and Racine, Wisconsin, continues through April 30, 2022. The collective bargaining agreement with the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers, which represents approximately 430 of our employees in Fargo, North Dakota, continues through April 28, 2024.
In Europe, most employees are covered by collective labor agreements (“CLAs”) stipulated either by a CNH Industrial subsidiary or by the employer association for the specific industry to which the CNH Industrial subsidiary belongs.
In Italy, the approximately 16,850 CNH Industrial employees are covered by the CLA that was renewed on March 11, 2019 and expiring December 31, 2022. The approximately 430 CNH Industrial Managers are covered by the CLA renewed in 2016 and expired at the end of 2017, whose duration was tacitly extended.




Board Report Human Resources 51



OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS
INTRODUCTION
The results presented in this Annual Report are prepared in accordance with EU-IFRS and use the U.S. dollar as the presentation currency. There have been no significant changes in the scope of consolidation during 2019.
ALTERNATIVE PERFORMANCE MEASURES (OR “NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES”)
We monitor our operations through the use of several non-GAAP financial measures. We believe that these non-GAAP financial measures provide useful and relevant information regarding our operating results and enhance the reader's ability to assess our financial performance and financial position. These measures facilitate management's ability to identify operational trends, as well as make decisions regarding future spending, resource allocations and other operational decisions as they provide additional transparency with respect to our core operations. These financial measures have no standardized meaning under EU-IFRS and are unlikely to be comparable to other similarly titled measures used by other companies and are not intended to be substitutes for measures of financial performance and financial position as prepared in accordance with EU-IFRS.
As of December 31, 2019, our non-GAAP financial measures are defined as follows:
Adjusted EBIT under EU-IFRS: is defined as profit/(loss) before taxes, financial income/(expense) of Industrial Activities, restructuring costs, and certain non-recurring items. In particular, non-recurring items are specifically disclosed items that management considers to be rare or discrete events that are infrequent in nature and not reflective of on-going operational activities.
Adjusted EBITDA under EU-IFRS: is defined as Adjusted EBIT plus depreciation and amortization (including on assets sold under operating leases and assets sold under buy-back commitments).
Adjusted EBIT under U.S. GAAP: is derived from financial information prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and is defined as net income (loss) before income taxes, interest expenses of Industrial Activities, net, restructuring expenses, the finance and non-service component of pension and other post-employment benefit costs, foreign exchange gains/(losses), and certain non-recurring items.
Adjusted EBITDA under U.S. GAAP: is derived from financial information prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and is defined as Adjusted EBIT plus depreciation and amortization (including on assets sold under operating leases and assets sold under buy-back commitments).
Adjusted Diluted EPS under U.S. GAAP: is derived from financial information prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and is computed by dividing Adjusted Net Income (loss) attributable to CNH Industrial N.V. by a weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period that takes into consideration potential common shares outstanding deriving from the CNH Industrial share-based payment awards, when inclusion is not anti-dilutive. When we provide guidance for Adjusted diluted EPS, we do not provide guidance on an earnings per share basis because the GAAP measure will include potentially significant items that have not yet occurred and are difficult to predict with reasonable certainty prior to year-end.
Net Debt and Net Debt of Industrial Activities under EU-IFRS: Net Debt is defined as total Debt plus Other financial liabilities, net of Cash and cash equivalents, Current securities, Other financial assets and other current financial assets. We provide the reconciliation of Net Debt to Total Debt, which is the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure included in our consolidated statement of financial position. Due to different sources of cash flows used for the repayment of the debt between Industrial Activities and Financial Services (by cash from operations for Industrial Activities and by collection of financing receivables for Financial Services), management separately evaluates the cash flow performance of Industrial Activities using Net Debt of Industrial Activities.
Net Debt and Net Debt of Industrial Activities under U.S. GAAP: are derived from financial information prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Net Debt under U.S. GAAP is defined as total debt less intersegment notes receivable, cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, other current financial assets and derivative hedging debt.
Free Cash Flow of Industrial Activities under EU-IFRS: refers to Industrial Activities, only, and is computed as consolidated cash flow from operating activities less: cash flow from operating activities of Financial Services; investments of Industrial Activities in property, plant and equipment and intangible assets; as well as other changes and intersegment eliminations.
Free Cash Flow of Industrial Activities (or Industrial Free Cash Flow) under U.S. GAAP: refers to Industrial Activities, only, and is computed as consolidated cash flow from operating activities less: cash flow from operating activities of Financial Services; investments of Industrial Activities in assets sold under buy-back commitments, assets under operating leases, property, plant and equipment and intangible assets; change in derivatives hedging debt of Industrial Activities; as well as other changes and intersegment eliminations.


Board Report Operating and Financial Review and Prospects    52




Available Liquidity: is defined as cash and cash equivalents plus restricted cash and undrawn committed facilities.
Change excl. FX or Constant Currency: we discuss the fluctuations in revenues on a constant currency basis by applying the prior year average exchange rates to current year’s revenues expressed in local currency in order to eliminate the impact of foreign exchange rate fluctuations.
Adoption of new accounting standards
Effective January 1, 2019, CNH Industrial has adopted IFRS 16 - Leases, replacing IAS 17 - Leases. IFRS 16 eliminates the classification of leases for the lessee as either operating leases or finance leases, as required by IAS 17, introduces a single lessee accounting model, and requires a lessee to recognize assets and liabilities for all leases with a term of more than 12 months, unless the underlying asset is of low value. CNH Industrial has applied the new lease standard using the modified retrospective approach, without recasting prior periods. On January 1, 2019 (date of first time adoption), CNH Industrial recognizes approximately $480 million right-of-use assets and lease liabilities in its consolidated statement of financial position, without transition effect to equity. The impact of the adoption of IFRS 16 on the 2019 consolidated income statement and consolidated statement of cash flows at December 31, 2019 is immaterial. For additional information relating to the unaudited impact of adoption of the new standard, refer to paragraph “New standards and amendments effective from January 1, 2019” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements at December 31, 2019, and to paragraphs “Impact of adoption of IFRS 16 on Adjusted EBIT and Adjusted EBITDA” and "Liquidity and Capital Resources - Consolidated Debt".
Planned spin-off of On-Highway business
On September 3, 2019, the Company announced its intention to separate its "On-Highway" (commercial vehicles and powertrain) and "Off-Highway" (agriculture, construction and specialty vehicles) businesses. The separation is expected to be effected through the spin-off of CNH Industrial N.V.’s equity interest in the "On-Highway" business to CNH Industrial N.V. shareholders. The proposed spin-off is expected to be completed in early 2021, subject to approval at an Extraordinary General Meeting of shareholders. In order to preserve the operational effectiveness of the Off-Highway business, the Company intends to enter into a long-term supply agreement on Powertrain-related components. Additionally, CNH Industrial expects to guarantee continuous financial services support to both entities as a clear competitive advantage in tailoring the financial product offering to our customers needs.
CNH Industrial did not classify the business that will be separated as asset held for distribution at December 31, 2019. The criteria within IFRS 5 - Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations were not met as the structure, organization, terms and financing aspects of the transaction had not yet been finalized and will be subject to final approval by the Extraordinary General Meeting of CNH Industrial N.V.'s shareholders.



Board Report Operating and Financial Review and Prospects    53




OPERATING RESULTS
The operations and key financial measures and financial analysis differ significantly for manufacturing and distribution businesses and financial services businesses; therefore, for a better understanding of our operations and financial results, we present the following table providing the consolidated income statements and a breakdown of CNH Industrial results between Industrial Activities and Financial Services. Industrial Activities represent the activities carried out by the four industrial segments Agriculture, Construction, Commercial and Specialty Vehicles, and Powertrain, as well as Corporate functions. The parent company, CNH Industrial N.V., is included under Industrial Activities as well as subsidiaries that provide centralized treasury services (i.e., raising funding in the market and financing Group subsidiaries). The activities of the treasury subsidiaries do not include the offer of financing to third parties.
2019 compared to 2018

Consolidated Results of Operations(*) 
 
2019
 
 
2018
 
($ million)
Consolidated

 
Industrial Activities

 
Financial Services

 
Consolidated

 
Industrial Activities

 
Financial Services

Net revenues
28,024

 
26,169

 
1,996

 
29,736

 
27,927

 
1,996

Cost of sales(1)
23,056

 
21,833

 
1,364

 
24,201

 
23,067

 
1,321

Selling, general and administrative costs
2,156

 
1,996

 
160

 
2,313

 
2,145

 
168

Research and development costs
1,093

 
1,093

 

 
1,110

 
1,110

 

Result from investments
19

 
(7
)
 
26

 
61

 
29

 
32

Gains/(losses) on disposal of investments

 

 

 
(1
)
 
(1
)
 

Restructuring costs
116

 
112

 
4

 
63

 
63

 

Other income/(expenses)(2)
(52
)
 
(51
)
 
(1
)
 
383

 
390

 
(7
)
Financial income/(expenses)(3)
(362
)
 
(362
)
 

 
(578
)
 
(578
)
 

PROFIT/(LOSS) BEFORE TAXES
1,208

 
715

 
493

 
1,914

 
1,382

 
532

Income tax (expense)
(302
)
 
(184
)
 
(118
)
 
(515
)
 
(382
)
 
(133
)
PROFIT/(LOSS) FOR THE PERIOD
906

 
531

 
375

 
1,399

 
1,000

 
399

Result from intersegment investments(**)

 
375

 

 

 
399

 

PROFIT/(LOSS) FOR THE PERIOD
906

 
906

 
375

 
1,399

 
1,399

 
399

Notes:
(*)
Transactions between Industrial Activities and Financial Services have been eliminated to arrive to the consolidated data.
(**)
Investments held by subsidiaries belonging to one segment in subsidiaries included in the other segment are accounted for under the equity method and are classified in this item.
(1)
In 2019, this item also includes other assets optimization charges of $165 million due to actions included in the "Transform2Win" strategy.
(2)
In 2019, this item also includes a $20 million pre-tax non-cash settlement charge resulting from the purchase of a group annuity contract to settle a portion of the outstanding U.S. pension obligation, and the pre-tax gain of $47 million related to a healthcare plan amendment in the U.S. In 2018, this item included a pre-tax gain of $527 million related to the modification of a healthcare plan in the U.S.
(3)
In 2019, this item includes the charge of $27 million related to the repurchase of notes ($22 million in 2018).


Net revenues
We recorded net revenues of $28,024 million in 2019, a decrease of 5.8% (down 0.9% on a constant currency basis) compared to 2018. This decrease was primarily due to a decrease of 6.3% (down 1.4% on a constant currency basis) compared to the prior year in net revenues of Industrial Activities.
Cost of sales
Cost of sales were $23,056 million in 2019 compared with $24,201 million in 2018, a decrease year over year due to a reduction in net revenues, partially offset by higher product costs, increased raw material costs and tariffs. In 2019, cost of sales included $165 million of assets optimization charges due to actions included in the Company's "Transform2Win" strategy. As a percentage of net revenues, cost of sales of Industrial Activities was 83.4% and 82.6% in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Selling, general and administrative costs
Selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) costs amounted to $2,156 million in 2019 (7.7% of net revenues) compared to $2,313 million in 2018 (7.8% of net revenues).

Board Report Operating and Financial Review and Prospects    54




Research and development costs
In 2019, research and development (“R&D”) costs were $1,093 million (compared to $1,110 million in 2018) and included all R&D costs not recognized as assets in the year amounting to $624 million ($625 million in 2018), $30 million of impairment losses (zero in 2018) and the amortization of capitalized development cost of $439 million ($485 million in 2018). During 2019, CNH Industrial capitalized new expenditures for development costs for $426 million ($455 million in 2018). The costs in both periods were primarily attributable to spending on engine development associated with emission requirements and continued investment in new products.
Result from investments
Result from investments was a net gain of $19 million in 2019, compared to $61 million in the previous year. The decrease was mainly due to lower results of the joint ventures in Rest of World.
Restructuring costs
Restructuring costs were $116 million in 2019 compared to $63 million in 2018. The 2019 costs were primarily attributable to actions taken by CNH Industrial in the context of the "Transform2Win" strategy announced on September 3, 2019 at the Company's Capital Markets Day event, and other activities related to the previously announced launch of a new organization structure focused on operating segments.
Other income/(expenses)
Other expenses were $52 million in 2019 (other income of $383 million in 2018). In 2019, this item also included a $20 million pre-tax non-cash settlement charge resulting from the purchase of a group annuity contract to settle a portion of the outstanding U.S. pension obligation, and the pre-tax gain of $47 million related to a healthcare plan amendment in the U.S. In 2018, this item included a pre-tax gain of $527 million related to the modification of a healthcare plan (the “Benefit Modification gain”) following the favorable judgement issued by the United States Supreme Court in April 2018.
Financial income/(expenses)
Net financial expenses were $362 million in 2019, compared to $578 million in 2018, a decrease of $216 million. In 2019, net financial expenses included a charge of $27 million related to the repurchase of €380 million (~$420 million) in aggregate of certain outstanding CNH Industrial Finance Europe S.A. notes ($22 million in 2018). Excluding these charges in both periods, the decrease was primarily attributable to lower negative foreign exchange impact, the refinancing and early retirement of certain high-yield debt, as well as lower average indebtedness.
Income tax (expense)
($ million)
2019

2018

Profit before taxes 
1,208

1,914

Income tax (expense)
(302
)
(515
)
Effective tax rate
25.0
%
26.9
%
Income tax expense totaled $302 million in 2019 compared to $515 million in 2018.The effective tax rates for 2019 and 2018 were 25.0% and 26.9%, respectively. Excluding the impact of restructuring, adjustments to valuation allowances on certain deferred tax assets, the charge for the repurchase of notes in both periods, the asset optimization charges and other write-offs mainly due to actions included in the "Transform2Win" strategy, the gain related to a healthcare plan amendment in the U.S. and the charge resulting from the purchase of a group annuity contract in 2019, as well as the Benefit Modification gain and the refinement to the 2017 impact of U.S. Tax Reform in 2018, the effective tax rates were 23% and 28% in 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Profit/(loss)
Net profit was $906 million in 2019 compared to $1,399 million in 2018. In 2019, net profit included a charge of $165 million related to the asset optimization portion of the "Transform2Win" strategy, $20 million pre-tax non-cash settlement charge resulting from the purchase of a group annuity contract, the pre-tax gain of $47 million related to a healthcare plan amendment in the U.S., $27 million charge related to the repurchase of notes and $116 million of restructuring costs. In 2018, net profit included the after-tax gain of $399 million related to the Benefit Modification gain previously mentioned, $22 million charge related to the repurchase of notes and $63 million of restructuring costs.

Board Report Operating and Financial Review and Prospects    55





Industrial Activities Performance
The following tables show net revenues, Adjusted EBIT and Adjusted EBITDA broken down by segment. We have also included a discussion of our results by Industrial Activities and each of our segments.
Net revenues by segment
($ million)
2019

2018

% change

% change
 excl. FX

Agriculture
10,958

11,786

-7.0

-2.8

Construction
2,768

3,021

-8.4

-6.3

Commercial and Specialty Vehicles
10,440

10,933

-4.5

1.8

Powertrain
4,114

4,557

-9.7

-3.5

Eliminations and Other
(2,111
)
(2,370
)


Total Net revenues of Industrial Activities
26,169

27,927

-6.3

-1.4

Financial Services
1,996

1,996


3.7

Eliminations and Other
(141
)
(187
)


Total Net revenues
28,024

29,736

-5.8

-0.9


Adjusted EBIT by segment
($ million)
2019

 
2018

Change

2019 Adjusted EBIT margin

2018 Adjusted EBIT margin

Agriculture
900

 
1,098

-198

8.2
%
9.3
%
Construction
50

 
69

-19

1.8
%
2.3
%
Commercial and Specialty Vehicles
188

 
285

-97

1.8
%
2.6
%
Powertrain
362

 
385

-23

8.8
%
8.4
%
Unallocated items, eliminations and other
(124
)
 
(341
)
217



Total Adjusted EBIT of Industrial Activities
1,376

 
1,496

-120

5.3
%
5.4
%
Financial Services
497

 
532

-35

24.9
%
26.7
%
Eliminations and Other

 




Total Adjusted EBIT
1,873

 
2,028

-155

6.7
%
6.8
%

Adjusted EBITDA by segment
($ million)
2019

 
2018

Change

2019 Adjusted EBITDA margin

2018 Adjusted EBITDA margin

Agriculture
1,431

 
1,641

-210
13.1
%
13.9
%
Construction
151

 
176

-25
5.5
%
5.8
%
Commercial and Specialty Vehicles
923

 
1,035

-112
8.8
%
9.5
%
Powertrain
540

 
569

-29
13.1
%
12.5
%
Unallocated items, eliminations and other
(119
)
 
(339
)
220


Total Adjusted EBITDA of Industrial Activities
2,926

 
3,082

-156
11.2
%
11.0
%
Financial Services
746

 
783

-37
37.4
%
39.2
%
Eliminations and Other

 




Total Adjusted EBITDA
3,672

 
3,865

-193
13.1
%
13.0
%
Net revenues of Industrial Activities were $26,169 million in 2019, a 6.3% decrease (down 1.4% on a constant currency basis) compared to the prior year, as lower sales volume due to weak industry demand and dealer inventory reduction actions in our Agriculture and Construction segments more than offset positive price realization across the business.
Adjusted EBIT of Industrial Activities was down 8.0% to $1,376 million in 2019, compared to $1,496 million in 2018, representing an Adjusted EBIT margin of 5.3%, down 10 basis points (“bps”) compared to 2018, mainly due to unfavorable

Board Report Operating and Financial Review and Prospects    56




volume and mix as well as raw material headwinds, which more than offset positive price realization and cost management actions.
Adjusted EBITDA of Industrial Activities was $2,926 million in 2019, a decrease of $156 million (or down 5.1%) compared to 2018, equivalent to an Adjusted EBITDA margin of 11.2%, up 20 bps compared to 2018.

The following tables summarize the reconciliation of Adjusted EBIT and Adjusted EBITDA, non-GAAP financial measures, to consolidated profit/(loss), the most comparable EU-IFRS financial measure, for 2019 and 2018.
 
2019
 
($ million)
Agriculture
Construction

Commercial and Specialty Vehicles

Powertrain

Unallocated items, elimination and other

Total Industrial Activities

Financial Services

Total

Profit/(loss)(1)
 
 
 
 
 
531

375

906

Add back:
 
 
 
 
 



Financial expenses
 
 
 
 
 
362


362

Income tax expense
 
 
 
 
 
184

118

302

Adjustments:
 
 
 
 
 



Restructuring costs
40

26

37

7

2

112

4

116

Other discrete items(2)


182


5

187


187

Adjusted EBIT
900

50

188

362

(124
)
1,376

497

1,873

Depreciation and amortization
531

101

425

178

5

1,240

4

1,244

Depreciation of assets under operating leases and assets sold with buy-back commitments


310



310

245

555

Adjusted EBITDA
1,431

151

923

540

(119
)
2,926

746

3,672

(1)
For Industrial Activities, profit/(loss) net of “Results from intersegment investments”.
(2)
In 2019, this item mainly includes the other asset optimization charges for $165 million due to actions included in the "Transform2Win" strategy, $20 million pre-tax non-cash settlement charge resulting from the purchase of a group annuity contract to settle a portion of the outstanding U.S. pension obligation and the pre-tax gain of $47 million related to a healthcare plan amendment in the U.S.
 
2018
 
($ million)
Agriculture

Construction

Commercial and Specialty Vehicles

Powertrain