UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 20-F
 
o
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
þ
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2019
OR
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
o
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number 001-37596
 
Ferrari N.V.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
 
The Netherlands
(Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
 
Via Abetone Inferiore n. 4
I-41053 Maranello (MO)
Italy
Tel. No.: +39 0536 949111
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)


Antonio Picca Piccon
Tel. No.: +39 0536 949111
Facsimile No.: +39 0536 241494
Via Abetone Inferiore n. 4 I-41053 Maranello (MO) Italy
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary Shares (par value of €0.01 each)
 
RACE
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: 185,283,323 common shares, par value €0.01 per share, and 63,346,921 special voting shares, par value €0.01 per share.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes þ No o
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Act of 1934. Yes o No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes þ No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer þ
 
Accelerated filer o
 
Non-accelerated filer o
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
U.S. GAAP o International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board þ Other o
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow: Item 17 o or Item 18 o.
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes o No þ
(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. Yes o No o





TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Item 4.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Item 4A.
Item 5.
 
 
 
 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
Item 6.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Item 7.
A.
B.
C.



Item 8.
A.
B.
Item 9.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Item 10.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
Item 11.
Item 12.
A.
B.
C.
D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 13.
Item 14.
Item 15.
Item 16A.
Item 16B.
Item 16C.
Item 16D.
Item 16E.
Item 16F.
Item 16G.
Item 16H.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 17.
Item 18.
Item 19.
 



Certain Defined Terms
In this report, unless otherwise specified, the terms “we”, “our”, “us”, the “Group”, the “Company” and “Ferrari” refer to Ferrari N.V., individually or together with its subsidiaries, as the context may require. References to “Ferrari N.V.” refer to the registrant.

Note on Presentation
This document includes the consolidated financial statements of Ferrari N.V. as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, as well as IFRS as adopted by the European Union. There is no effect on these consolidated financial statements resulting from differences between IFRS as issued by the IASB and IFRS as adopted by the European Union. The designation IFRS also includes International Accounting Standards (“IAS”) as well as all the interpretations of the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (“IFRIC” and “SIC”). We refer to these consolidated financial statements collectively as the “Consolidated Financial Statements”.
Basis of Preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements
The Group’s financial information is presented in Euro. In some instances, information is presented in U.S. Dollars. All references in this document to “Euro” and “€” refer to the currency introduced at the start of the third stage of European Economic and Monetary Union pursuant to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, as amended, and all references to “U.S. Dollars” and “$” refer to the currency of the United States of America (the “United States”).

The language of this document is English. Certain legislative references and technical terms have been cited in their original language in order that the correct technical meaning may be ascribed to them under applicable law.
Certain totals in the tables included in this document may not add due to rounding.

I



Forward-Looking Statements
Statements contained in this report, particularly those regarding our possible or assumed future performance, competitive strengths, costs, dividends, reserves and growth, industry growth and other trends and projections and estimated company earnings are “forward-looking statements” that contain risks and uncertainties. In some cases, words such as “may”, “will”, “expect”, “could”, “should”, “intend”, “estimate”, “anticipate”, “believe”, “outlook”, “continue”, “remain”, “on track”, “design”, “target”, “objective”, “goal”, “plan” and similar expressions are used to identify forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements reflect the respective current views of Ferrari with respect to future events and involve significant risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated in the forward-looking statements. These factors include, without limitation:

our ability to preserve and enhance the value of the Ferrari brand;
the success of our Formula 1 racing team and the expenses we incur for our Formula 1 activities, the impact of the application of the new Formula 1 rules coming into effect in 2021, as well as the popularity of Formula 1 more broadly;
our ability to keep up with advances in high performance car technology and to make appealing designs for our new models;
our ability to preserve our relationship with the automobile collector and enthusiast community;
changes in client preferences and automotive trends;
changes in the general economic environment, including changes in some of the markets in which we operate, and changes in demand for luxury goods, including high performance luxury cars, which is highly volatile;
competition in the automotive and luxury industries;
our ability to successfully carry out our growth strategy and, particularly, our ability to grow our presence in growth and emerging market countries;
the effects of Brexit;
our low volume strategy;
reliance upon a number of key members of executive management and employees, and the ability of our current management team to operate and manage effectively;
the performance of our dealer network on which we depend for sales and services;
increases in costs, disruptions of supply or shortages of components and raw materials;
disruptions at our manufacturing facilities in Maranello and Modena;
the performance of our licensees for Ferrari-branded products;
our ability to protect our intellectual property rights and to avoid infringing on the intellectual property rights of others;
the ability of Maserati, our engine customer, to sell its planned volume of cars;
our continued compliance with customs regulations of various jurisdictions;
the impact of increasingly stringent fuel economy, emissions and safety standards, including the cost of compliance, and any required changes to our products;
the challenges and costs of integrating hybrid and electric technology more broadly into our car portfolio over time;
product warranties, product recalls and liability claims;
the adequacy of our insurance coverage to protect us against potential losses;
our ability to ensure that our employees, agents and representatives comply with applicable law and regulations;

II



our ability to maintain the functional and efficient operation of our information technology systems, including our ability to defend from the risk of cyberattacks, including on our in-vehicle technology;
our ability to service and refinance our debt;
our ability to provide or arrange for adequate access to financing for our dealers and clients, and associated risks;
labor relations and collective bargaining agreements;
exchange rate fluctuations, interest rate changes, credit risk and other market risks;
changes in tax, tariff or fiscal policies and regulatory, political and labor conditions in the jurisdictions in which we operate, including possible future bans of combustion engine cars in cities and the potential advent of self-driving technology;
potential conflicts of interest due to director and officer overlaps with our largest shareholders; and
other factors discussed elsewhere in this document.
We expressly disclaim and do not assume any liability in connection with any inaccuracies in any of the forward-looking statements in this document or in connection with any use by any third party of such forward-looking statements. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements. We do not undertake an obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements.

Additional factors which could cause actual results and developments to differ from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements are included in the section “Item 3.D. Risk Factors” of this report. These factors may not be exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with the other cautionary statements included in this report. You should evaluate all forward-looking statements made in this report in the context of these risks and uncertainties.




III



PART I

Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Not Applicable.
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Not Applicable.
Item 3. Key Information
A. Selected Financial Data
The following tables set forth selected historical consolidated financial and other data of Ferrari and have been derived from:
(i)
the audited Consolidated Financial Statements, included elsewhere in this document;
(ii)
the audited consolidated income statement of the Company for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 and the audited consolidated statement of financial position at December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.
This financial information has been prepared in accordance with IFRS.
For the purposes of the financial information set forth in this section, the restructuring activities undertaken as part of the separation from FCA (the “Separation”) have been retrospectively reflected as though it had occurred effective January 1, 2015, with the exception of the debt owing to FCA and subsequent refinancing, which were reflected from the dates on which they occurred. References to “FCA” or “FCA Group” refer to Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V., together with its subsidiaries. See Item 4.A. History and Development of the Company” for additional details regarding the Separation.
The following information should be read in conjunction with “Note on Presentation”, “Item 3.D. Risk Factors”, “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this document. Historical results for any period are not necessarily indicative of results for any future period.

1



Consolidated Income Statement Data
 
For the years ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
(€ million, except per share data)
Net revenues
3,766

 
3,420

 
3,417

 
3,105

 
2,854

EBIT
917

 
826

 
775

 
595

 
444

Profit before taxes
875

 
803

 
746

 
567

 
434

Net profit
699

 
787

 
537

 
400

 
290

Net profit attributable to:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Owners of the parent
696

 
785

 
535

 
399

 
288

Non-controlling interests
3

 
2

 
2

 
1

 
2

Basic earnings per common share (€) (1) (2)
3.73

 
4.16

 
2.83

 
2.11

 
1.52

Diluted earnings per common share (€) (1) (2) (3)
3.71

 
4.14

 
2.82

 
2.11

 
1.52

Dividend approved per common share (€) (4) (5)
1.03

 
0.71

 

 

 

Dividend approved per common share ($) (4) (5) (6)
1.16

 
0.88

 

 

 

Distribution approved per common share (€) (7) (8)

 

 
0.635

 
0.46

 

Distribution approved per common share ($) (6) (7) (8)

 

 
0.682

 
0.52

 

_____________________________
(1)
For 2015, retrospectively reflects the issuance of 188,923,499 common shares as if the Separation had occurred on January 1, 2015. See also Note 12 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
(2)
The increase in the basic and diluted earnings per common share in 2018 compared to 2017 includes the effects of applying the Patent Box tax regime starting in the third quarter of 2018. See Adjusted Basic and Diluted Earnings per Common Share for 2018 in the section Non-GAAP Financial Measures as well as Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, both included elsewhere in this document, for additional information.
(3)
In order to calculate the diluted earnings per common share the weighted average number of shares outstanding has been increased to take into consideration the theoretical effect of (i) the potential common shares that would have been issued under the equity incentive plan for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 (assuming 100 percent of the related awards vested), and (ii) the potential common shares that would have been issued for the Non-Executive Directors’ compensation agreement for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016. For the year ended December 31, 2015 there were no potentially dilutive instruments. See Note 12 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
(4)
Following approval of the annual accounts by the shareholders at the Annual General Meeting of the Shareholders on April 12, 2019, a dividend distribution of €1.03 per outstanding common share was approved, corresponding to a total distribution of €193 million. The distribution was made from the retained earnings reserve.
(5)
Following approval of the annual accounts by the shareholders at the Annual General Meeting of the Shareholders on April 13, 2018, a dividend distribution of €0.71 per outstanding common share was approved, corresponding to a total distribution of €134 million. The distribution was made from the retained earnings reserve.
(6)
Translated into U.S. Dollars at the exchange rates in effect on the dates on which the distribution was declared in U.S. Dollars for common shares that are traded on the New York Stock Exchange. These translations are examples only, and should not be construed as a representation that the Euro amount represents, or has been or could be converted into, U.S. Dollars at that or any other rate.
(7)
Following approval of the annual accounts by the shareholders at the Annual General Meeting of the Shareholders on April 14, 2017, a cash distribution
of €0.635 per outstanding common share was approved, corresponding to a total distribution of €120 million. The distribution was made from the share premium reserve which is a distributable reserve under Dutch law.
(8)
Following approval of the annual accounts by the shareholders at the Annual General Meeting of the Shareholders on April 15, 2016, a cash distribution of €0.46 per outstanding common share was approved, corresponding to a total distribution of €87 million. The distribution was made from the share premium reserve which is a distributable reserve under Dutch law.



2



Consolidated Statement of Financial Position Data
 
At December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
(€ million, except number of shares issued)
Cash and cash equivalents
898

 
794

 
648

 
458

 
183

Deposits in FCA Group cash management pools (1)

 

 

 

 
139

Total assets
5,446

 
4,852

 
4,141

 
3,850

 
3,875

Debt
2,090

 
1,927

 
1,806

 
1,848

 
2,260

Total equity/(deficit) (2)
1,487

 
1,354

 
784

 
330

 
(19
)
Equity/(Deficit) attributable to owners of the parent
1,481

 
1,349

 
779

 
325

 
(25
)
Non-controlling interests
6

 
5

 
5

 
5

 
6

Share capital
3

 
3

 
3

 
3

 
4

Common shares issued and outstanding (in thousands of shares) (3)
185,283

 
187,921

 
188,954

 
188,923

 
188,923

_____________________________
(1)
Deposits in FCA Group cash management pools related to our participation in a group-wide cash management system at FCA prior to the Separation, where the operating cash management, main funding operations and liquidity of the Group were centrally coordinated by dedicated treasury companies with the objective of ensuring effective and efficient management of our funds. Following the completion of the Separation on January 3, 2016, these arrangements were terminated and we manage our liquidity and treasury function on a standalone basis.
(2)
The deficit at December 31, 2015 is a result of the effects of the restructuring activities undertaken as part of the Separation.
(3)
For 2015, the number of common shares issued retrospectively reflects the issuance of common shares (net of treasury shares), all with a nominal value of €0.01, as if the Separation had occurred on January 1, 2015.


Other Statistical Information
 
For the years ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Shipments (number of cars)
10,131

 
9,251

 
8,398

 
8,014

 
7,664

Average number of employees for the period
4,164

 
3,651

 
3,336

 
3,115

 
2,954


B. Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.

C. Reason for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.


3



D. Risk Factors
We face a variety of risks and uncertainties in our business. Those described below are not the only risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe to be immaterial, may also become important factors that affect us.
Risks Related to Our Business, Strategy and Operations
We may not succeed in preserving and enhancing the value of the Ferrari brand, which we depend upon to drive demand and revenues.
Our financial performance is influenced by the perception and recognition of the Ferrari brand, which, in turn, depends on many factors such as the design, performance, quality and image of our cars, the appeal of our dealerships and stores, the success of our promotional activities including public relations and marketing, as well as our general profile, including our brand’s image of exclusivity. The value of our brand and our ability to achieve premium pricing for Ferrari-branded products may decline if we are unable to maintain the value and image of the Ferrari brand, including, in particular, its aura of exclusivity. Maintaining the value of our brand will depend significantly on our ability to continue to produce luxury performance cars of the highest quality. The market for luxury goods generally and for luxury automobiles in particular is intensely competitive, and we may not be successful in maintaining and strengthening the appeal of our brand. Client preferences, particularly among luxury goods, can vary over time, sometimes rapidly. We are therefore exposed to changing perceptions of our brand image, particularly as we seek to attract new generations of clients and, to that end, we continuously renovate and expand the range of our models. For example, the gradual expansion of hybrid engine and electric engine technology (already integrated in past models such as the LaFerrari and the LaFerrari Aperta, as well as in the new SF90 Stradale) will introduce a notable change in the overall driver experience compared to the combustion engine cars of our models to date. Any failure to preserve and enhance the value of our brand may materially and adversely affect our ability to sell our cars, to maintain premium pricing, and to extend the value of our brand into other activities profitably or at all.
We selectively license the Ferrari brand to third parties that produce and sell Ferrari-branded luxury goods and therefore we rely on our licensing partners to preserve and enhance the value of our brand. If our licensees or the manufacturers of these products do not maintain the standards of quality and exclusivity that we believe are consistent with the Ferrari brand, or if such licensees or manufacturers otherwise misuse the Ferrari brand, our reputation and the integrity and value of our brand may be damaged and our business, operating results and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected. In addition, we have recently announced a brand diversification strategy that will significantly increase the deployment of our brand in non-car products and experiences. If this strategy is not successful, our brand image may be diluted or tainted.
Our brand image depends in part on the success of our Formula 1 racing team.
The prestige, identity, and appeal of the Ferrari brand depend in part on the continued success of the Scuderia Ferrari racing team in the Formula 1 World Championship. The racing team is a key component of our marketing strategy and may be perceived by our clients as a demonstration of the technological capabilities of our sports, GT, special series and Icona cars, which also supports the appeal of other Ferrari-branded luxury goods. We have focused on restoring the success of our Formula 1 racing team as our most recent Drivers’ Championship and Constructors’ Championship were in 2007 and 2008, respectively. We are focused on improving our racing results and restoring our historical position as the premier racing team. If we are unable to attract and retain the necessary talent to succeed in international competitions or devote the capital necessary to fund successful racing activities, the value of the Ferrari brand and the appeal of our cars and other luxury goods may suffer. Even if we are able to attract such talent and adequately fund our racing activities, there is no assurance that this will lead to competitive success for our racing team.
The success of our racing team depends in particular on our ability to attract and retain top drivers, racing team management and engineering talent. Our primary Formula 1 drivers, team managers and other key employees of Scuderia Ferrari are critical to the success of our racing team and if we were to lose their services, this could have a material adverse effect on the success of our racing team and correspondingly the Ferrari brand. If we are unable to find adequate replacements or to attract, retain and incentivize drivers and team managers, other key employees or new qualified personnel, the success of our racing team may suffer. As the success of our racing team forms a large part of our brand identity, a sustained period without racing success could detract from the Ferrari brand and, as a result, potential clients’ enthusiasm for the Ferrari brand and their perception of our cars, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

4



If we are unable to keep up with advances in high performance car technology, our brand and competitive position may suffer.
Performance cars are characterized by leading-edge technology that is constantly evolving. In particular, advances in racing technology often lead to improved technology in road cars. Although we invest heavily in research and development, we may be unable to maintain our leading position in high performance car technology and, as a result, our competitive position may suffer. As technologies change, we plan to upgrade or adapt our cars and introduce new models in order to continue to provide cars with the latest technology. However, our cars may not compete effectively with our competitors’ cars if we are not able to develop, source and integrate the latest technology into our cars. For example, in the next few years luxury performance cars will increasingly transition to hybrid and electric technology, albeit at a slower pace compared to mass market vehicles. See “The introduction of hybrid and electric technology in our cars is costly and its long term success is uncertain”.
Developing and applying new automotive technologies is costly, and may become even more costly in the future as available technology advances and competition in the industry increases. If our research and development efforts do not lead to improvements in car performance relative to the competition, or if we are required to spend more to achieve comparable results, sales of our cars or our profitability may suffer.
If our car designs do not appeal to clients, our brand and competitive position may suffer.
Design and styling are an integral component of our models and our brand. Our cars have historically been characterized by distinctive designs combining the aerodynamics of a sports car with powerful, elegant lines. We believe our clients purchase our cars for their appearance as well as their performance. However, we will need to renew over time the style of our cars to differentiate the new models we produce from older models, and to reflect the broader evolution of aesthetics in our markets. We devote great efforts to the design of our cars and most of our current models are designed by the Ferrari Design Centre, our in-house design team. If the design of our future models fails to meet the evolving tastes and preferences of our clients and prospective clients, or the appreciation of the wider public, our brand may suffer and our sales may be adversely affected.
The value of our brand depends in part on the automobile collector and enthusiast community.
An important factor in the connection of clients to the Ferrari brand is our strong relationship with the global community of automotive collectors and enthusiasts, particularly collectors and enthusiasts of Ferrari automobiles. This is influenced by our close ties to the automotive collectors’ community and our support of related events (such as car shows and driving events) at our headquarters in Maranello and through our dealers, the Ferrari museums and affiliations with regional Ferrari clubs. The support of this community also depends upon the perception of our cars as collectibles, which we also support through our Ferrari Classiche services, and the active resale market for our automobiles which encourages interest over the long term. The increase in the number of cars we produce relative to the number of automotive collectors and purchasers in the secondary market may adversely affect our cars’ value as collectible items and in the secondary market more broadly.
If there is a change in collector appetite or damage to the Ferrari brand, our ties to, and the support we receive from, this community may be diminished. Such a loss of enthusiasm for our cars from the automotive collectors’ community could harm the perception of the Ferrari brand and adversely impact our sales and profitability.
Our business is subject to changes in client preferences and trends in the automotive and luxury industries.
Our continued success depends in part on our ability to originate and define products and trends in the automotive and luxury industries, as well as to anticipate and respond promptly to changing consumer demands and automotive trends in the design, styling, technology, production, merchandising and pricing of our products. Our products must appeal to a client base whose preferences cannot be predicted with certainty and are subject to rapid change. Evaluating and responding to client preferences has become even more complex in recent years, due to our expansion in new geographical markets. The introduction of hybrid and electric technology and the associated changes in customer preferences that may follow are also a challenge we will face in future periods. See also “If we are unable to keep up with advances in high performance car technology, our brand and competitive position may suffer” and “The introduction of hybrid and electric technology in our cars is costly and its long term success is uncertain”. In addition, there can be no assurance that we will be able to produce, distribute and market new products efficiently or that any product category that we may expand or introduce will achieve sales levels sufficient to generate profits. We will encounter this risk, for example, as we introduce the Purosangue, a luxury high performance vehicle within the GT range that we are developing and will launch in the coming years. Furthermore this risk is particularly pronounced as we expand in accordance with our strategy into adjacent segments of the luxury industry, where we do not have a level of experience

5



and market presence comparable to the one we have in the automotive industry. Any of these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Demand for luxury goods, including luxury performance cars, is volatile, which may adversely affect our operating results.
Volatility of demand for luxury goods, in particular luxury performance cars, may adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. The market in which we sell our cars is subject to volatility in demand. Demand for luxury automobiles depends to a large extent on general, economic, political and social conditions in a given market as well as the introduction of new vehicles and technologies. As a luxury performance car manufacturer and low volume producer, we compete with larger automobile manufacturers many of which have greater financial resources in order to withstand changes in the market and disruptions in demand. Demand for our cars may also be affected by factors directly impacting the cost of purchasing and operating automobiles, such as the availability and cost of financing, prices of raw materials and parts and components, fuel costs and governmental regulations, including tariffs, import regulation and other taxes, including taxes on luxury goods, resulting in limitations to the use of high performance sports cars or luxury goods more generally. Volatility in demand may lead to lower car unit sales, which may result in downward price pressure and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. The impact of a luxury market downturn may be particularly pronounced for the most expensive among our car models, which generate a more than proportionate amount of our profits, therefore exacerbating the impact on our results. In addition, these effects may have a more pronounced impact on us given our low volume strategy and relatively smaller scale as compared to large global mass-market automobile manufacturers.
We face competition in the luxury performance car industry.
We face competition in all product categories and markets in which we operate. We compete with other international luxury performance car manufacturers which own and operate well-known brands of high-quality cars, some of which form part of larger automotive groups and may have greater financial resources and bargaining power with suppliers than we do, particularly in light of our policy to maintain low volumes in order to preserve and enhance the exclusivity of our cars. In addition, several other manufacturers have recently entered or are attempting to enter the upper end of the luxury performance car market, thereby increasing competition. We believe that we compete primarily on the basis of our brand image, the performance and design of our cars, our reputation for quality and the driving experience for our customers. If we are unable to compete successfully, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Our growth strategy exposes us to risks.
Our growth strategy includes a controlled expansion of our sales and operations, including the launching of new car models and expanding sales, as well as dealer operations and workshops, in targeted growth regions internationally. In particular, our growth strategy requires us to expand operations in regions that we have identified as having relatively high growth potential. We may encounter difficulties, including more significant competition in entering and establishing ourselves in these markets.
Our growth depends on the continued success of our existing cars, as well as the successful introduction of new cars. Our ability to create new cars and to sustain existing car models is affected by whether we can successfully anticipate and respond to consumer preferences and car trends. The failure to develop successful new cars or delays in their launch that could result in others bringing new products and leading-edge technologies to the market first, could compromise our competitive position and hinder the growth of our business. As part of our growth strategy, we plan to broaden the range of our models to capture additional customer demand for different types of vehicles and modes of utilization. At our Capital Markets Day in September 2018, we announced our plan to introduce 15 new models in the 2019-2022 period (which is unprecedented for Ferrari over a similar time period), including the Icona limited editions, a new concept that takes inspiration from our iconic cars of the past and interprets them in a modern way with innovative technology and materials. In the GT range, we are developing a luxury high performance vehicle, the Purosangue, and we are planning a new line of cars powered by V6 engines. In addition, we will gradually but rapidly expand the use of hybrid and electric technology in our road cars, consistent with customer preferences and broader industry trends. While we will seek to ensure that these changes remain fully consistent with the Ferrari car identity, we cannot be certain that they will prove profitable and commercially successful.
Our growth strategy may expose us to new business risks that we may not have the expertise, capability or the systems to manage. This strategy will also place significant demands on us by requiring us to continuously evolve and improve our operational, financial and internal controls. Continued expansion also increases the challenges involved in maintaining high levels of quality, management and client satisfaction, recruiting, training and retaining sufficient skilled management, technical and marketing personnel. If we are unable to manage these risks or meet these demands, our growth prospects and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

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We continuously improve our international network footprint and skill set. We also plan to open additional retail stores in international markets. We do not yet have significant experience directly operating in many of these markets, and in many of them we face established competitors. Many of these countries have different operational characteristics, including but not limited to employment and labor, transportation, logistics, real estate, environmental regulations and local reporting or legal requirements.
Consumer demand and behavior, as well as tastes and purchasing trends may differ in these markets, and as a result, sales of our products may not be successful, or the margins on those sales may not be in line with those we currently anticipate. Furthermore, such markets will have upfront short-term investment costs that may not be accompanied by sufficient revenues to achieve typical or expected operational and financial performance and therefore may be dilutive to us in the short-term. In many of these countries, there is significant competition to attract and retain experienced and talented employees.
Consequently, if our international expansion plans are unsuccessful, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
Our low volume strategy may limit potential profits, and if volumes increase our brand exclusivity may be eroded.
A key to the appeal of the Ferrari brand and our marketing strategy is the aura of exclusivity and the sense of luxury which our brand conveys. A central facet to this exclusivity is the limited number of models and cars we produce and our strategy of maintaining our car waiting lists to reach the optimal combination of exclusivity and client service. Our low volume strategy is also an important factor in the prices that our clients are willing to pay for our cars. This focus on maintaining exclusivity limits our potential sales growth and profitability.
On the other hand, our current growth strategy contemplates a measured but significant increase in car sales above current levels as we target a larger customer base and modes of use, we increase our focus on GT cars, and our product portfolio evolves with a broader product range. We sold 10,131 cars in 2019, compared to 7,255 cars in 2014, and sales are expected to continue to increase gradually.
In pursuit of our strategy, we may be unable to maintain the exclusivity of the Ferrari brand. If we are unable to balance brand exclusivity with increased production, we may erode the desirability and ultimately the consumer demand for our cars. As a result, if we are unable to increase car production meaningfully or introduce new car models without eroding the image of exclusivity in our brand we may be unable to significantly increase our revenues.
The small number of car models we produce and sell may result in greater volatility in our financial results.
We depend on the sales of a small number of car models to generate our revenues. Our current product range consists of nine range models (including five sports cars and four GT cars) and two special series cars, as well as our limited edition Icona cars. While we anticipate significantly expanding our car offerings as part of our growth strategy, through our previously announced plan to introduce 15 new products in the 2019-2022 period, a limited number of models will continue to account for a large portion of our revenues at any given time in the foreseeable future, compared to other automakers. Therefore, a single unsuccessful new model would harm us more than it would other automakers. There can be no assurance that our cars will continue to be successful in the market, or that we will be able to launch new models on a timely basis compared to our competitors. It generally takes several years from the beginning of the development phase to the start of production for a new model and the car development process is capital intensive. As a result, we would likely be unable to replace quickly the revenue lost from one of our main car models if it does not achieve market acceptance. Furthermore, our revenues and profits may also be affected by our “special series” and limited edition cars (including the Icona limited editions) that we launch from time to time and which are typically priced higher than our range models. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in developing, producing and marketing additional new cars that will sustain sales growth in the future.
Global economic conditions and macro events may adversely affect us.
Our sales volumes and revenues may be affected by overall general economic conditions. Deteriorating general economic conditions may affect disposable incomes and reduce consumer wealth impacting client demand, particularly for luxury goods, which may negatively impact our profitability and put downward pressure on our prices and volumes. Furthermore, during recessionary periods, social acceptability of luxury purchases may decrease and higher taxes may be more likely to be imposed on certain luxury goods including our cars, which may affect our sales. Adverse economic conditions may also affect

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the financial health and performance of our dealers in a manner that will affect sales of our cars or their ability to meet their commitments to us.
Many factors affect the level of consumer spending in the luxury performance car industry, including the state of the economy as a whole, stock market performance, interest and exchange rates, inflation, political uncertainty, the availability of consumer credit, tax rates, unemployment levels and other matters that influence consumer confidence. In general, although our sales have historically been comparatively resilient in periods of economic turmoil, sales of luxury goods tend to decline during recessionary periods when the level of disposable income tends to be lower or when consumer confidence is low.
We are also susceptible to risks relating to epidemics and pandemics of diseases. For example, the recent outbreak of coronavirus COVID-19 (“Coronavirus”), a virus causing potentially deadly respiratory tract infections originating in China, may negatively affect economic conditions regionally as well as globally, disrupt supply chains and otherwise impact operations. Governments in affected countries are imposing travel bans, quarantines and other emergency public safety measures. Those measures, though temporary in nature, may continue and increase depending on developments in the virus’ outbreak. The ultimate severity of the Coronavirus outbreak is uncertain at this time and therefore we cannot predict the impact it may have on our end markets, supply chain or operations; however, the effect on our results may be material and adverse.
We distribute our products internationally and we may be affected by downturns in general economic conditions or uncertainties regarding future economic prospects that may impact the countries in which we sell a significant portion of our products. In particular, the majority of our current sales are in the EU and in the United States; if we are unable to expand in emerging markets, a downturn in mature economies such as the EU and the United States may negatively affect our financial performance. The EU economies in particular suffered a prolonged period of slow growth since the 2008 financial crisis. In addition, uncertainties regarding future trade arrangements and industrial policies in various countries or regions, such as in the United Kingdom following the referendum in 2016 to leave the European Union (see further “We may be adversely affected by the UK determination to leave the European Union (Brexit)”) create additional macroeconomic risk. In the United States, any policy to discourage import into the United States of vehicles produced elsewhere could adversely affect our operations. Any new policies may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Although China only represents approximately 9 percent of our net revenues and a limited proportion of our growth in the short term, slowing economic conditions in China may adversely affect our revenues in that region. A significant decline in the EU, the global economy or in the specific economies of our markets, or in consumers’ confidence, could have a material adverse effect on our business. See also “Developments in China and other growth and emerging markets may adversely affect our business”.
Developments in China and other growth and emerging markets may adversely affect our business.
We operate in a number of growth and emerging markets, both directly and through our dealers. We believe we have potential for further success in new geographies, in particular in China, but also more generally in Asia, recognizing the increasing personal wealth in these markets. While demand in these markets has increased in recent years due to sustained economic growth and growth in personal income and wealth, we are unable to foresee the extent to which economic growth in these emerging markets will be sustained. For example, rising geopolitical tensions and potential slowdowns in the rate of growth there and in other emerging markets could limit the opportunity for us to increase unit sales and revenues in those regions in the near term. See “Global economic conditions and macro events may adversely affect us” for a discussion of the recent Coronavirus outbreak, which, for example, may negatively affect sales of our cars in Hong Kong and China in the coming periods.
Our exposure to growth and emerging countries is likely to increase, as we pursue expanded sales in such countries. Economic and political developments in emerging markets, including economic crises or political instability, have had and could have in the future material adverse effects on our results of operations and financial condition. Further, in certain markets in which we or our dealers operate, required government approvals may limit our ability to act quickly in making decisions on our operations in those markets. Other government actions may also impact the market for luxury goods in these markets, such as tax changes or the active discouragement of luxury purchases.
Maintaining and strengthening our position in these growth and emerging markets is a key component of our global growth strategy. However, initiatives from several global luxury automotive manufacturers have increased competitive pressures for luxury cars in several emerging markets. As these markets continue to grow, we anticipate that additional competitors, both international and domestic, will seek to enter these markets and that existing market participants will try to aggressively protect or increase their market share. Increased competition may result in pricing pressures, reduced margins and our inability to gain or hold market share, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. See also “Global economic conditions and macro events may adversely affect us”.

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We may be adversely affected by the UK determination to leave the European Union (Brexit).
In a June 23, 2016 referendum, the United Kingdom voted to terminate the UK’s membership in the European Union (“Brexit”). The UK ceased to be a member of the European Union on January 31, 2020, opening the transition period that is currently set to last until December 31, 2020, during which the future terms of the UK’s relationship with the European Union, including the terms of trade between the UK and the member states in the EU, will be negotiated. Any effect of Brexit is expected to depend on the agreements, if any, that may be negotiated between the UK and the EU with respect to reciprocal market access and custom arrangements, during the transitional period and more permanently. Failure to reach appropriate agreements could adversely affect European or worldwide economic or market conditions. It is possible that there will be greater restrictions on imports and exports between the UK and European Union countries and increased regulatory complexities which may prove challenging and costly. The UK’s withdrawal from the EU could also negatively impact economic conditions in Europe more generally, which in turn could adversely impact global economic conditions. For instance, the negotiating process surrounding the terms of the departure of the UK from the EU may continue to contribute to significant volatility in exchange rates, wider risks to supply chains across the European Union and ultimately lead to changes in market access or trading terms, including to customs duties, tariffs and/or industry-specific requirements and regulations and generally increased legal and regulatory complexity and costs. In 2019, approximately 10 percent of our cars and spare parts net revenues were generated in the UK; therefore, any material adverse effect of Brexit on global or regional economic or market conditions could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition as customers may reduce or delay spending decisions on our products.
Our success depends largely on the ability of our current management team to operate and manage effectively.
Our success depends on the ability of our senior executives and other members of management to effectively manage our business as a whole and individual areas of the business. Our employees, particularly in our production facilities in and around Maranello, Italy include many highly skilled engineers, technicians and artisans. If we were to lose the services of any of these senior executives or key employees, this could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. We have developed management succession plans that we believe are appropriate in the circumstances, although it is difficult to predict with any certainty that we will replace these individuals with persons of equivalent experience and capabilities. If we are unable to find adequate replacements or to attract, retain and incentivize senior executives, other key employees or new qualified personnel, our business, results of operations and financial condition may suffer.
We rely on our dealer network to provide sales and services.
We do not own our Ferrari dealers and virtually all of our sales are made through our network of dealerships located throughout the world. If our dealers are unable to provide sales or service quality that our clients expect or do not otherwise adequately project the Ferrari image and its aura of luxury and exclusivity, the Ferrari brand may be negatively affected. We depend on the quality of our dealership network and our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected if our dealers suffer financial difficulties or otherwise are unable to perform to our expectations. Furthermore, we may experience disagreements or disputes in the course of our relationship with our dealers or upon termination which may lead to financial costs, disruptions and reputational harm.
Our growth strategy also depends on our ability to attract a sufficient number of quality new dealers to sell our products in new areas. We may face competition from other luxury performance car manufacturers in attracting quality new dealers, based on, among other things, dealer margin, incentives and the performance of other dealers in the region. If we are unable to attract a sufficient number of new Ferrari dealers in targeted growth areas, our prospects could be materially adversely affected.
We depend on our suppliers, many of which are single source suppliers; and if these suppliers fail to deliver necessary raw materials, systems, components and parts of appropriate quality in a timely manner, our operations may be disrupted.
Our business depends on a significant number of suppliers, which provide the raw materials, components, parts and systems we require to manufacture cars and parts and to operate our business. We use a variety of raw materials in our business, including aluminum, and precious metals such as palladium and rhodium. We source materials from a limited number of suppliers. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to maintain access to these raw materials, and in some cases this access may be affected by factors outside of our control and the control of our suppliers. In addition, prices for these raw materials fluctuate and while we seek to manage this exposure, we may not be successful in mitigating these risks.
As with raw materials, we are also at risk of supply disruption and shortages in parts and components we purchase for use in our cars. We source a variety of key components from third parties, including transmissions, brakes, driving-safety systems, navigation systems, mechanical, electrical and electronic parts, plastic components as well as castings and tires, which

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makes us dependent upon the suppliers of such components. In the future, we will also require a greater number of components for hybrid and electric engines as we introduce hybrid and electric technology in our cars, and we expect producers of these components will be called upon to increase the levels of supply as the shift to hybrid or electric technology gathers pace in the industry. While we obtain components from multiple sources whenever possible, similar to other small volume car manufacturers, most of the key components we use in our cars are purchased by us from single source suppliers. We generally do not qualify alternative sources for most of the single-sourced components we use in our cars and we do not maintain long-term agreements with a number of our suppliers. Furthermore, we have limited ability to monitor the financial stability of our suppliers.
While we believe that we may be able to establish alternate supply relationships and can obtain or engineer replacement components for our single-sourced components, we may be unable to do so in the short term, or at all, at prices or costs that we believe are reasonable. Qualifying alternate suppliers or developing our own replacements for certain highly customized components of our cars may be time consuming, costly and may force us to make costly modifications to the designs of our cars. For example, defective airbags manufactured by Takata Corporation (“Takata”), our former principal supplier of airbags, have led to widespread recalls by several automotive manufacturers starting in 2015, including us (see further “Car recalls may be costly and may harm our reputation”; see also “Item 4.B. Business Overview—Regulatory Matters—Vehicle safety”). Following the acquisition of Takata by Key Safety Systems (“KSS”) in April 2018, Joyson Safety Systems, which is the combined company of Takata and KSS following the acquisition, is our principal supplier of the airbags installed in our cars. Failure by Joyson Safety Systems to continue the supply of airbags may cause significant disruption to our operations.
In the past, we have replaced certain suppliers because they failed to provide components that met our quality control standards. The loss of any single or limited source supplier or the disruption in the supply of components from these suppliers could lead to delays in car deliveries to our clients, which could adversely affect our relationships with our clients and also materially and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. Supply of raw materials, parts and components may also be disrupted or interrupted by natural disasters, as was the case in 2012 following the earthquake in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy. If any further major disasters occur, such as earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes, wars, terrorist attacks, pandemics or other events, our supply chain may be disrupted, which may stop or delay production and shipment of our cars. See “Global economic conditions and macro events may adversely affect us” for a discussion of the recent Coronavirus outbreak, which may affect our supply chain directly or indirectly dependent on certain Chinese supplies. As a consequence, should the current disruption in Chinese industrial activity and logistics persist or deteriorate, this may disrupt and potentially halt our production temporarily unless alternative supplies are secured.
Changes in our supply chain have in the past resulted and may in the future result in increased costs and delays in car production. We have also experienced cost increases from certain suppliers in order to meet our quality targets and development timelines and because of design changes that we have made, and we may experience similar cost increases in the future. We are negotiating with existing suppliers for cost reductions, seeking new and less expensive suppliers for certain parts, and attempting to redesign certain parts to make them less expensive to produce. If we are unsuccessful in our efforts to control and reduce supplier costs while maintaining a stable source of high quality supplies, our operating results will suffer. Additionally, cost reduction efforts may disrupt our normal production processes, thereby harming the quality or volume of our production.
Furthermore, if our suppliers fail to provide components in a timely manner or at the level of quality necessary to manufacture our cars, our clients may face longer waiting periods which could result in negative publicity, harm our reputation and relationship with clients and have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
We depend on our manufacturing facilities in Maranello and Modena.
We assemble all of the cars that we sell and manufacture, and all of the engines we use in our cars and sell to Maserati, at our production facility in Maranello, Italy, where we also have our corporate headquarters. We manufacture all of our car chassis in a nearby facility in Modena, Italy. Our Maranello or Modena plants could become unavailable either permanently or temporarily for a number of reasons, including contamination, power shortage or labor unrest. Alternatively, changes in law and regulation, including export, tax and employment laws and regulations, or economic conditions, including wage inflation, could make it uneconomic for us to continue manufacturing our cars in Italy. In the event that we were unable to continue production at either of these facilities or it became uneconomic for us to continue to do so, we would need to seek alternative manufacturing arrangements which would take time and reduce our ability to produce sufficient cars to meet demand. Moving manufacturing to other locations may also affect the perception of our brand and car quality among our clients. Such a transfer would materially reduce our revenues and could require significant investment, which as a result could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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Maranello and Modena are located in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy which has the potential for seismic activity. For instance, in 2012 a major earthquake struck the region, causing production at our facilities to be temporarily suspended for a day. If major disasters such as earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes, wars, terrorist attacks, pandemics or other events occur, our headquarters and production facilities may be seriously damaged, or we may stop or delay production and shipment of our cars. See “Global economic conditions and macro events may adversely affect us” for a discussion of the recent Coronavirus outbreak. As such damage from disasters or unpredictable events could have a material adverse impact on our business, results from operations and financial condition.
We rely on our licensing and franchising partners to preserve the value of our licenses and the failure to maintain such partners could harm our business.
We currently have multi-year agreements with licensing partners for various Ferrari-branded products in the sports, lifestyle and luxury retail segments. We also have multi-year agreements with franchising partners for our Ferrari stores and theme park. In the future, we may enter into additional licensing or franchising arrangements. Many of the risks associated with our own products also apply to our licensed products and franchised stores. In addition, there are unique problems that our licensing or franchising partners may experience, including risks associated with each licensing partner’s ability to obtain capital, manage its labor relations, maintain relationships with its suppliers, manage its credit and bankruptcy risks, and maintain client relationships. While we maintain significant control over the products produced for us by our licensing partners and the franchisees running our Ferrari stores and theme parks, any of the foregoing risks, or the inability of any of our licensing or franchising partners to execute on the expected design and quality of the licensed products, Ferrari stores and theme park, or otherwise exercise operational and financial control over its business, may result in loss of revenue and competitive harm to our operations in the product categories where we have entered into such licensing or franchising arrangements. While we select our licensing and franchising partners with care, any negative publicity surrounding such partners could have a negative effect on licensed products, the Ferrari stores and theme parks or the Ferrari brand. Further, while we believe that we could replace our existing licensing or franchising partners if required, our inability to do so for any period of time could materially adversely affect our revenues and harm our business.
In connection with our new brand diversification strategy, we expect to streamline our existing arrangements with licensing partners and decrease the volume of licensing business. This may adversely affect our results from brand activities, particularly in the short to medium term while our broader brand diversification strategy is carried out.
We depend on the strength of our trademarks and other intellectual property rights.
We believe that our trademarks and other intellectual property rights are fundamental to our success and market position. Therefore, our business depends on our ability to protect and promote our trademarks and other intellectual property rights. Accordingly, we devote substantial efforts to the establishment and protection of our trademarks and other intellectual property rights such as registered designs and patents on a worldwide basis. We believe that our trademarks and other intellectual property rights are adequately supported by applications for registrations, existing registrations and other legal protections in our principal markets. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that our intellectual property rights may be challenged by others, or that we may be unable to register our trademarks or otherwise adequately protect them in some jurisdictions. If a third party were to register our trademarks, or similar trademarks, in a country where we have not successfully registered such trademarks, it could create a barrier to our commencing trade under those marks in that country.
We may fail to adequately protect our intellectual and industrial property rights against infringement or misappropriation by third parties.
Our success and competitive positioning depend on, among other factors, our registered intellectual property rights, as well as other industrial or intellectual property rights, including confidential know-how, trade secrets, database rights and copyrights. To protect our intellectual property, we rely on intellectual property laws, agreements for the protection of trade secrets, confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements, and other contractual means. Such measures, however, may be inadequate and our intellectual property rights may be infringed or challenged by third parties, and our confidential know-how or trade secrets could be misappropriated or disclosed to the public without our consent. Consultants, vendors and current and former employees, for example, could violate their confidentiality obligations and restrictions on the use of Ferrari’s intellectual property. Ferrari may not be able to prevent such infringements, misappropriations or disclosures, with potential adverse effects on our brand, reputation and business. In particular, our components may be subject to product piracy, where our components are counterfeited, which may result in reputational risk for Ferrari. The risks described above arise particularly in our Brand activities (see “Item 4.B. Business Overview—Brand activities”).

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If we fail to adequately protect our intellectual property rights, this may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition, as other manufacturers may be able to manufacture similar products at lower cost, with adverse effects on our competitive position. In addition, counterfeited products, or products illegally branded as “Ferrari”, may damage our brand. In addition, we may incur high costs in reacting to infringements or misappropriations of our intellectual property rights.
Third parties may claim that we infringe their intellectual property rights.
We believe that we hold all the rights required for our business operations (including intellectual property rights and third-party licenses). However, we are exposed to potential claims from third parties alleging that we infringe their intellectual property rights, since many competitors and suppliers also submit patent applications for their inventions and secure patent protection or other intellectual property rights. If we are unsuccessful in defending against any such claim, we may be required to pay damages or comply with injunctions which may disrupt our operations. We may also as a result be forced to enter into royalty or licensing agreements on unfavorable terms or to redesign products to comply with third parties’ intellectual property rights.
Our revenues from Formula 1 activities may decline and our related expenses may grow.
Revenues from our Formula 1 activities depend principally on the income from our sponsorship agreements and on our share of Formula 1 revenues from broadcasting and other sources. See “Item 4.B. Business Overview—Formula 1 Activities.” If we are unable to renew our existing sponsorship agreements or if we enter into new or renewed sponsorship agreements with less favorable terms, our revenues would decline. In addition, our share of profits related to Formula 1 activities may decline if either our team’s performance worsens compared to other competing teams, or if the overall Formula 1 business suffers, including potentially as a result of increasing popularity of the FIA Formula E championship. Furthermore, in order to compete effectively on track we have been investing significant resources in research and development and to competitively compensate the best available drivers and other racing team members. These expenses also vary based on changes in Formula 1 regulations that require modification to our racing engines and cars. These expenses are expected to continue, and may grow further, including as a result of any changes in Formula 1 regulations, which would negatively affect our results of operations.
On October 31, 2019, the World Council (Formula 1’s legislative body) approved new technical, sporting and financial rules, following the extensive talks held in the past two years among the owners of the Formula 1 business and all teams with regards to the arrangements relating to the participation of Ferrari and the other teams competing in the championship in the period following the 2020 expiration of the current arrangements between racing teams and the operator of Formula 1. The new rules, which will come into effect in 2021, provide for, among other things, a new car design, a cap of $175 million per year for all costs and expenses covering on-track performance (excluding, among others, the activities to enable the supply of power units, marketing costs, drivers’ salaries and the top three personnel at each team), limits on car upgrades over race weekends, restrictions on the number of times that certain components can be replaced during a race and the standardization of certain parts. While the new rules approved by the World Council may be subject to further changes during the course of 2020, the final set of rules that will become applicable as of 2021 will require significant changes to our racing cars, processes and operations. These changes may result in adverse effects on our revenues and results of operations. In particular, the new cap on expenses will affect the amount of resources that we are allowed to allocate to Formula 1 activities, with potential adverse effects on our team’s performance if we are not able to optimize such resources.
Engine production revenues are dependent on Maserati’s ability to sell its cars.

We produce V8 and V6 engines for Maserati. We have a multi-year arrangement with Maserati to provide V6 engines through 2020, which may be followed by further production runs in future periods. While Maserati is required to compensate us for certain production costs, we may incur penalties from our suppliers. In the event that the sales of Maserati cars decline, or do not increase at the expected rate, such an event would adversely affect our revenues from the sale of engines.
We face risks associated with our international operations, including unfavorable regulatory, political, tax and labor conditions and establishing ourselves in new markets, all of which could harm our business.
We currently have international operations and subsidiaries in various countries and jurisdictions in Europe, North America and Asia that are subject to the legal, political, regulatory, tax and social requirements and economic conditions in these jurisdictions. Additionally, as part of our growth strategy, we will continue to expand our sales, maintenance, and repair services internationally. However, such expansion requires us to make significant expenditures, including the establishment of local operating entities, hiring of local employees and establishing facilities in advance of generating any revenue. We are subject to

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a number of risks associated with international business activities that may increase our costs, impact our ability to sell our cars and require significant management attention. These risks include:
conforming our cars to various international regulatory and safety requirements where our cars are sold, or homologation;
difficulty in establishing, staffing and managing foreign operations;
difficulties attracting clients in new jurisdictions;
foreign government taxes, regulations and permit requirements, including foreign taxes that we may not be able to offset against taxes imposed upon us in Italy;
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates, including risks related to any interest rate swap or other hedging activities we undertake;
our ability to enforce our contractual and intellectual property rights, especially in those foreign countries that do not respect and protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the United States, Japan and European countries, which increases the risk of unauthorized, and uncompensated, use of our technology;
European Union and foreign government trade restrictions, customs regulations, tariffs and price or exchange controls;
foreign labor laws, regulations and restrictions;
preferences of foreign nations for domestically produced cars;
changes in diplomatic and trade relationships;
political instability, natural disasters, war or events of terrorism; and
the strength of international economies.
If we fail to successfully address these risks, many of which we cannot control, our business, operating results and financial condition could be materially harmed.
New laws, regulations, or policies of governmental organizations regarding increased fuel economy requirements, reduced greenhouse gas or pollutant emissions, or vehicle safety, or changes in existing laws, may have a significant effect on our costs of operation and/or how we do business.
We are subject throughout the world to comprehensive and constantly evolving laws, regulations and policies. We expect the extent of the legal and regulatory requirements affecting our business and our costs of compliance to continue to increase significantly in the future. In Europe and the United States, for example, significant governmental regulation is driven by environmental, fuel economy, vehicle safety and noise emission concerns. Evolving regulatory requirements could significantly affect our product development plans and may limit the number and types of cars we sell and where we sell them, which may affect our revenue. Governmental regulations may increase the costs we incur to design, develop and produce our cars and may affect our product portfolio. Regulation may also result in a change in the character or performance characteristics of our cars which may render them less appealing to our clients. We anticipate that the number and extent of these regulations, and their effect on our cost structure and product line-up, will increase significantly in the future.
Current European legislation limits fleet average greenhouse gas emissions for new passenger cars. Due to our small volume manufacturer (“SVM”) status we benefit from a derogation from the existing emissions requirement and we are instead required to meet, by 2021, alternative targets for our fleet of EU-registered vehicles. Despite global shipments exceeding 10,000 vehicles in 2019, Ferrari still qualifies as an SVM under EU regulations, since its total number of registered vehicles in the EU per year is less than 10,000 vehicles.
In the United States, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”) have set the federal standards for passenger cars and light trucks to meet certain combined average greenhouse gas (“GHG”) and fuel economy (“CAFE”) levels and more stringent standards have been prescribed for model years 2017 through 2025. Since Ferrari is considered to be an SVM under EPA GHG regulations (as it produces less than 5,000 vehicles

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per model year for the US market), we expect to benefit from a derogation from currently applicable standards. We have also petitioned the EPA for alternative standards for the model years 2017-2021 and 2022-2025, which are aligned to our technical and economic capabilities. In September 2016 we petitioned NHTSA for recognition as an independent manufacturer of less than 10,000 vehicles produced globally and we proposed alternative CAFE standards for model years 2017, 2018 and 2019. Then, in December, 2017, we amended the petition by proposing alternative CAFE standards for model years 2016, 2017 and 2018 instead, covering also the 2016 model year. NHTSA have not yet responded to our petition. If our petitions are rejected, we will not be able to benefit from the more favorable CAFE standards levels which we have petitioned for and this may require us to purchase additional CAFE credits in order to comply with applicable CAFE standards. Starting from 2019, we are no longer considered to be an SVM by NHTSA, because our global production exceeded 10,000 vehicles, and therefore we may be required to purchase further CAFE credits.
In the United States, considerable uncertainty is associated with emissions regulations under the current administration. New regulations are in the process of being developed, and many existing and potential regulatory initiatives are subject to review by federal or state agencies or the courts. In August 2018 the NHTSA and the EPA issued a common proposal, the “Safer Affordable Fuel-Efficient (SAFE) Vehicles Rule for model years 2021-2026 Passenger Cars and Light Trucks” (SAFE Vehicles Rule). The SAFE Vehicles Rule, if finalized, would amend certain existing Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions standards for passenger cars and light trucks and establish new standards, all covering model years 2021 through 2026. The authorities’ stated preferred alternative is to retain the model year 2020 standards (specifically, the footprint target curves for passenger cars and light trucks) for both programs through model year 2026, but comment has been sought on a range of alternatives. The SAFE Vehicles Rule has not been adopted in final form as of the date of this filing.
In the state of California (which has been granted special authority under the Clean Air Act to set its own vehicle emission standards), the California Air Resources Board (“CARB”) has enacted regulations under which manufacturers of vehicles for model years 2012 through 2025 which are in compliance with the EPA greenhouse gas emissions regulations are also deemed to be in compliance with California’s greenhouse gas emission regulations (the so-called “deemed to comply” option). The SAFE Vehicles Rule mentioned above proposes to withdraw the waiver granted to California under the Clean Air Act to establish more stringent standards for vehicle emissions that are applicable to model years 2021 through 2025. In response to the proposed California waiver withdrawal, on December 12, 2018 the CARB amended its existing regulations to clarify that the “deemed-to-comply” provision shall not be available for model years 2021-2025 if the EPA standards for those years are altered via an amendment of federal regulations. On September 19, 2019, NHTSA and EPA established the “One National Program” for fuel economy regulation, taking the first step towards finalizing the agencies’ August 2018 proposal by announcing the EPA’s decision to withdraw California’s waiver of preemption under the Clean Air Act, and by affirming the NHTSA’s authority to set nationally applicable regulatory standards under the preemption provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). The two agencies indicated that they anticipate issuing a final rule on standards in the near future. Ferrari currently avails itself of the “deemed-to-comply” provision to comply with CARB greenhouse gas emissions regulations. Therefore, depending on future developments, it may be necessary to also petition the CARB for SVM alternative standards and to increase the number of tests to be performed in order to follow the CARB specific procedures.
In addition, we are subject to legislation relating to the emission of other air pollutants such as, among others, the EU “Euro 6” standards and Real Driving Emissions (RDE) standards, the “Tier 3” Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards issued by the EPA, and the Zero Emission Vehicle regulation in California, which are subject to similar derogations for SVMs, as well as vehicle safety legislation. In 2016, NHTSA published guidelines for driver distraction, for which rulemaking activities have not progressed since early 2017. The costs of compliance associated with these and similar rulemaking may be substantial.
Other governments around the world, such as those in Canada, South Korea, China and certain Middle Eastern countries are also creating new policies to address these issues which could be even more stringent than the U.S. or European requirements. As in the United States and Europe, these government policies if applied to us could significantly affect our product development plans. In China, for example, Stage IV fuel consumption regulation targets a national average fuel consumption of 5.0L/100km by 2020, and the Stage V regulation, issued on December 31, 2019, targets a national average fuel consumption of 4.0 l/100km by 2025.
In response to severe air quality issues in Beijing and other major Chinese cities, in 2016 the Chinese government published a more stringent emissions program (National 6), providing two different levels of stringency effective starting from 2020. Moreover several autonomous Chinese regions and municipalities are implementing the requirements of the National 6 program even ahead of the mandated deadlines.
We have lost our status as an SVM for NHSTA in 2019, because our global production exceeded 10,000 vehicles, but we have not lost our SVM status for EU regulations or for EPA GHG regulations in the United States. We could lose our status

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as an SVM in the EU, the United States and other countries if we do not continue to meet all of the necessary eligibility criteria under applicable regulations as they evolve. In order to meet these criteria we may need to modify our growth plans or other operations. Furthermore, even if we continue to benefit from derogations as an SVM, we will be subject to alternative standards that the regulators deem appropriate for our technical and economic capabilities and such alternative standards may be significantly more stringent than those currently applicable to us.
Under these existing regulations, as well as new or stricter rules or policies, we could be subject to sizable civil penalties or have to restrict or modify product offerings drastically to remain in compliance. We may have to incur substantial capital expenditures and research and development expenditures to upgrade products and manufacturing facilities, which would have an impact on our cost of production and results of operation. For a description of the regulation referred to in the paragraphs above please see Item 4.B. Business Overview—Regulatory Matters”.
In the future, the advent of self-driving technology may result in regulatory changes that we cannot predict but may include limitations or bans on human driving in specific areas. Similarly, driving bans on combustion engine vehicles could be imposed, particularly in metropolitan areas, as a result of progress in electric and hybrid technology. Any such future developments may adversely affect the demand for our cars and our business.
In September 2017 the Chinese government issued the Administrative Measures on CAFC (Corporate Average Fuel Consumption) and NEV (New Energy Vehicle) Credits. This regulation establishes mandatory CAFC requirements, while providing additional flexibilities for SVMs (defined as manufacturers with less than 2,000 units imported in China per year) that achieve a certain minimum CAFC yearly improvement rate. An update of the Administrative Measures on CAFC and NEV credits is awaited, following the adoption of the Stage V fuel consumption regulation. Because our CAFC is expected to exceed the regulatory ceiling, we will be required to purchase NEV credits. There is no assurance that an adequate market for NEV credits will develop in China and if we are not able to secure sufficient NEV credits this may adversely affect our business in China.
To comply with current and future environmental rules related to both fuel economy and pollutant emissions in all markets in which we sell our cars, we may have to incur substantial capital expenditure and research and development expenditure to upgrade products and manufacturing facilities, which would have an impact on our cost of production and results of operation.
The introduction of hybrid and electric technology in our cars is costly and its long term success is uncertain.
We are gradually but rapidly introducing hybrid and electric technology in our cars. In accordance with our strategy, we believe hybrid and electric technology will be key to providing continuing performance upgrades to our sports car customers, and will also help us capture the preferences of the urban, affluent GT cars purchasers whom we are increasingly targeting, while helping us meet increasingly stricter emissions requirements.

In 2019, we launched the SF90 Stradale (shipments of which are expected to begin in 2020), the first series production Ferrari to feature Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) architecture, integrating the internal combustion engine with three electric motors. Some of our past models, such as LaFerrari and LaFerrari Aperta, have also included hybrid technology. The integration of hybrid and electric technology more broadly into our car portfolio over time may present challenges and costs. We expect to increase R&D spending in the medium term particularly on hybrid and electric technology-related projects. Although we expect to price our hybrid and electric cars appropriately to recoup the investments and expenditures we are making, we cannot be certain that these expenditures will be fully recovered. In addition, this transformation of our car technology creates risks and uncertainties such as the impact on driver experience, and the impact on the cars’ residual value over time, both of which may be met with an unfavorable market reaction. Other manufacturers of luxury sports cars may be more successful in implementing hybrid and electric technology. In the long term, although we believe that combustion engines will continue to be fundamental to the Ferrari driver experience, hybrid and pure electric cars may become the prevalent technology for performance sports cars thereby displacing combustion engine models. See also “If we are unable to keep up with advances in high performance car technology, our brand and competitive position may suffer.”
Because hybrid and electric technology is a core component of our strategy, and we expect that a significant portion of our shipments in the medium term will consist of vehicles that feature hybrid and electric technology, if the introduction of hybrid and electric cars proves too costly or is unsuccessful in the market, our business and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

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If our cars do not perform as expected our ability to develop, market and sell our cars could be harmed.
Our cars may contain defects in design and manufacture that may cause them not to perform as expected or that may require repair. There can be no assurance that we will be able to detect and fix any defects in the cars prior to their sale to consumers. Our cars may not perform in line with our clients’ evolving expectations or in a manner that equals or exceeds the performance characteristics of other cars currently available. For example, our newer cars may not have the durability or longevity of current cars, and may not be as easy to repair as other cars currently on the market. Any product defects or any other failure of our performance cars to perform as expected could harm our reputation and result in adverse publicity, lost revenue, delivery delays, product recalls, product liability claims, harm to our brand and reputation, and significant warranty and other expenses, and could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition.
Car recalls may be costly and may harm our reputation.

We have in the past and we may from time to time in the future be required to recall our products to address performance, compliance or safety-related issues. We may incur costs for these recalls, including replacement parts and labor to remove and replace the defective parts. For example, in the course of 2015 and 2016, we issued a series of recalls relating to defective air bags manufactured by Takata and installed on certain of our models. Also in light of uncertainties in our ability to recover the recall costs from Takata (which filed for bankruptcy in June 2017), we recorded a provision regarding this matter in the second quarter of 2016 for an amount of €37 million. This provision amounted to €16 million as of December 31, 2019. For a description of these and other recent recalls, see “Item 4.B. Business Overview—Regulatory Matters—Vehicle safety”. In addition, regulatory oversight of recalls, particularly in the vehicle safety, has increased recently. Any product recalls can harm our reputation with clients, particularly if consumers call into question the safety, reliability or performance of our cars. Any such recalls could harm our reputation and result in adverse publicity, lost revenue, delivery delays, product liability claims and other expenses, and could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition.

We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our financial condition and liquidity if we are not able to successfully defend or insure against such claims.
We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our business, operating results and financial condition. The automobile industry experiences significant product liability claims and we have inherent risk of exposure to claims in the event our cars do not perform as expected or malfunction resulting in personal injury or death. A successful product liability claim against us could require us to pay a substantial monetary award. Moreover, a product liability claim could generate substantial negative publicity about our cars and business, adversely affecting our reputation and inhibiting or preventing commercialization of future cars which could have a material adverse effect on our brand, business, operating results and financial condition. While we seek to insure against product liability risks, insurance may be insufficient to protect against any monetary claims we may face and will not mitigate any reputational harm. Any lawsuit seeking significant monetary damages may have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business and financial condition. We may not be able to secure additional product liability insurance coverage on commercially acceptable terms or at reasonable costs when needed, particularly if we face liability for our products and are forced to make a claim under such a policy.
We are exposed to risks in connection with product warranties as well as the provision of services.
A number of our contractual and legal requirements oblige us to provide extensive warranties to our clients, dealers and national distributors. There is a risk that, relative to the guarantees and warranties granted, the calculated product prices and the provisions for our guarantee and warranty risks have been set or will in the future be set too low. There is also a risk that we will be required to extend the guarantee or warranty originally granted in certain markets for legal reasons, or provide services as a courtesy or for reasons of reputation where we are not legally obliged to do so, and for which we will generally not be able to recover from suppliers or insurers.
Our insurance coverage may not be adequate to protect us against all potential losses to which we may be subject, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We maintain insurance coverage that we believe is adequate to cover normal risks associated with the operation of our business. However, there can be no assurance that any claim under our insurance policies will be honored fully or timely, our insurance coverage will be sufficient in any respect or our insurance premiums will not increase substantially. Accordingly, to the extent that we suffer loss or damage that is not covered by insurance or which exceeds our insurance coverage, or have to pay higher insurance premiums, our financial condition may be affected. 

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Improper conduct of employees, agents, or other representatives could adversely affect our reputation and our business, operating results, and financial condition.
Our compliance controls, policies, and procedures may not in every instance protect us from acts committed by our employees, agents, contractors, or collaborators that would violate the laws or regulations of the jurisdictions in which we operate, including employment, foreign corrupt practices, environmental, competition, and other laws and regulations. Such improper actions could subject us to civil or criminal investigations, and monetary and injunctive penalties. In particular, our business activities may be subject to anti-corruption laws, regulations or rules of other countries in which we operate. If we fail to comply with any of these regulations, it could adversely impact our operating results and our financial condition. In addition, actual or alleged violations could damage our reputation and our ability to conduct business. Furthermore, detecting, investigating, and resolving any actual or alleged violation is expensive and can consume significant time and attention of our executive management.
A disruption in our information technology could compromise confidential and sensitive information.
We depend on our information technology and data processing systems to operate our business, and a significant malfunction or disruption in the operation of our systems, human error, interruption to power supply, or a security breach that compromises the confidential and sensitive information stored in those systems, could disrupt our business and adversely impact our ability to compete. Our ability to keep our business operating effectively depends on the functional and efficient operation by us and our third party service providers of our information, data processing and telecommunications systems, including our car design, manufacturing, inventory tracking and billing and payment systems. We rely on these systems to enable a number of business processes and help us make a variety of day-to-day business decisions as well as to track transactions, billings, payments and inventory. Such systems are susceptible to malfunctions and interruptions due to equipment damage, power outages, and a range of other hardware, software and network problems. Those systems are also susceptible to cybercrime, or threats of intentional disruption, which are increasing in terms of sophistication and frequency, with the consequence that such cyber incidents may remain undetected for long periods of time. For any of these reasons, we may experience system malfunctions or interruptions. Although our systems are diversified, including multiple server locations and a range of software applications for different regions and functions, and we periodically assess and implement actions to ameliorate risks to our systems, a significant or large scale malfunction or interruption of our systems could adversely affect our ability to manage and keep our operations running efficiently, and damage our reputation if we are unable to track transactions and deliver products to our dealers and clients. A malfunction that results in a wider or sustained disruption to our business could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition to supporting our operations, we use our systems to collect and store confidential and sensitive data, including information about our business, our clients and our employees.
As our technology continues to evolve, we anticipate that we will collect and store even more data in the future, and that our systems will increasingly use remote communication features that are sensitive to both willful and unintentional security breaches. Much of our value is derived from our confidential business information, including car design, proprietary technology and trade secrets, and to the extent the confidentiality of such information is compromised, we may lose our competitive advantage and our car sales may suffer. We also collect, retain and use certain personal information, including data we gather from clients for product development and marketing purposes, and data we obtain from employees. Therefore we are subject to a variety of ever-changing data protection and privacy laws on a global basis, including the EU General Data Protection Regulation, which came into force on May 25, 2018. To an increasing extent, the functionality and controls of our cars depend on in-vehicle information technology. Furthermore, such technology is capable of storing an increasing amount of personal information belonging to our customers. Any unauthorized access to in-vehicle IT systems may compromise the car security or the privacy of our customers’ information and expose us to claims as well as reputational damage. Ultimately, any significant compromise in the integrity of our data security could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our indebtedness could adversely affect our operations and we may face difficulties in servicing or refinancing our debt.
As of December 31, 2019, our gross consolidated debt was approximately €2,090 million (which includes our financial services). See “Item 5.B. Liquidity and Capital Resources”. Our current and long-term debt requires us to dedicate a portion of our cash flow to service interest and principal payments and, if interest rates rise, this amount may increase. In addition, our existing debt may limit our ability to raise further capital or incur additional indebtedness to execute our growth strategy or otherwise may place us at a competitive disadvantage relative to competitors that have less debt. To the extent we become more leveraged, the risks described above would increase. We may also have difficulty refinancing our existing debt or incurring new debt on terms that we would consider to be commercially reasonable, if at all.


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Car sales depend in part on the availability of affordable financing.
In certain regions, financing for new car sales has been available at relatively low interest rates for several years due to, among other things, expansive government monetary policies. Recent pronouncements of governments and central banks point to a change in the policy environment that may lead to a gradual contraction of monetary policies in coming periods. To the extent that interest rates rise generally, market rates for new car financing are expected to rise as well, which may make our cars less affordable to clients or cause consumers to purchase less expensive cars, adversely affecting our results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, if consumer interest rates increase substantially or if financial service providers tighten lending standards or restrict their lending to certain classes of credit, our clients may choose not to, or may not be able to, obtain financing to purchase our cars.
We may not be able to provide adequate access to financing for our dealers and clients, and our financial services operations may be disrupted.
Our dealers enter into wholesale financing arrangements to purchase cars from us to hold in inventory or to use in showrooms and facilitate retail sales, and retail clients use a variety of finance and lease programs to acquire cars.
In most markets, we rely either on controlled or associated finance companies or on commercial relationships with third parties, including third party financial institutions, to provide financing to our dealers and retail clients. Finance companies are subject to various risks that could negatively affect their ability to provide financing services at competitive rates, including:
the performance of loans and leases in their portfolio, which could be materially affected by delinquencies or defaults;
higher than expected car return rates and the residual value performance of cars they lease; and
fluctuations in interest rates and currency exchange rates.

Furthermore, to help fund our retail and wholesale financing business, our financial services companies in the United States also access forms of funding available from the banking system in each market, including sales or securitization of receivables either in negotiated sales or through securitization programs. At December 31, 2019, an amount of $886 million was outstanding under revolving securitizations carried out by Ferrari Financial Services Inc. See “Item 5.B. Liquidity and Capital Resources”. Should we lose the ability to access the securitization market at advantageous terms or at all, the funding of our wholesale financing business would become more difficult and expensive and our financial condition may be adversely affected.
Any financial services provider, including our controlled finance companies, will face other demands on its capital, as well as liquidity issues relating to other investments or to developments in the credit markets. Furthermore, they may be subject to regulatory changes that may increase their costs, which may impair their ability to provide competitive financing products to our dealers and retail clients. To the extent that a financial services provider is unable or unwilling to provide sufficient financing at competitive rates to our dealers and retail clients, such dealers and retail clients may not have sufficient access to financing to purchase or lease our cars. As a result, our car sales and market share may suffer, which would adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Our dealer and retail customer financing in Europe are mainly provided through our partnership with FCA Bank S.p.A. (“FCA Bank”), a joint venture between FCA Italy S.p.A. and Crédit Agricole Consumer Finance S.A. (“CACF”). If we fail to maintain our partnership with FCA Bank or in the event of a termination of the joint venture or change of control of one of our joint venture partners, we may not be able to find a suitable alternative partner with similar resources and experience and continue to offer financing services to support the sales of Ferrari cars in key European markets, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Labor laws and collective bargaining agreements with our labor unions could impact our ability to operate efficiently.
All of our production employees are represented by trade unions, are covered by collective bargaining agreements and/or are protected by applicable labor relations regulations that may restrict our ability to modify operations and reduce costs quickly in response to changes in market conditions. These regulations and the provisions in our collective bargaining agreements may impede our ability to restructure our business successfully to compete more efficiently and effectively, especially with those automakers whose employees are not represented by trade unions or are subject to less stringent regulations, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

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We are subject to risks associated with exchange rate fluctuations, interest rate changes, credit risk and other market risks.
We operate in numerous markets worldwide and are exposed to market risks stemming from fluctuations in currency and interest rates. In particular, changes in exchange rates between the Euro and the main foreign currencies in which we operate affect our revenues and results of operations. The exposure to currency risk is mainly linked to the differences in geographic distribution of our sourcing and manufacturing activities from those in our commercial activities, as a result of which our cash flows from sales are denominated in currencies different from those connected to purchases or production activities. For example, we incur a large portion of our capital and operating expenses in Euro while we receive the majority of our revenues in currencies other than Euro. In addition, foreign exchange movements might also negatively affect the relative purchasing power of our clients which could also have an adverse effect on our results of operations. For example, the U.S. Dollar remained relatively stable during the course of 2019, while the pound sterling remained subject to some volatility against the Euro, with an initial depreciation against the Euro followed by a reversal in trend in the second half of the year. If the U.S. Dollar were to depreciate against the Euro, we expect that it would adversely impact our revenues and results of operations. Foreign exchange volatility remained low in early 2020 and the Euro has not experienced any significant appreciation versus the main currencies to which Ferrari is exposed. The extent of adverse impacts from exchange rate fluctuations could increase if the portion of our business in countries outside of Eurozone increases. See “Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review, Trends, Uncertainties and Opportunities”.
We seek to manage risks associated with fluctuations in currency through financial hedging instruments. Although we seek to manage our foreign currency risk in order to minimize any negative effects caused by rate fluctuations, including through hedging activities, there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so successfully, and our business, results of operations and financial condition could nevertheless be adversely affected by fluctuations in market rates, particularly if these conditions persist.
Our financial services activities are also subject to the risk of insolvency of dealers and retail clients, as well as unfavorable economic conditions in markets where these activities are carried out. Despite our efforts to mitigate such risks through the credit approval policies applied to dealers and retail clients, there can be no assurances that we will be able to successfully mitigate such risks, particularly with respect to a general change in economic conditions.
Changes in tax, tariff or fiscal policies could adversely affect demand for our products.
Imposition of any additional taxes and levies designed to limit the use of automobiles could adversely affect the demand for our vehicles and our results of operations. Changes in corporate and other taxation policies as well as changes in export and other incentives given by various governments, or import or tariff policies, could also adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, in the last months of 2018, the United States administration declared that it is considering imposing new tariffs on imported cars; such decision was again postponed in May 2019, and a final decision has not been made by the United States administration to date. Considerable uncertainty surrounds the introduction and scope of tariffs by the United States or other countries, as well as the potential for additional trade actions by the United States or other countries. The impact of any such tariffs on our operations and results is uncertain and could be significant, and we can provide no assurance that any strategies we implement to mitigate the impact of such tariffs or other trade actions will be successful. While we are managing our product development and production operations on a global basis to reduce costs and lead times, unique national or regional standards can result in additional costs for product development, testing and manufacturing. Governments often require the implementation of new requirements during the middle of a product cycle, which can be substantially more expensive than accommodating these requirements during the design phase of a new product. The imposition of any additional taxes and levies or change in government policy designed to limit the use of high performance sports cars or automobiles more generally, or any decisions by policymakers to implement taxes on luxury automobiles, could also adversely affect the demand for our cars. The occurrence of the above may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If we were to lose our Authorized Economic Operator certificate, we may be required to modify our current business practices and to incur increased costs, as well as experience shipment delays.
Because we ship and sell our cars in numerous countries, the customs regulations of various jurisdictions are important to our business and operations. To expedite customs procedure, we applied for, and currently hold, the European Union’s Authorized Economic Operator (AEO) certificate. The AEO certificate is granted to operators that meet certain requirements regarding supply chain security and the safety and compliance with law of the operator’s customs controls and procedures. Operators are audited periodically for continued compliance with the requirements. The AEO certificate allows us to benefit from special expedited customs treatment, which significantly facilitates the shipment of our cars in the various markets where we operate. The AEO certificate was subject to mandatory audit review in 2019 and renewal of the AEO certification was

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obtained. If we were to lose the AEO status, including for failure to meet one of the certification’s requirements, we would be required to change our business practices and to adopt standard customs procedures for the shipment of our cars. This could result in increased costs and shipment delays, which, in turn, could negatively affect our results of operations.


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Risks Related to our Common Shares
The market price and trading volume of our common shares may be volatile, which could result in rapid and substantial losses for our shareholders.
The market price of our common shares may be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations. In addition, the trading volume of our common shares may fluctuate and cause significant price variations to occur. If the market price of our common shares declines significantly, a shareholder may be unable to sell their common shares at or above their purchase price, if at all. The market price of our common shares may fluctuate or decline significantly in the future. Some of the factors that could negatively affect the price of our common shares, or result in fluctuations in the price or trading volume of our common shares, include:
variations in our operating results, or failure to meet the market’s earnings expectations;
publication of research reports about us, the automotive industry or the luxury industry, or the failure of securities analysts to cover our common shares;
departures of any members of our management team or additions or departures of other key personnel;
adverse market reaction to any indebtedness we may incur or securities we may issue in the future;
actions by shareholders;
changes in market valuations of similar companies;
changes or proposed changes in laws or regulations, or differing interpretations thereof, affecting our business, or enforcement of these laws and regulations, or announcements relating to these matters;
adverse publicity about the automotive industry or the luxury industry generally, or particularly scandals relating to those industries, specifically;
litigation and governmental investigations; and
general market and economic conditions.
The loyalty voting program may affect the liquidity of our common shares and reduce our common share price.
The implementation of our loyalty voting program could reduce the trading liquidity and adversely affect the trading prices of our common shares. The loyalty voting program is intended to reward our shareholders for maintaining long-term share ownership by granting initial shareholders and persons holding our common shares continuously for at least three years the option to elect to receive special voting shares. Special voting shares cannot be traded and, if common shares participating in the loyalty voting program are sold they must be deregistered from the loyalty register and any corresponding special voting shares transferred to us for no consideration (om niet). This loyalty voting program is designed to encourage a stable shareholder base and, conversely, it may deter trading by shareholders that may be interested in participating in our loyalty voting program. Therefore, the loyalty voting program may reduce liquidity in our common shares and adversely affect their trading price.
The interests of our largest shareholders may differ from the interests of other shareholders.
Exor N.V. (“Exor”) is our largest shareholder, holding approximately 24.0 percent of our outstanding common shares and approximately 35.8 percent of our voting power (as of February 7, 2020). Therefore, Exor has a significant influence over these matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders, including matters such as adoption of the annual financial statements, declarations of annual dividends, the election and removal of the members of our board of directors (the “Board of Directors”), capital increases and amendments to our articles of association. In addition, as of February 7, 2020, Piero Ferrari, the Vice Chairman of Ferrari, holds approximately 10.2 percent of our outstanding common shares and approximately 15.2 percent of voting interest in us (as of February 7, 2020). The percentages of ownership and voting power above are calculated based on the number of outstanding shares net of treasury shares. As a result, he also has influence in matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders. Exor and Piero Ferrari informed us that they have entered into a shareholder agreement pursuant to which they have undertaken to consult for the purpose of forming, where possible, a common view on the items on the agenda of shareholders meetings. See “Item 7.A. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Major Shareholders—Shareholders’ Agreement”. The interests of Exor and Piero Ferrari may in certain cases differ from those of other shareholders. In addition,

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the sale of substantial amounts of our common shares in the public market by Piero Ferrari or the perception that such a sale could occur could adversely affect the prevailing market price of the common shares.
We may have potential conflicts of interest with FCA and Exor and its related companies.
Questions relating to conflicts of interest may arise between us and FCA, our former largest shareholder, in a number of areas relating to common shareholdings and management, as well as our past and ongoing relationships. There are certain overlaps among the directors and officers of us and FCA. For example, Mr. John Elkann, our Executive Chairman, is the Chairman and an executive director of FCA and Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Exor. Certain of our other directors and officers may also be directors or officers of FCA or Exor, our and FCA’s largest shareholder. These individuals owe duties both to us and to the other companies that they serve as officers and/or directors, which may create conflicts as, for example, these individuals review opportunities that may be appropriate or suitable for both us and such other companies, or we pursue business transactions in which both we and such other companies have an interest, such as our arrangement to supply engines for Maserati cars. Exor holds approximately 24.0 percent of our outstanding common shares and approximately 35.8 percent of the voting power in us (as of February 7, 2020), while it holds approximately 29.0 percent of the outstanding common shares and approximately 42.1 percent of the voting power in FCA (based on SEC filings). The percentages of ownership and voting power above are calculated based on the number of outstanding shares net of treasury shares. Exor also owns a controlling interest in CNH Industrial N.V., which was part of the FCA Group before its spin-off several years ago. These ownership interests could create actual, perceived or potential conflicts of interest when these parties or our common directors and officers are faced with decisions that could have different implications for us and FCA or Exor, as applicable.
Our loyalty voting program may make it more difficult for shareholders to acquire a controlling interest in Ferrari, change our management or strategy or otherwise exercise influence over us, which may affect the market price of our common shares.
The provisions of our articles of association which establish the loyalty voting program may make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or attempt to acquire, control of our company, even if a change of control were considered favorably by shareholders holding a majority of our common shares. As a result of the loyalty voting program, a relatively large proportion of the voting power of Ferrari could be concentrated in a relatively small number of shareholders who would have significant influence over us. As of February 7, 2020, Exor had approximately 24.0 percent of our outstanding common shares and a voting interest in Ferrari of approximately 35.8 percent. As of February 7, 2020, Piero Ferrari held approximately 10.2 percent of our outstanding common shares and, as a result of the loyalty voting mechanism, had approximately 15.2 percent of the voting power in our shares. The percentages of ownership and voting power above are calculated based on the number of outstanding shares net of treasury shares. In addition, Exor and Piero Ferrari informed us that they have entered into a shareholder agreement, summarized under “Item 7.A. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Major Shareholders—Shareholders Agreement”. As a result, Exor and Piero Ferrari may exercise significant influence on matters involving our shareholders. Exor and Piero Ferrari and other shareholders participating in the loyalty voting program may have the power effectively to prevent or delay change of control or other transactions that may otherwise benefit our shareholders. The loyalty voting program may also prevent or discourage shareholder initiatives aimed at changing Ferrari’s management or strategy or otherwise exerting influence over Ferrari. See “Item 10.B. Memorandum and Articles of Association—The Ferrari Shares, Articles of Association and Terms and Conditions of the Special Voting Shares”.
We are a Dutch public company with limited liability, and our shareholders may have rights different to those of shareholders of companies organized in the United States.
The rights of our shareholders may be different from the rights of shareholders governed by the laws of U.S. jurisdictions. We are a Dutch public company with limited liability (naamloze vennootschap). Our corporate affairs are governed by our articles of association and by the laws governing companies incorporated in the Netherlands. The rights of our shareholders and the responsibilities of members of our Board of Directors may be different from the rights of shareholders and the responsibilities of members of board of directors in companies governed by the laws of other jurisdictions including the United States. In the performance of its duties, our Board of Directors is required by Dutch law to consider our interests and the interests of our shareholders, our employees and other stakeholders, in all cases with due observation of the principles of reasonableness and fairness. It is possible that some of these parties will have interests that are different from, or in addition to, your interests as a shareholder.

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We expect to maintain our status as a “foreign private issuer” under the rules and regulations of the SEC and, thus, are exempt from a number of rules under the Exchange Act of 1934 and are permitted to file less information with the SEC than a company incorporated in the United States.
As a “foreign private issuer,” we are exempt from rules under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) that impose certain disclosure and procedural requirements for proxy solicitations under Section 14 of the Exchange Act. In addition, our officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and “short-swing” profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and the rules under the Exchange Act with respect to their purchases and sales of our common shares. Moreover, we are not required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act, nor are we required to comply with Regulation FD, which restricts the selective disclosure of material information. Accordingly, there may be less publicly available information concerning us than there is for U.S. public companies.
Our ability to pay dividends on our common shares may be limited and the level of future dividends is subject to change.
Our current dividend policy is set forth in “Item 8.A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Dividend Policy”. Our payment of dividends on our common shares in the future will be subject to business conditions, financial conditions, earnings, cash balances, commitments, strategic plans and other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant at the time it recommends approval of the dividend. Our dividend policy is subject to change in the future based on changes in statutory requirements, market trends, strategic developments, capital requirements and a number of other factors. In addition, under our articles of association and Dutch law, dividends may be declared on our common shares only if the amount of equity exceeds the paid up and called up capital plus the reserves that have to be maintained pursuant to Dutch law or the articles of association. Further, even if we are permitted under our articles of association and Dutch law to pay cash dividends on our common shares, we may not have sufficient cash to pay dividends in cash on our common shares. We are a holding company and our operations are conducted through our subsidiaries. As a result, our ability to pay dividends primarily depends on the ability of our subsidiaries, particularly Ferrari S.p.A., to generate earnings and to provide us with the necessary financial resources.
Our maintenance of two exchange listings may adversely affect liquidity in the market for our common shares and could result in pricing differentials of our common shares between the two exchanges.
Our shares are listed on both the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) and the Mercato Telematico Azionario (“MTA”). The dual listing of our common shares may split trading between the NYSE and the MTA, adversely affect the liquidity of the shares and the development of an active trading market for our common shares in one or both markets and may result in price differentials between the exchanges. Differences in the trading schedules, as well as volatility in the exchange rate of the two trading currencies, among other factors, may result in different trading prices for our common shares on the two exchanges.

It may be difficult to enforce U.S. judgments against us.
We are organized under the laws of the Netherlands, and a substantial portion of our assets are outside of the United States. Most of our directors and senior management and our independent auditors are resident outside the United States, and all or a substantial portion of their respective assets may be located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for U.S. investors to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons. It may also be difficult for U.S. investors to enforce within the United States judgments against us predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state thereof. In addition, there is uncertainty as to whether the courts outside the United States would recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts obtained against us or our directors and officers predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state thereof. Therefore, it may be difficult to enforce U.S. judgments against us, our directors and officers and our independent auditors.
FCA creditors may seek to hold us liable for certain FCA obligations.
One step of our Separation from FCA included a demerger from FCA of our common shares previously held by it. In connection with a demerger under Dutch law, the demerged company may continue to be liable for certain obligations of the demerging company that exist at the time of the demerger, but only to the extent that the demerging company fails to satisfy such liabilities. Based on other actions taken as part of the Separation, we do not believe we retain any liability for obligations of FCA existing at the time of the Separation. Nevertheless, in the event that FCA fails to satisfy obligations to its creditors existing at the time of the demerger, it is possible that those creditors may seek to recover from us, claiming that we remain liable to satisfy such obligations. While we believe we would prevail against any such claim, litigation is inherently costly and uncertain and could have an adverse effect. See “Item 4.A. History and Development of the Company”.

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Risks Related to Taxation
Changes to taxation or the interpretation or application of tax laws could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
Our business is subject to various taxes in different jurisdictions (mainly Italy), which include, among others, the Italian corporate income tax (“IRES”), regional trade tax (“IRAP”), value added tax (“VAT”), excise duty, registration tax and other indirect taxes. We are exposed to the risk that our overall tax burden may increase in the future.
Changes in tax laws or regulations or in the position of the relevant Italian and non-Italian authorities regarding the application, administration or interpretation of these laws or regulations, particularly if applied retrospectively, could have negative effects on our current business model and have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
In order to reduce future potential disputes with tax authorities, we seek advance agreements with tax authorities on significant matters. In particular we filed a ruling application for advance pricing agreement (APA) on transfer pricing.
In addition, tax laws are complex and subject to subjective valuations and interpretive decisions, and we will periodically be subject to tax audits aimed at assessing our compliance with direct and indirect taxes. The tax authorities may not agree with our interpretations of, or the positions we have taken or intend to take on, tax laws applicable to our ordinary activities and extraordinary transactions. In case of challenges by the tax authorities to our interpretations, we could face long tax proceedings that could result in the payment of penalties and have a material adverse effect on our operating results, business and financial condition.
As a result of the demergers and the merger in connection with the Separation, we might be jointly and severally liable with FCA for certain tax liabilities arisen in the hands of FCA.
Although the Italian tax authorities confirmed in a positive advance tax ruling issued on October 9, 2015 that the demergers and the Merger that was carried out in connection with the Separation would be respected as tax-free, neutral transactions from an Italian income tax perspective, under Italian tax law we may still be held jointly and severally liable, as a result of the combined application of the rules governing the allocation of tax liabilities in case of demergers and mergers, with FCA for taxes, penalties, interest and any other tax liability arising in the actions of FCA because of violations of its tax obligations related to tax years prior to the two Demergers described in the section “Item 4.A. History and Development of the Company”.
There may be potential “Passive Foreign Investment Company” tax considerations for U.S. holders.
Shares of our stock would be stock of a “passive foreign investment company,” or a PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes with respect to a U.S. holder (as defined in “Item 10.E. Taxation—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences” below) if for any taxable year in which such U.S. holder held shares of our stock, after the application of applicable “look-through rules” (i) 75 percent or more of our gross income for the taxable year consists of “passive income” (including dividends, interest, gains from the sale or exchange of investment property and rents and royalties other than rents and royalties which are received from unrelated parties in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business, as defined in applicable Treasury Regulations), or (ii) at least 50 percent of our assets for the taxable year (averaged over the year and determined based upon value) produce or are held for the production of “passive income”. U.S. persons who own shares of a PFIC are subject to a disadvantageous U.S. federal income tax regime with respect to the income derived by the PFIC, the dividends they receive from the PFIC, and the gain, if any, they derive from the sale or other disposition of their shares in the PFIC.
While we believe that shares of our stock are not stock of a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes, this conclusion is based on a factual determination made annually and thus is subject to change. Moreover, our common shares may become stock of a PFIC in future taxable years if there were to be changes in our assets, income or operations. See “Item 10.E. Taxation—PFIC Considerations” for a further discussion.
 

24



The consequences of the loyalty voting program are uncertain.
No statutory, judicial or administrative authority directly discusses how the receipt, ownership, or disposition of special voting shares should be treated for Italian or U.S. tax purposes and as a result, the tax consequences in those jurisdictions are uncertain.
The fair market value of the special voting shares, which may be relevant to the tax consequences, is a factual determination and is not governed by any guidance that directly addresses such a situation. Because, among other things, our special voting shares are not transferable (other than, in very limited circumstances, together with the associated common shares) and a shareholder will receive amounts in respect of the special voting shares only if we are liquidated, we believe and intend to take the position that the fair market value of each special voting share is minimal. However, the relevant tax authorities could assert that the value of the special voting shares as determined by us is incorrect.
The tax treatment of the loyalty voting program is unclear and shareholders are urged to consult their tax advisors in respect of the consequences of acquiring, owning and disposing of special voting shares. See “Item 10.E. Taxation—Loyalty Voting Program” for a further discussion.
We currently benefit or seek to benefit from certain special tax regimes, which may not be available in the future.
We currently calculate taxes due in Italy based, among other things, on certain tax breaks recognized by Italian tax regulations for R&D expenses and for the investments on manufacturing equipment (available until fiscal year 2019 according to current regulations), which result in a tax saving. Law no. 160/2019 or “Budget Law 2020”, introduced new rules relating to tax breaks. In particular the hyper- and super-depreciation have been modified into a tax credit for the purchase of new capital assets. The Budget Law 2020 also introduced new tax credits for (i) technological innovation and ecological transition, and (ii) the design and creation of new products and samples.
These new measures continue to mitigate the amount of taxes due in Italy. Significant changes in regulations or interpretation might adversely affect the availability of such exemptions and result in higher tax charges.
Italian Law No. 190 of December 2014, as subsequently amended and supplemented (Finance Act 2015) introduced an optional Patent Box regime in the Italian tax system. The Patent Box regime is a tax exemption related to, inter alia, the use of intellectual property assets. Business income derived from the use of each qualified intangible asset is partially exempted from taxation for both IRES and IRAP purposes. In September 2018 we received the mandatory ruling from the Italian tax authorities according to which we are able to significantly reduce our tax expenses. The ruling covers the period starting from 2015 and it remains in force until fiscal year 2019. The Group is progressing with the required activities to apply the Patent Box tax regime for the period from 2020 to 2024, in line with currently applicable tax regulations in Italy. The amount of the related tax benefits (if any) that the Group may receive from the tax regime remains subject to uncertainty.


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Item 4. Information on the Company

A. History and Development of the Company
Ferrari was incorporated as a public limited liability company (naamloze vennootschap) under the laws of the Netherlands on September 4, 2015 with an indefinite duration. Our official seat (statutaire zetel) is in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and our corporate address and principal place of business are located at Via Abetone Inferiore n. 4, I-41053 Maranello (MO), Italy. Ferrari is registered with the Dutch Trade Register of the Chamber of Commerce under number 64060977. Its telephone number is +39-0536-949111. The name and address of the Company’s agent in the United States is: Ferrari North America, Inc., 250 Sylvan Avenue, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632. Its telephone number is +1 (201) 816 2600.
Our company is named after our founder Enzo Ferrari. An Alfa Romeo driver since 1924, Enzo Ferrari founded his own racing team, Scuderia Ferrari, in Modena in 1929 initially to race Alfa Romeo cars.  In 1939 he set up his own company, initially called Auto Avio Costruzioni.  In late 1943, Enzo Ferrari moved his headquarters from Modena to Maranello, which remains our headquarters to this day. 
In 1947, we produced our first racing car, the 125 S. The 125 S’s powerful 12 cylinder engine would go on to become synonymous with the Ferrari brand. In 1948, the first road car, the Ferrari 166 Inter, was produced. Styling quickly became an integral part of the Ferrari brand.
In 1950, we began our participation in the Formula 1 World Championship, racing in the world’s second Grand Prix in Monaco, which makes Scuderia Ferrari the longest running Formula 1 team. We won our first Constructor World Title in 1952. Our success on the world’s tracks and roads extends beyond Formula 1, including victories in some of the most important car races such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the world’s oldest endurance automobile race, and the 24 Hours of Daytona.
The Fiat group acquired a 50 percent stake in Ferrari S.p.A. in 1969 and increased its stake to 90 percent in 1988 following the death of Enzo Ferrari, with the remaining 10 percent held by Enzo Ferrari’s son, Piero Ferrari.
Ferrari became an independent, publicly traded company following its separation from FCA (the “Separation”), which was completed on January 3, 2016 and occurred through a series of transactions including (i) an intragroup restructuring which resulted in the Company’s acquisition of the assets and business of Ferrari North Europe Limited and the transfer by FCA of its 90 percent shareholding in Ferrari S.p.A. to the Company, (ii) the transfer of Piero Ferrari’s 10 percent shareholding in Ferrari S.p.A. to the Company, (iii) the initial public offering of common shares of the Company on the New York Stock Exchange in October 2015 under the ticker symbol RACE, and (iv) the distribution, following the initial public offering, of FCA’s remaining interest in the Company to FCA’s shareholders. On January 4, 2016 the Company also completed the listing of its common shares on the Mercato Telematico Azionario, the stock exchange managed by Borsa Italiana, under the ticker symbol RACE.
For information on the SEC’s website and our website, please refer to “Item 10.H. Documents on Display”.


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B. Business Overview

Business Summary
Ferrari is among the world’s leading luxury brands, focused on the design, engineering, production and sale of the world’s most recognizable luxury performance sports cars. Our brand symbolizes exclusivity, innovation, state-of-the-art sporting performance and Italian design and engineering heritage. Our name and history and the image enjoyed by our cars are closely associated with our Formula 1 racing team, Scuderia Ferrari, the most successful team in Formula 1 history. From the inaugural year of Formula 1 in 1950 through the present, Scuderia Ferrari has won 238 Grand Prix races, 16 Constructor World titles and 15 Drivers’ World titles. We believe our history of excellence, technological innovation and defining style transcends the automotive industry, and is the foundation of the Ferrari brand and image. We design, engineer and produce our cars in Maranello, Italy, and sell them in over 60 markets worldwide through a network of 166 authorized dealers operating 187 points of sale as of the end of 2019.
We believe our cars are the epitome of performance, luxury and styling. Our product offering comprises four main pillars: the sports range, the GT range, special series and Icona, a line of modern cars inspired by our iconic cars of the past. Our current product range (including cars presented in 2019, for which shipments will commence in 2020) is comprised of five sports cars (SF90 Stradale, F8 Tributo, F8 Spider, 812 Superfast and 812 GTS), four GT cars (Ferrari Roma, Ferrari Portofino, GTC4Lusso and GTC4Lusso T) and two special series cars (488 Pista and 488 Pista Spider), as well as two versions of our first Icona car, the Ferrari Monza SP1 and the Ferrari Monza SP2. We also produce limited edition hypercars, fuori serie and one-off cars. Our most recent hypercar, the LaFerrari Aperta, was launched in 2016 to celebrate our 70th Anniversary and finished its limited series run in 2018. In 2019, we unveiled the SF90 Stradale (our first series production Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)), the F8 Tributo, the F8 Spider, the 812 GTS and the Ferrari Roma, with shipments of the F8 Tributo commencing in the fourth quarter of 2019 and shipments of the other cars expected to commence in 2020.

In 2019, we shipped 10,131 cars and recorded net revenues of €3,766 million, EBIT of €917 million, net profit of €699 million and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA) of €1,269 million. For additional information regarding EBITDA, including a reconciliation of EBITDA to net profit, as well as other non-GAAP measures we present, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Non-GAAP Financial Measures”.

Whilst broadening our product portfolio to target a larger customer base, we continue to pursue a low volume production strategy in order to maintain a reputation for exclusivity and scarcity among purchasers of our cars and we carefully manage our production volumes and delivery waiting lists to promote this reputation. We divide our regional markets into EMEA, Americas, Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, and Rest of APAC, representing respectively 48.3 percent, 28.6 percent, 8.3 percent and 14.8 percent of units shipped in 2019.

We focus our marketing and promotion efforts in the investments we make in our racing activities and in particular, Scuderia Ferrari’s participation in the Formula 1 World Championship, which is one of the most watched annual sports series in the world, with approximately 405.5 million unique television viewers in 2019 in the top 20* markets (Source: Formula 1 Press Office). Although our most recent Formula 1 world title was in 2008, we continuously enhance our focus on Formula 1 activities with the goal of improving racing results and restoring our historical position as the premier racing team in Formula 1. We believe that these activities support the strength and awareness of our brand among motor enthusiasts, clients and the general public.
 
We license the Ferrari brand to a selected number of producers and retailers of luxury and lifestyle goods. In addition, we design, source and sell Ferrari-branded products through a network of 20 Ferrari-owned stores and 24 franchised stores (including 15 Ferrari Store Junior), as well as on our website. As one of the world’s most recognized premium luxury brands, we believe we are well positioned to selectively expand the presence of the Ferrari brand in attractive and growing lifestyle categories consistent with our image, including sportswear, watches, accessories, consumer electronics and theme parks which, we believe, enhance the brand experience of our loyal clients and Ferrari enthusiasts.

__________________________

(*)     Top 20 markets are, in alphabetical order, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, China, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, Pan Africa, Pan Latin America, Pan Middle East, Pan Russia, Poland, Russia, United Kingdom and United States.


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We will continue focusing our efforts on protecting and enhancing the value of our brand to preserve our strong financial profile and participate in the growth of the premium luxury market. We intend to selectively pursue controlled and profitable growth in existing and emerging markets while expanding the Ferrari brand to carefully selected lifestyle categories.


Industry Overview
Within the luxury goods market, we define our target market for luxury performance cars as two-door cars powered by engines producing more than 500 hp and selling at a retail price in excess of Euro 150,000 (including VAT). The luxury performance car market historically has followed relatively closely growth patterns in the broader luxury market. The luxury performance car market is generally affected by global macroeconomic conditions and, although we and certain other manufacturers have proven relatively resilient, general downturns can have a disproportionate impact on sales of luxury goods in light of the discretionary nature of consumer spending in this market. Furthermore, because of the emotional nature of the purchasing decision, economic confidence and factors such as expectations regarding future income streams as well as the social acceptability of luxury goods may impact sales.
Following the sharp recession of 2008-2009, the luxury performance car market has been resilient to further economic downturns and stagnation in the broader economy, also a result of the increase of new product launches. A sustained period of wealth creation in several Asian countries and, to a lesser extent, in the Americas, has led to an expanding population of potential consumers of luxury goods. Developing consumer preferences in the Asian markets, where the newly affluent are increasingly embracing western brands of luxury products, have also led to higher demand for cars in our segment, which are all produced by established European manufacturers. In turn, the changing demographic of customers and potential customers is driving an evolution towards luxury performance cars more suited to an urban, daily use.
Additionally, the growing appetite of younger affluent purchasers for luxury performance cars has led to new entrants, which in turn has resulted in higher sales overall in the market.
Unlike in other segments of the broader luxury market, however, in the luxury performance car market, a significant portion of demand is driven by new product launches. The market share of individual producers fluctuates over time reflecting the timing of product launches. New launches tend to drive sales volumes even in difficult market environments because the novelty, exclusivity and excitement of a new product is capable of creating and capturing its own demand from clients.
Growing environmental concerns are leading to the implementation of increasingly stringent emissions regulations and an increase in demand for both hybrid and electric vehicles. Cost and limited charging infrastructure are currently limiting factors in the demand for electric vehicles, but advancements in battery technology in coming years are expected to boost sales of hybrid and electric high performance luxury vehicles, although at a slower pace compared to mass market vehicles. The ability to combine driving experience with hybrid and electric technology will be key for the commercial success of high performance luxury vehicles.

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Ferrari and Luxury Performance Car Industry data are updated to December 31, 2019.

Data for the Luxury Performance Car Industry include all two door GT and sports cars with power above 500hp, and retail price above Euro 150,000 (including VAT) sold by Aston Martin, Audi, Bentley, BMW, Ferrari, Ford, Honda/Acura, Lamborghini, McLaren, Mercedes Benz, Porsche and Rolls-Royce.

Ferrari data based on internal information for the 22 top countries (excluding Middle East countries) for Ferrari annual registrations and sales (which accounted for approximately 87% of the total Ferrari shipments in 2019).

Data for the Luxury Performance Car Industry based on units registered (in Brazil, Japan, Taiwan, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Netherlands, Belgium and Austria) or sold (in USA, South Korea, Mainland China, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore and Indonesia). Source: USA: US Maker Data Club, Brazil-JATO; Austria-OSZ; Belgium-FEBIAC; France-SIV; Germany-KBA; UK-SMMT; Italy-UNRAE; Netherlands-VWE; Poland-CEPiK; Spain-TRAFICO; Sweden-BranschData; Switzerland-ASTRA; Mainland China-China Automobile Industry Association-DataClub; Russia-AEBRUS; Taiwan-Ministry of Transportation and Communications; Australia-VFACTS-S; Japan-JAIA; Indonesia-GAIKINDO; New Zealand-VFACTS; Singapore-LTA, MTA (Land Transport Authority, Motor Trader Associations); South Korea-KAIDA.

As shown in the chart above, our volumes in recent years have proven less volatile than our competitors’. We believe this is due to our strategy of maintaining low volumes compared to demand, as well as the higher number of models in our range and our more frequent product launches compared to our competitors.

    In 2019, our volumes in the largest 22 markets slightly increased compared to 2018, primarily driven by contribution from our range models. In 2019, we had a market share of 23 percent in the luxury performance car market; with 25 percent of market share in the sports car segment and 19 percent of market share in the GT segment.

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The chart below sets forth our market shares in 2019 based on volumes in our largest 22 markets by geographical area.

Ferrari and Luxury Performance Car Industry data are updated to December 31, 2019.
Data for the Luxury Performance Car Industry include all two door GT and sports cars with power above 500hp, and retail price above Euro 150,000 (including VAT) sold by Aston Martin, Audi, Bentley, BMW, Ferrari, Ford, Lamborghini, McLaren, Mercedes Benz, Porsche and Rolls-Royce.
Ferrari data based on internal information for the 22 top countries (excluding Middle East countries) for Ferrari annual registrations and sales (which accounted for approximately 87% of the total Ferrari shipments in 2019).
Data for the Luxury Performance Car Industry based on units registered (Brazil, Japan, Taiwan, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Netherlands, Belgium and Austria) or sold (in USA, South Korea, Mainland China, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore and Indonesia). Source: USA: US Maker Data Club, Brazil-JATO; Austria-OSZ; Belgium-FEBIAC; France-SIV; Germany-KBA; UK-SMMT; Italy-UNRAE; Netherlands-VWE; Poland-CEPiK; Spain-TRAFICO; Sweden-BranschData; Switzerland-ASTRA; Mainland China-China Automobile Industry Association-DataClub; Russia-AEBRUS; Taiwan-Ministry of Transportation and Communications; Australia-VFACTS-S; Japan-JAIA; Indonesia-GAIKINDO; New Zealand-VFACTS; Singapore-LTA, MTA (Land Transport Authority, Motor Trader Associations); South Korea-KAIDA.
Ferrari is market leader in several countries, including France, Italy, Mainland China, Japan and South Korea, among others.

While we monitor our market share as an indicator of our brand appeal, we do not regard market share in the luxury performance market as particularly relevant as compared to other segments of the automotive industry. We are not focused on market share as a performance metric. Instead, we deliberately manage our supply relative to demand, to defend and promote our brand exclusivity and premium pricing.


Competition
Competition in the luxury performance car market is concentrated in a fairly small number of producers, including both large automotive companies that own luxury brands as well as small producers exclusively focused on luxury cars, like us. The luxury performance car market includes sports cars and GT cars.

Our sports car models are the F8 Tributo, the F8 Spider, the 812 Superfast, the 812 GTS and our first series production Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), the SF90 Stradale, as well as our latest special series models, the 488 Pista and 488 Pista Spider, and our principal competitors are Lamborghini, McLaren, Ford, Honda, Porsche, Mercedes, Aston Martin and Audi. Our GT range models are the Ferrari Portofino, the GTC4Lusso, the GTC4Lusso T, and the most-recent, the Ferrari Roma, and our principal competitors are Rolls-Royce, Bentley, BMW, Aston Martin and Mercedes.

In recent years, the market has shifted somewhat with an increased focus on the GT cars segment and the lower priced range of the sports car market, with larger automotive groups expanding their offering of premium cars to enter the luxury performance car market.

Competition in the luxury performance car market is driven by the strength of the brand and the appeal of the products in terms of performance, styling, novelty and innovation as well as on the manufacturers’ ability to renew its product offerings regularly in order to continue to stimulate customer demand.

Competition among similarly positioned luxury performance cars is also driven by price and total cost of ownership. Resilience of the car value after a period of ownership is an important competitive dimension among similarly positioned luxury cars, as a higher resilience decreases the total cost of ownership and promotes repeat purchases: we believe this is a strong competitive advantage of Ferrari cars.

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Sports and GT Range, Special Series and Icona: Ferrari Line-Up Strategic Pillars
Our product offering comprises four main strategic pillars: the sports range, the GT range, special series and Icona. Our current product range includes five sports cars, four GT cars and two special series cars, as well as our Icona cars, introduced in September 2018 with the Ferrari Monza SP1 and SP2. We target end clients seeking high performance cars with distinctive design and state of the art technology. Our broad model range is designed to fulfill the strategy of “Different Ferrari for different Ferraristi, different Ferrari for different moments”, which means being able to offer a highly differentiated product line-up that can meet the varying needs of new customer segments (in terms of sportiness, comfort, on-board space, design) and that can allow our existing clients to use a Ferrari in every moment of their lives. Our diversified product offering includes different architectures (such as front-engine and mid-rear engine), engine sizes (V8 and V12), technologies (atmospheric, turbo-charged, hybrid, electric), body styles (such as coupes and spiders), and seats (2 seaters, 2+2 seaters and 4 seaters).
We are also actively engaged in after sales activities driven, among other things, by the objective of preserving and extending the market value of the cars we sell. We believe our cars’ performance in terms of value preservation after a period of ownership significantly exceeds that of any other brand in the luxury car segment. High residual value is important to the primary market because clients, when purchasing our cars, take into account the expected resale value of the car in assessing the overall cost of ownership. Furthermore, a higher residual value potentially lowers the cost for the owner to switch to a new model thereby supporting client loyalty and promoting repeat purchases.

    

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The charts below set forth the percentage of our unit shipments (excluding the XX Programme, racing cars, Fuori Serie, one-off and pre-owned cars) for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 by pillar:
__________________________
(*)     Includes shipments of the LaFerrari and LaFerrari Aperta.
(**) Shipments of Icona cars commenced in 2019, and contributed to less than 1 percent of our shipments for that year.

The table and charts below set forth our unit shipments(1) for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, by geographic market:
(Number of cars and % of total cars)
 
For the years ended December 31,
 
2019
 
%
 
2018
 
%
 
2017
 
%
EMEA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
UK
 
1,120

 
11.1
%
 
981

 
10.6
%
 
843

 
10.0
%
Germany
 
967

 
9.5
%
 
803

 
8.7
%
 
710

 
8.5
%
Italy
 
559

 
5.5
%
 
479

 
5.2
%
 
417

 
5.0
%
Switzerland
 
454

 
4.5
%
 
380

 
4.1
%
 
339

 
4.0
%
France
 
452

 
4.5
%
 
399

 
4.3
%
 
346

 
4.1
%
Middle East(2)
 
309

 
3.1
%
 
326

 
3.5
%
 
331

 
3.9
%
Other EMEA(3)
 
1,034

 
10.1
%
 
859

 
9.3
%
 
751

 
9.0
%
Total EMEA
 
4,895

 
48.3
%
 
4,227

 
45.7
%
 
3,737

 
44.5
%
Americas(4)
 
2,900

 
28.6
%
 
3,000

 
32.4
%
 
2,811

 
33.5
%
Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan
 
836

 
8.3
%
 
695

 
7.5
%
 
617

 
7.3
%
Rest of APAC(5)
 
1,500

 
14.8
%
 
1,329

 
14.4
%
 
1,233

 
14.7
%
Total
 
10,131

 
100.0
%
 
9,251

 
100.0
%
 
8,398

 
100.0
%
__________________________
(1)
Excluding the XX Progamme, racing cars, Fuori Serie, one-off and pre-owned cars
(2)
Middle East includes the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Lebanon, Qatar, Oman and Kuwait
(3)
Rest of EMEA includes Africa and the other European markets not separately identified
(4)
Americas includes the United States of America, Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean and Central and South America
(5)
Rest of APAC mainly includes Japan, Australia, Singapore, Indonesia, South Korea, Thailand and Malaysia

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Sports Range
Our sports cars are characterized by compact bodies, a design guided by performance and aerodynamics, and often benefit from technologies initially developed for our Formula 1 single-seaters. They favor performance over comfort, seeking to provide a driver with an immediate response and superior handling, leveraging state of the art vehicle dynamics components and controls. In our sports car class, we offer five models: the SF90 Stradale, our first series production car which features PHEV technology that combines a V8 engine (780 hp) with three electric motors that allow the car to reach 1000 hp; the F8 Tributo and the F8 Spider are equipped with a mid-rear V8 engine (720 hp), a 4 time winner of the engine of the year award; the 812 Superfast and the 812 GTS are equipped with a front V12 engine (800 hp).
GT Range

Our GT cars, while maintaining the performance expected of a Ferrari, are characterized by more refined interiors with a higher focus on comfort and on-board life quality. In our GT class, we offer three models equipped with our V8 engine, the Ferrari Roma (620 hp), combining sportiness and elegant design; the Ferrari Portofino (600 hp) and the GTC4Lusso T (610 hp), the first Ferrari 4 seater equipped with a V8 turbo engine. We also offer one GT model equipped with our V12 engine, the GTC4Lusso (690 hp), our sport-luxury 4 seater and 4 wheel drive.
The following picture depicts the four dimensions of our customer value proposition for our sports and GT range models:

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Special Series
From time to time, we also design, engineer and produce special series cars which can be limited in time or volume and are usually based on our range sports models but introduce novel product concepts. These cars are characterized by significant modifications designed to enhance performance and driving emotions. Our special series cars are particularly targeted to collectors and, from a commercial and product development standpoint, they facilitate the transition from existing to new range models. Our current special series cars are the 488 Pista, powered by a 720 hp V8 engine, and its retractable hard top version, the 488 Pista Spider (720 hp).
Icona
In September 2018, we introduced a new pillar of our product portfolio: the Icona, a unique concept that takes inspiration from the iconic cars of our history and reinterprets them in a modern fashion, pairing timeless design with state-of-the-art materials and technology. The first examples of this strictly limited-edition product line-up are the Ferrari Monza SP1 and SP2, which are inspired by the classic collectible barchetta cars, the 750Monza and 860Monza.
Limited Edition Hypercars, Fuori Serie and One-Offs

In line with our tradition of hypercars starting with the 288GTO in 1984 up to the Enzo in 2002 and the LaFerrari Aperta, our latest hypercar launched in 2016, we also produce limited edition hypercars. These are the highest expression of Ferrari road car performance at the time and are often the forerunners of technological innovations for future range models, with innovative features and futuristic design. Furthermore, in connection with certain events or celebrations, we also launch very limited edition cars (our fuori serie). These models can be offered globally, or may be limited to specific local markets. Based on an exotic product concept not available on the standard Ferrari model range, these cars feature completely unique design and specifications compared to our other models.

Finally, in order to meet the varying needs of our most loyal and discerning clients, we also produce a very limited number of one-off models. While based on the chassis and equipped with engines of one of the current range models for homologation and registration purposes, these cars reflect the exact exterior and interior design specifications requested by the clients, and are produced as a single, unique car. Some of the most iconic models emerged from our One-Off program include the SP12 EC (inspired by the 512 BB and created in 2011), the F12 TRS (a radical two-seat roadster created on the platform of the F12berlinetta in 2014), the SP38 (a superlative mid-rear V8 turbo taking inspiration from the legendary Ferrari F40), the 458MM Speciale (the last mid rear model with a V8 natural aspirated engine in 2016) and the P80/C, a real track car taking inspiration from past Ferrari Sport Prototipo models.




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Personalization Offer

All of our models feature highly customizable interior and exterior options, which are included in our personalization catalogue. Some of these options include performance contents like carbon fibre parts, carbon fibre wheels, titanium exhaust systems, alternative brake caliper colors, parking cameras, MagneRide dual mode suspension, panoramic roof option, various door panel configurations, steering wheel inserts and state of the art custom high fidelity sound systems. Commencing with the the SF90 Stradale, we have also introduced the “Assetto Fiorano” configuration, which provides numerous exclusive features for those who seek radical performance and design.

With our “Special Equipment” program, we offer clients additional customization choices for their cars. Our specialists are able to guide clients in creating a very customized car through a wide catalog of special items such as different types of rare leathers, custom stitching, special paints, special carbon fiber, and personalized luggage sets designed to match the car’s interior.

The “Tailor Made” program provides an additional level of personalization in accordance with the expectations of our clients. A dedicated Ferrari designer assists clients in selecting and applying virtually any specific design element chosen by the client. Our clients benefit from a large selection of finishes and accessories in an array of different materials (ranging from cashmere to denim), treatments and hues. To assist our clients’ choice we also offer three collections inspired by Ferrari’s own tradition: Scuderia (taking its lead from our sporting history), Classica (bringing a modern twist to the styling cues of our signature GT models) and Inedita (showcasing more experimental and innovation-led personalization).
The “One-off” program is the maximum level of personalization and exclusivity. See “—Limited Edition Hypercars, Fuori Serie and One-Offs” above for more details.

Design
Design is a fundamental and distinctive aspect of our products and our brand. Our designers, modelers and engineers work together to create car bodies that incorporate the most innovative aerodynamic solutions in the sleek and powerful lines typical of our cars. The interiors of our cars seek to balance functionality, aesthetics and comfort. Cockpits are designed to maximize the driving experience, tending towards more sporty or more comfortable, depending on the model. The interiors of our vehicles boast elegant and sophisticated trims and details that enhance the ergonomic layout of all main controls, many of which are clustered on the steering wheel. A guiding principle of our design is that each new model represents a clear departure from prior models and introduces new and distinctive aesthetic elements, delivering constant innovation within the furrow of tradition.

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For the design of our cars we have relied historically on Italian coachbuilders such as Carrozzeria Touring, Vignale, Scaglietti and Pininfarina. These partnerships helped Ferrari in defining its design language at the forefront of design advance. Throughout the years this area of excellence has been recognized repeatedly by a long series of awards being bestowed upon Ferrari road cars.
In 2010 we established the Ferrari Design Centre, our in-house design department, with the objective of improving control over the entire design process and ensuring long-term continuity of the Ferrari style. The mission of the Ferrari Design Centre is to define and evolve the stylistic direction of the marque, imprinting all new products with a modern stamp, according to a futuristic, uncompromised vision. The name and logo “Ferrari Design” denotes all concepts and works from Ferrari Design Centre (see “—Intellectual Property”). Ferrari Design handles all aspects of automotive styling for the Ferrari road cars product range, encompassing the styling of all bodywork, external components and interior trim, applied to series production models for the GT and sports car range special editions, limited editions, Iconas, one-off models, concept cars and some track-only models. Ferrari Design also includes a Color & Trim unit which manages the choice of materials and finishes for both exterior and interior trim and, in addition, is responsible for the Tailor Made program in conjunction with the Product Marketing department. Ferrari Design is also involved in the styling and conceptual definition of Ferrari branded products produced by our licensees (see “—Brand Activities”). In 2019, we created the Advanced Design team, a laboratory that aims at defining the brand's design vision, developing new concepts and formal languages through so far unexplored methods and tools, and trying to achieve simplification and formal purity while staying true to the Ferrari DNA which has characterized its history.
Ferrari Design is organized as an integrated automotive design studio, employing a total workforce of approximately 110 people (full-time workers as well as external contractors) including designers, 3D surfacing operators, physical modelers and graphic artists. It operates a modeling studio fully equipped with 5-axis milling machines with the capacity to develop various full-scale models (interior and exterior) in parallel.
In September 2018 we opened a new building for the Ferrari Design Centre, which is our first facility fully dedicated to the Ferrari Design. The new building hosts two Ateliers and the Tailor Made department to engage clients with Ferrari’s rich personalization services. The Ferrari Design Centre entirely designed our most recent cars, including the Ferrari Roma, the SF90 Stradale, the F8 Tributo and F8 Spider, the 812 GTS and the Ferrari Monza SP1 and SP2.
During its 10 year history, the Ferrari Design Centre has received prestigious design awards for several cars it has designed, among which in the last 2 years:
Ferrari Monza SP2: The Most Beautiful Supercar of the Year - Festival Automobile International, Paris (2019);
488 Pista: iF Design Award (2019);
SP38: iF Design Award - Ferrari (2019);
Portofino: iF Design Award (2019); UIGA - Auto Europa Sportiva (2019);
Ferrari Monza SP1: iF Gold Design Award (2019); Red Dot Best of The Best (2019); 2019 Good Design Award;
488 Pista: Red Dot Design Award (2019);
SP38: Red Dot Design Award (2019);
SF90 Stradale: 2019 Good Design Award;
SP38: Design Award for Concept Cars & Prototypes - Concorso d’Eleganza Villa d’Este (2018)
Ferrari Portofino: Red Dot Best of the Best Award (2018)
812 Superfast: Red Dot Design Award (2018)
FXX K EVO: Red Dot Design Award (2018)
J50: iF Gold Design Award (2018)
LaFerrari Aperta: iF Design Award (2018)


Product Development

Product development and technological innovation
Our development efforts take into account the three defining dimensions of Ferrari cars; performance; versatility and comfort; and driving emotions.


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Performance reflects features such as weight, horsepower, torque, aerodynamic efficiency, acceleration, and maximum speed, which all contribute to determine the lap time on track. We strive to ensure that every Ferrari is the best performing car in its segment.

Versatility derives from spaciousness, accessibility and mode of traction, including rear‑wheel‑drive or all‑wheel‑drive and, in future, electric-powered driving. Comfort results from the ease of the riding experience and on board interface. Regulation will affect development in this area - for example, a prescribed electric range may be required in future to access city centers.

Driving emotions is a key differentiator of Ferrari cars. There are three elements to driving emotions: sound, perceived acceleration and responsiveness of the car. Sound is an important part of the experience and very involving for the driver. Perceived acceleration is the driver’s subjective impression of the car acceleration beyond the actual 0-100 or 0-200 km/h performance measured in the car technical specifications. Responsiveness requires that every driver command lead to a direct and controllable reaction of the car.

These three dimensions variably interact in our sports and GT cars. As we work on the future product range, we strive to improve on each of those dimensions, focusing for sports cars on performance and driving emotions, and for GT cars on versatility and comfort on board and fun to drive - driving emotions.


Innovation principles
    
We believe there are five key guidelines to innovation at Ferrari: focus on the three key defining dimensions described above; leveraging on Formula 1 know-how; first mover positioning in core areas such powertrain and aerodynamics; customization of technologies available on the market (such as the turbo technology); and pursuit of synergies (arising from common architectures within our range). In addition to these internally driven factors, regulation is key in determining the direction of innovation.
Combustion engines

We believe internal combustion engines will remain important in Ferrari’s powertrain mix and therefore we continue to invest significantly in new combustion engine technologies and the development or use of bio-fuels. In 2018 we won the “Engine of the Year” award for the newest edition of our V8 turbocharged engine mounted on the 488 Pista.
    

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Going forward, Ferrari will have three engine families: we will maintain and develop the V12 naturally‑aspirated engine family, long the pinnacle of Ferrari engines; we will implement the next technological step ups for the V8 family; and we will develop a completely new V6 family based on a specific and innovative architecture.
    
The industry effort to combine greater power outputs with lower emissions and consumption often leads to a higher turbo lag. Through a technological breakthrough, Ferrari has engineered a turbo engine with turbo engine performance but with the response of a naturally‑aspirated engine. For example, the specific power output of the 488 Pista was increased to 184 horsepower without meaningful turbo lag.
    
In the future, we intend to use hybrid and electric technology, as well as Formula 1 technology, to increase specific power output without turbo lag.

We are deploying considerable resources for the development of hybrid and electric powertrains, which will be mounted on an increasingly larger proportion of our car models; this is intended to improve performance and driving experience while also satisfying customer preferences and regulatory requirements regarding emissions. With the SF90 Stradale we developed the first series production car in our range with Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) technology.
Architecture

In addition to engines, the other principal technical area we are focusing on is the architecture. Our architecture covers all principal technical specifications of future Ferrari models. We expect that innovation requirements will arise principally from: the evolution of engine families; the level of hybridization and electrification; modes of traction; the number of seats up to a real four-seater; and the body style, which will vary much more significantly than in the past in light of the introduction of the Purosangue.

We expect that our core architectures will be the rear‑mid‑engine architecture and the front‑mid‑engine architecture, each comprising several variants.


Rear-mid-engine architecture

The rear‑mid‑engine architecture is designed to integrate multiple power units with a higher specific power output than the 488 Pista. In this architecture, combustion engines can be combined with an electric motor to realize hybridization, including a battery to enable electric range. In combination, we have developed a new and highly innovative 8-shift double‑clutch transmission gearbox. Hybridization will impact the weight of engines and therefore we will deploy new lightweight technologies to compensate this impact. Package efficiency will also be key to achieve a compact car that reduces weight and inertia. In order to apply the architecture to different powertrains, the wheelbase may vary. The first example of this new architecture is the SF90 Stradale.

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Front-mid-engine architecture

The front‑mid‑engine architecture, also a transaxle powertrain concept, is even more flexible than the rear-mid-engine architecture. This architecture is able to accommodate an all‑wheel‑drive powertrain, will allow for hybridization, and will have a flexible wheelbase suited to a variety of engines as well as seat configurations including two‑seaters and four‑seaters. It will be accessible, spacious and comfortable. Key to this architecture will be the new suspension systems we are developing, with a high range between comfort and sportiness.

New-generation human-machine interface

Particularly driven by growth in the GT segment, Ferrari has developed the next generation of human‑machine interface (HMI) technologies. Using state‑of‑the‑art technologies we will be guided by the Formula 1 derived concept of “eyes on the street, hands on the steering wheel”, for a focused, safe and enjoyable drive. The new HMI includes several new technologies, including a new head‑up display, a new innovative cluster, a new steering wheel that features new commands and a new infotainment system, as well as tools aimed at positively enhancing the passengers’ experience.
Autonomous driving

While we do not intend to develop self-driving cars, we will adopt certain features of autonomous driving technology in response to regulatory developments and customer preferences, especially in the GT segment. For example, in 2018 we launched initial functionalities for Advanced Driving Assistant Systems (ADAS) such as predictive breaking and automatic cruise control on current models, and further innovations will be introduced in future models.

Ferrari is carefully monitoring the evolution of autonomous driving technologies, including sensors and artificial intelligence, and we will select and customize those innovations compatible with the Ferrari experience. These technologies will also have an important impact on the electronic architecture of our cars.


Production and Procurement
Production Process
Our production facilities are located in Maranello and in Modena, Italy (see “Item 4.D. Property, Plant, and Equipment”). Our production processes include supply chain management, production and distribution logistics of cars in our range models and special series, as well as assembly of prototypes and avanseries.
Notwithstanding the low volumes of cars produced, our production process requires a great variety of inputs - over 40,000 product identifier codes sourced from approximately 750 total suppliers - entailing complex supply chain management to ensure continuity of production. Our stock of supplies is warehoused in Ubersetto, near Maranello, and its management is outsourced to a third party logistics company.
Most of the manufacturing process takes place in Maranello, including aluminum alloy casting in our foundry, engine construction, mechanical machining, painting, car assembly, and bench testing; at our second plant in Modena (Carrozzeria Scaglietti) we manufacture our cars’ aluminum bodyworks. All parts and components not produced in house at Ferrari are sourced from our panel of suppliers (see “—Procurement”).
Between 2002 and 2012 the plants housing our production processes were entirely renovated or rebuilt and in recent years, we have continued to make significant investments in our manufacturing facilities. Equipment may require substantial investment with the introduction of new models or to maintain state of the art technology, particularly in the case of shell tools for the foundry, tools for machining, feature tools for body welding and special mounting equipment for the assembly.
As at December 31, 2019, our production processes employed over 1,720 engineers, technicians and other personnel (approximately 1,300 workers, including approximately 240 temporary production employees and approximately 180 white collar employees). We have a flexible production organization, which allows us to adjust production capacity to accommodate our expected production requirements. This is primarily due to the low volume of cars we produce per year and to our highly skilled and flexible employee base that can be deployed across various production areas. In addition, we can adjust our make-or-buy strategies to address fluctuations in the level of demand on our internal production resources. Our facilities can

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accommodate a meaningful increase in production compared to current output with the increase of weekend shifts to address special peaks in demand. Production could be increased even further with the introduction of a second shift on car assembly lines in addition to the single shift currently operated on the V8 Assembly line. We constantly work to increase the utilization rate and reduce the internal scrap rate and we closely monitor an index of our production efficiency. In the past few years we have reduced our cycle time by approximately three percent per year. We are also committed to improve the reliability of our cars, reduce their defects, and optimize their finishing.
Unlike most low volume car producers, we operate our own foundry and machining department producing several of the main components of our engines, such as engine blocks, cylinders heads and crankshafts. We believe this accelerates product development and results in components that meet our specifications more closely.
Engine Production
Our engines are produced according to a vertical structure, from the casting of aluminum in our foundry up to the final assembly and testing of the engine. Several of the main components of our engines, such as blocks and cylinders heads are produced at our foundry in Maranello. For this purpose, we use a special aluminum alloy that includes seven percent silicon and a trace of iron, which improves mechanical integrity, and our own shell and sand casting molds. Once all components are ready, engines are assembled, on different lines for our V8 engines, V12 engines and for the V6 engines we manufacture for Maserati. The assembly process is a combination of automatic and manual operations. At the start of the assembly process, each engine is identified with a barcode and operations are recorded electronically. Every engine goes to the test benches to ensure it delivers the expected performance; 10 - 20 percent of engines are also hot tested and measured for power and torque. In 2019 we produced an average of approximately 117 engines per day, including approximately 11 V12, 45 V8 (including 5 V8 turbo and 3 V8 aspirated for Maserati) and 61 V6 engines for Maserati (see “—Manufacturing of Engines for Maserati”).
Body Assembly
In parallel with the assembly of our engines, we prepare our body-shells at our body shop Carrozzeria Scaglietti in Modena. The main components of body-shells are not manufactured internally but are sourced from manufacturers for chassis, bodies and carbon fiber parts. At Carrozzeria Scaglietti we have two different production lines dedicated to the assembly of our V8 and V12 aluminium bodies. We carefully check the alignment of the various parts - most importantly the engine cover and the wings - with electronic templates and gauges. Our highly trained specialists also perform surface controls on the aluminum panels and eliminate any imperfections by either filing or panel beating. In our Scaglietti plant we also have a dedicated line for the assembly of a special carbon fiber body for the Ferrari Monza SP1 and SP2.
Painting
Our paint shop was inaugurated in 2004. When transferred to our paint shop, the bodies are mounted on a loading bay, immersed in the cataphoresis tanks and subsequently transferred to a fixing gas fired oven at 140 degrees. Primers are then applied and fixed at 190 degrees until the completely grey body-shell is ready for painting. All body-shells are cleaned with automatic pressure blowers (to avoid the electrostatic effect) and carefully brushed with emu feathers (because of their natural electrostatic properties) to clean off any dirt particles or impurities before painting. The painting process is automated for the larger surfaces, while it is done by hand for some other localized areas and in the summer of 2019, we replaced the robot which performs the application of the base coat. The whole car is painted at the same time to ensure color harmony. The bodies are finally polished with lacquer to fix the paint and give the bodies their final finish. In 2018 we substituted our clear coat with a new generation 2K (bi-component) transparent coat that allows us to decrease the temperature of the oven from 140°C to 90°C; this is a very innovative and unique process that allows us to simultaneously paint aluminum and carbon fiber parts.
Assembly Line and Final Checks
The final assembly of our cars takes place in Maranello in a building constructed in 2008. We have three different lines placed at ground level and the first floor of the building. For each model, the initial assembly operations take place simultaneously on different lines and sections to maximize efficiency so while the body is assembled on the main line, the powertrain, as well as the cockpit and the doors, are prepared on a specific sub-line. In 2018, the line on the first floor moved from one shift to two shifts. On the first floor there is also the assembly line of the Ferrari Monza SP1 and SP2.

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Personalization and Road Tests
During the process of assembly of our cars we manage the fitting of all bespoke interiors, components and special equipment options that our clients choose as part of our personalization program (see “—Sports and GT, Special Series and Icona: Ferrari Line up Strategic Pillars—Personalization Offer ”). After the assembly phase, every car completes a 40-kilometer road test-drive.
Finishing and Cleaning
After the road test all cars go to the finishing department. There, we thoroughly clean interior and exterior, check the whole car, polish and finish the bodies to give them their final appearance.
Manufacturing of Engines for Maserati
We have been producing engines for Maserati since 2003. The V8 engines that we historically produced and continue to produce for Maserati are variants of Ferrari families of engines and are mounted on Maserati’s highest performing models, such as the Quattroporte and Levante (turbo engines), and the GranTurismo and the GranCabrio (aspirated engines). All of the V8 engines that we sell to Maserati are manufactured and assembled according to the same production processes we adopt for the V8s equipped on our cars (see “—Production Process”). In 2019, we sold approximately 1,000 V8 turbo engines and approximately 800 V8 aspirated engines to Maserati. These were the last V8 aspirated engines to be sold to Maserati, as they have stopped the production of the GranTurismo and GranCabrio.
In 2011 we began producing a family of engines exclusively for Maserati, in much larger production volumes to be installed on the Quattroporte and Ghibli (mainly the F160 3.0-liter V6 Turbo engines), and in 2016 we started the production of F161 engines to be installed on the Levante, Maserati’s SUV. We have a multi-year arrangement with Maserati to provide V6 engines, up to 2020. Under the framework agreement, Maserati is required to compensate us for certain costs we may incur, such as penalties from our suppliers, if there is a shortfall in the annual volume of engines actually purchased by Maserati in that year. In 2019, we sold approximately 14,000 V6 engines to Maserati in four different versions, ranging from 330 hp to 450 hp.
In order to meet the V6 volumes and specifications requirements, in 2012 we built a dedicated assembly facility at Maranello with a much higher level of industrialization compared to production of our V12 engines. Due to the larger volumes and product specifications, our make-or-buy strategy for the production of F160 V6 and F161 V6 engines also differs from the strategy applicable to the production of Ferrari engines. The vast majority of the engine components are sourced externally from our panel of suppliers (see “—Procurement”) and then assembled in Maranello on our highly automated V6 assembly line.
Procurement
We source a variety of components, raw materials, supplies, utilities, logistics and other services from numerous suppliers. We recognize the contribution of our suppliers to our success in pursuing excellence in terms of luxury and performance, therefore we carefully select suppliers that are able to meet our high standards.
For the sourcing of certain key components with highly technological specifications, we have developed strongly synergic relationships with some of our suppliers, which we consider “key strategic innovation partners”. We currently rely on several key strategic innovation partners, including for the supply of transmissions and brakes. We have also developed strong relationships with other industrial partners for bodyworks and chassis manufacturing and for powertrain and transmissions, among other things. Pursuant to our make-or-buy strategy, we generally retain production in-house whenever we have an interest in preserving or developing technological know-how or when we believe that outsourcing would impair the efficiency and flexibility of our production process. Therefore, we continue to invest in the skills and processes required for low-volume production of components that we believe improve product quality.
For the year ended December 31, 2019, the purchases from our ten largest suppliers by value accounted for approximately 20 percent of total procurement costs, and no supplier accounted for more than 10 percent of our total procurement costs.

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Sales and After-Sales
Our commercial team, which includes approximately 400 employees at December 31, 2019, is organized in four geographic areas covering our principal regional end markets: (i) EMEA, which is also responsible for South Africa and India, (ii) Americas, (iii) Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, and (iv) Rest of APAC (which includes the rest of Asia and Oceania).
Dealer network
We sell our cars exclusively through a network of authorized dealers (with the exception of one-offs and track cars which we sell directly to end clients). In our larger markets we act as importer either through wholly owned subsidiaries or, in China, through a subsidiary partly owned by a local partner, and we sell the cars to dealers for resale to end clients. In smaller markets we generally sell the cars to a single importer/dealer. We regularly assess the composition of our dealer network in order to maintain the highest level of quality. At December 31, 2019, our network comprised 166 dealers operating 187 points of sale.
We do not presently own dealerships and, while our strategy does not contemplate owning dealerships, we retain flexibility to adapt to evolving market requirements over time.

We believe that our careful and strict selection of the dealers that sell our cars is a key factor for promoting the integrity and success of our brand. Our selection criteria are based on the candidates’ reputation, financial stability and proven track records. We are also intent on selecting dealers who are able to provide a purchase and after-sales experience aimed at exceeding our clients’ high expectations. Furthermore, our dealers are committed to promote and market our cars in a manner intended to preserve the Ferrari brand integrity and to ensure the highest level of client satisfaction.
While dealers may hold multiple franchises, we enjoy a high degree of prominence and level of representation at each point of sale, where most of the client interface and retail experience is exclusive to Ferrari. Our network and business development team works with all dealers to ensure our operating standards are met. Our rigorous design, layout and corporate identity guidelines guarantee uniformity of the Ferrari image and client interface. Through our in-house Ferrari Academy we provide training to dealers for sales, after-sales and technical activities. This ensures that our dealer network delivers a consistent level of market leading standards across diverse cultural environments. We train and monitor dealers intensively. We collect and observe data relating to their profitability and financial health in order to prevent or mitigate any adverse experience for clients arising from a dealer ceasing to do business or experiencing financial difficulties. Our regional representatives visit dealerships regularly to monitor and measure performance and compliance with our operating standards. We have the right to terminate dealer relationships in a variety of circumstances, including failure to meet performance or financial standards, or failure to comply with our guidelines. Dealer turnover is relatively low, reflecting the strength of the franchise and our selection processes, but is sufficient to guarantee an orderly renewal over time and to stimulate the network’s health and performance.
We provide a suggested retail price or a maximum retail price for all of our cars, but each dealer is free to negotiate different prices with clients and to provide financing. Although many of our clients in certain markets purchase our cars from dealers without financing, we provide direct or indirect finance and leasing services to retail clients and to dealers. (See “—Financial Services”).

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The total number of our dealers as well as their geographical distribution tends to closely reflect the development or expected development of sales volumes to end clients in our various markets over time. The chart below sets forth the geographic distribution of our 187 points of sale at December 31, 2019:
Our sales are diversified across our dealer network, with the largest dealer representing approximately 2.5 percent of sales, and our 15 largest dealers representing 22.5 percent of sales.
As part of our supply and demand management, we determine allocations based on various metrics including expected developments in the relevant market, the number of cars sold historically by the various dealers, current order book of dealers and the average waiting time of the end client in the relevant market. Our order reporting system allows us to collect and monitor information regarding end client orders and is able to assist us in production planning, allocation and dealer management.
Parts
We supply parts for current and older models of Ferrari to our authorized dealer network.     In addition to substitution of spare parts during the life of the car, sales are driven by clients’ demand for parts to customize their cars and maximize performance, particularly after a change in ownership and to compete in the Ferrari Challenge and other client races. We also supply parts to Ferrari models currently out of production, with stocks dating back to 1995. The stock of parts for even older models is currently owned and managed by a third party which in some cases also manufactures out-of-stock parts based on our design. The sale of parts is a profitable component of our product mix and it is expected to benefit from the increase in the number of Ferrari cars in circulation.
After-sales
Dealers provide after-sales services to clients, either at facilities adjacent to showrooms, or in stand-alone service points across 230 facilities worldwide. After-sales activities are very important for our business to ensure the client’s continued enjoyment of the car and the experience. Therefore, we enforce a strict quality control on our dealers’ services activities and we provide continued training and support to the dealers’ service personnel. This includes our team of “flying doctors,” Ferrari engineers who regularly travel to service centers to address difficult technical issues for our clients.
We sell cars together with a scheduled program of recommended maintenance services in order to ensure that these cars are maintained to the highest standards to meet our strict requirements for performance and safety.
Our 7 Year Maintenance Program (free of charge for customers since 2011 on any new cars) is offered to further strengthen customer retention in the official network and has been coupled with the possibility to extend the statutory warranty term of our standard warranty terms through the Power warranty coverage program up to the 15th year of life of the car.

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After the 7th year of life, a car (if in perfect maintenance condition) can be included in the Main Power warranty coverage program (Maintenance and Power) through to the car’s 15th year of life. Between the 10th year of life and the Classiche eligibility (20 year old car) Ferrari provides its customers, in addition to standard maintenance items, also certain specific maintenance kits (Ferrari Premium) to preserve car performance and safety systems. When a car follows the full maintenance program up to the 20th year of life, it automatically obtains the Ferrari Classiche certification.
While we do not have any direct involvement in pre-owned car sales, we seek to support a healthy secondary market in order to promote the value of our brand, benefit our clients and facilitate sales of new cars. Our dealers provide an inspection service for clients seeking to sell their car which involves detailed checks on the car and a certification on which the client can rely, covering, among other things, the authenticity of the car, the conformity to original technical specifications, and the state of repair. Furthermore, we offer owners of classic Ferrari cars maintenance and restoration services through the 73 “Officina Ferrari Classiche” workshops, part of our service network.
In addition, owners of our classic cars can seek assistance in car and engine restorations at our Ferrari Classiche department in Maranello.

Client Relations
Our clients are the backbone of our business together with our brand and our technology. We do not promote our brand or our cars through general advertising. Our main brand marketing and promotional activities have two principal targets.
Firstly, we target the general public. Our most significant effort in this respect is centered on our racing activities and the resonance of Scuderia Ferrari (see “—Formula 1 Activities”). We also engage in other brand-promotional activities, including participation in motor shows and other public events.
Secondly, we target existing and prospective clients, seeking to promote clients’ knowledge of our products, and their enjoyment of our cars both on road and on track, and to foster long-term relationships with our clients, which is key to our success. In 2019, more than 70 percent of our new cars were sold to Ferrari owners.
By purchasing our cars, clients become part of a select community sharing a primary association with the Ferrari image and we foster this sense of fellowship with a number of initiatives. We strive to maximize the experience of our clients throughout their period of interaction with Ferrari - from first contact, through purchasing decision process, to waiting-time management and ownership.
During the fourth quarter of 2019, we launched the MyFerrari App, an app created to enhance our clients’ connection to the Ferrari world through the direct distribution of tailored content. This new channel enables clients to directly access features and services, expanding their relationship with both the brand and their preferred official Ferrari dealer.
Client events
We organize a number of client events in Maranello as well as other locations.

Our factory in Maranello is the core of our client engagement strategy and a symbolic hub attracting clients and prospects worldwide. Upon invitation, clients and prospects can visit the factory, witness some of its workings and experience several Ferrari core values such as heritage, exclusivity and customization. At the factory, clients also have the opportunity to configure their cars through our personalization and bespoke program (see “—Sports and GT Range, Special Series and Icona: Ferrari Line-Up Strategic Pillars—Personalization Offer”).

Every new model launch is carefully staged and selected clients and prospects have preferential access to the new car. The new model presentation begins with the release of images providing a preliminary view of its design. Clients are then invited to a preview or world premiere. A public model presentation generally follows at motor shows where clients are provided access to the Ferrari stand. Further country and regional events follow before delivery of the first cars to dealers.

In May 2019, clients from all over the world were invited to the world premiere of our first series production Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) - the SF90 Stradale - with a presentation and gala dinner hosted at the Fiorano race circuit.

    

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In September 2019, Ferrari launched “Universo Ferrari” exhibition, the first ever immersive exhibition dedicated to the world of Ferrari, set in a dedicated location overlooking the Fiorano Circuit. This new event format hosted the premieres of two new Spider models - the 812 GTS and F8 Spider, and had over 14,000 attendees including clients, prospective clients, and fans.
    
In November 2019, clients were invited to the Stadio dei Marmi in Rome for the world premiere of the new Ferrari Roma, an event in the “La Nuova Dolce Vita” spirit of the new luxury model.

Driving events
Driving events serve the dual objective of allowing clients to enjoy the best emotions of driving a Ferrari, and to foster client loyalty and repeat purchases by creating enhanced opportunities to experience new Ferrari cars. The Ferrari community is a passionate group supported by a wide array of experiences tailored to the dreams of modern car owners, classic car connoisseurs, and racetrack enthusiasts.
We see nurturing our clients’ passion for driving as a key asset for our future commercial success, particularly in markets where racing traditions are less pronounced. We offer to our prospective and existing clients interested in new Ferrari models our Esperienza Ferrari program, which consists of driving sessions with a team of highly qualified and skilled Ferrari instructors and technicians. In addition we also offer to our clients on-track driving courses (Corso Pilota), catering to different levels of skill and experience and teaching essential driving skills for high performance cars. In our newer markets, such as China, we also offer complimentary driving courses on-track to any new car buyer.
In addition to on-track racing, we organize various on-the-road driving events, both under proprietary formats (Ferrari Cavalcade, including the Cavalcade Classiche and the International Edition) and with our own branded presence within established driving events. For example, in the Ferrari Tribute to Mille Miglia and the Ferrari Tribute to Targa Florio modern Ferrari cars take part in their own dedicated competition before the start of the main racing events.
Another exclusive driving experience was initiated in October 2019, led by experts of the Ferrari Classiche Academy, and aimed at classic car enthusiasts and clients interested in learning more about Ferrari’s Classiche certification program and the storied archives at our Officine Classiche restoration department. The initiative also offers the opportunity to experience on-track driving of these celebrated models on our own Fiorano race circuit.
GT Racing activities
In addition to several track day activities, organized by local sales departments and dealers to allow clients to enjoy their cars on ad-hoc rented tracks, Ferrari has a central department responsible for professionally organizing races and racing courses, Corse Clienti. The Corse Clienti activities take place on some of the world’s most famous race tracks, and include both competitive races, such as the Ferrari Challenge Championships (Europe, UK, North America and the Asia-Pacific series), and non-competitive events, such as with XX Programme and F1Clienti activities, dedicated to clients who own respectively, non-homologated GT laboratory cars and F1 single-seaters previously used by the Scuderia Ferrari in the Formula 1 Championship. Ferrari Challenge and XX Programme/F1 Clienti events are run together in the so-called Ferrari Racing Days, which are open to the public and intended for a wider audience, and in 2019 were held in Laguna Seca, Shanghai and Nurburgring.
These track activities reach their climax at the Finali Mondiali, an annual gathering of all Ferrari client racing programs under Corse Clienti, which last year took place from October 24 to 27 at the Mugello Circuit to celebrate the winners of the Challenge Series. The new Ferrari 488 Challenge EVO and 488 GT3 EVO were unveiled to our sporting customers from all over the world, while over the weekend 43,000 spectators in the stands were treated to the traditional Ferrari Show, with the 488 GTE celebrating 70 years of Ferrari victories at Le Mans, and the F60 celebrating the 90th anniversary of Scuderia Ferrari.
During the 2019 season, the Competizioni GT department supported both the Ferrari 488 GTE and the Ferrari GT3 cars that competed in the most important international championships. The 488 GTE, with a team composed of Alessandro Pier Guidi, James Calado and Daniel Serra, won the Le Mans 24 Hours competition in the WEC, and the same team also won the Petit Le Mans competition, the last round of the IMSA series. The 488 GT3, gave clear proof of its exceptional competitiveness and reliability, allowing Ferrari to grow its impressive record of victories, with 285 since its debut and 67 titles across various international series. In 2019 the new program, Club Competizioni GT, was successfully launched. The initiative is aimed at bringing back to the track the most beautiful Ferrari GT racing cars of the last 30 years and is dedicated to clients who love on-track racing and wish to unleash their cars’ maximum potential, without short, time-constrained testing sessions and outside of competitive race settings.

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Ferrari Classiche
The Ferrari Classiche department aims to provide Ferrari customers with a point of reference for managing their historic Ferrari vehicles with the objective of keeping as many of these classic cars on the road as possible. Services include the certification of the authenticity of classic Ferrari cars and vehicles of particular historical relevance, the management of Ferrari restoration and repair activities, as well as the management of Ferrari spare parts, including when these are no longer available on the market. The department also provides advice on repair operations carried out on Ferrari Classiche cars within its network.
Ferrari Classiche aims to create a platform of information and technical expertise to preserve and enhance over time the awareness and value of Ferrari’s heritage and brand. We view the surviving Ferrari vehicles of historical value as the tangible legacy and incarnation of our brand. The Ferrari Classiche department also supports and encourages the direct participation of clients in strategic historical events.
The Ferrari Classiche department in Maranello consists of an office of specialists and a workshop in which historic cars are restored and repaired. In addition, in order to provide an enhanced service to owners away from the proximity of the main workshop in Maranello, starting in 2017 Ferrari Classiche authorized a new service network with 73 “Officina Ferrari Classiche” workshops to date, primarily for vehicle repairs and the certifications’ inspections or revalidation, and the network is expected to expand in future periods.
The originality of the car with respect to the initial specifications is checked via a technical inspection, performed either at the Ferrari Classiche facility in Maranello or at an authorized Officina Ferrari Classiche, and benefits from a comprehensive archive containing drawings of each of the individual chassis and details of historical components. Based on the evidence gathered during this inspection, the car is then presented to an expert committee, chaired by the founder’s son, Piero Ferrari, for the certification.
At the Maranello workshop, Ferrari Classiche carries out full restorations using either original components and spare parts or replicas manufactured in accordance with the original specifications. Our service offers our clients the opportunity to restore any classic Ferrari to its original pristine conditions.
The Ferrari Classiche department also provides basic technical and instructional support to the Ferrari Classiche Academy, a new driving school project that launched in 2019 for vintage Ferrari cars, including the Ferrari 308 and 550 Maranello.

Formula 1 Activities
Participation in the Formula 1 World Championship with Scuderia Ferrari is the core element of our marketing effort and an important source of technological innovation for the engineering, development and production of our sports, GT and special series cars. The Formula 1 World Championship is the pinnacle of motorsports with a total global TV cumulative audience of 1.922 billion in 2019, the highest number since 2012, which represents an increase of 9% compared to 2018. In terms of unique television viewers, during 2019 the sport remained stable in the top 20 markets* at approximately 405.5 million (+0.3 percent) (Source: Formula 1 Press Office).
In 2019 the number of users across Formula 1’s social media platforms again grew significantly, with the total number of followers on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube reaching 24.9m (+32.9 percent compared to 2018). Again in 2019, Formula 1’s social media channels were the fastest growing of all major sports leagues in the world.
Formula 1 cars rely on advanced technology, powerful hybrid engines and cutting edge aerodynamics. While Europe is the sport’s traditional base, longstanding non-European venues such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, Japan, Mexico and the United States have recently been joined by racing venues in China, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, Singapore and Azerbaijan. A new venue in Vietnam has been launched in 2020, while the Dutch Grand Prix has returned after several decades. This provides participants in the Formula 1 World Championship exceptional visibility on the world stage.



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(*)     Top 20 markets are, in alphabetical order, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, China, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, Pan Africa, Pan Latin America, Pan Middle East, Pan Russia, Poland, Russia, United Kingdom and United States.

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Scuderia Ferrari has been racing in the Formula 1 World Championship since the series was launched in 1950, and won its first Grand Prix in 1951. We are the only team that has competed in each season since launch and the oldest and most successful in the history of Formula 1, with 238 Grand Prix wins. Throughout our racing history, we have won 15 Drivers’ Championships and 16 Constructors’ Championships, more than any other team. Many of the best known drivers in the sport’s history have raced in Scuderia Ferrari’s distinctive red cars including Alberto Ascari, Juan-Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Gilles Villeneuve, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Raikkonen. Our drivers’ line-up in 2019 comprised four-time World Champion Sebastian Vettel, who joined Ferrari at the beginning of 2015, and Charles Leclerc, the first graduate of the Ferrari Driver Academy training scheme to race for our Formula 1 race team.
For Scuderia Ferrari, 2019 was very much a year of reorganization, with many team members taking on new roles, including Mattia Binotto, who stepped up to the role of Team Principal, and one half of the driver line-up was renewed. During the past season, Scuderia Ferrari achieved three wins, nine pole positions, 19 podiums and 504 points. Its drivers led for a total of 406 laps, approximately a third of the total number of race laps over the entire season, and the team finished second in the Constructors’ Championship.
Participation in the Formula 1 World Championship is regulated by bilateral Team Agreements entered into between Formula 1 World Championship Limited (FOWC), Formula 1's commercial rights holder, and each competing Formula 1 racing team (including Scuderia Ferrari) and by regulations issued by the Federation Internationale de l’Automobile (FIA), the motorsport’s governing body.
The Team Agreements cover the 2013-2020 racing seasons and govern the terms by which the racing teams take their share of commercial profits. The FIA sets both the sporting and technical regulations for the competitions. In return for their participation in Formula 1 races the teams receive a share of a prize fund based on the profits earned from Formula 1 related commercial activities managed by FOWC, including in particular, television broadcasting royalties and other sources. Shares in the prize fund are paid to the teams, largely based on the relative ranking of each team in the championship. We use our share of these payments to defray part of the costs associated with Scuderia Ferrari, including the costs of designing and producing the race cars each year and the costs associated with managing a racing team including the salaries of the drivers, who are typically among the most highly paid athletes in the world. New regulations were introduced in 2019, relating to aerodynamics, drivers’ weight, fuel allowance and the requirement for drivers to wear biometric gloves for additional safety. The discussions to establish the sport's regulations which will apply from 2021 onwards continued during 2019. The new rules were approved by the World Council on October 31, 2019, with the understanding that they will be subject to further discussions between F1, the FIA and the teams over the coming months, which may lead to further changes between now and 2021. Please see “Item 3.D. Risk Factors—Our revenues from Formula 1 activities may decline and our related expenses may grow”.

Improvements in technology and, from time to time, changes in regulation require the design and production of a new racing car every year. Therefore, in addition to our long-term research and development efforts, we begin designing our cars each year in the Spring, in anticipation of the start of the racing season the following March. While the chassis we build each year are designed to be used throughout the racing season, the majority of other components fitted on our cars are adjusted from race to race depending on the characteristics of the circuits.
To maximize the performance, efficiency and safety of our Formula 1 cars, while complying with the strict technical rules and restrictions set out by the FIA, our research and development team plays a key role in the development of our road cars and their engines. We often transfer technologies initially developed for racing to our road cars. Examples include steering wheel paddles for gear-shifting, the use and development of composite materials, which makes cars lighter and faster, and technology related to hybrid propulsion.
    Our road cars (especially our sports car models) have benefited from the know-how acquired in the wind tunnel by our racing car development teams, enjoying greater stability as they reach high speeds on and off the track. Our research and development team focused on combining minimal lap times with maximum efficiency, leading to advances in kinetic energy recovery system, or ERS, technology. Current advanced ERS feature two electric motor/generator units in every car, which allow the car to recover, store and deploy energy generated both by the vehicle during braking and by the exhaust gases through a turbocharger.
The high brand visibility we achieve through participation in the Formula 1 World Championship has historically enabled us to benefit from significant sponsorship. Philip Morris International has been Scuderia Ferrari’s partner for over forty years and currently remains our Title Partner. Starting from October 2018, the “Mission Winnow” logo has appeared on the cars’ livery and drivers’ overalls. Mission Winnow is a Philip Morris International global campaign aimed at driving change by constantly searching for better ways of doing things. Shell has also been a long term Sponsor and Technical Partner of Scuderia Ferrari (supporting the team continuously since 1996). The other partners of the Team are divided into three different categories

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(Sponsor, Official Supplier and Supplier) and include Ray-Ban, Kaspersky lab, UPS, Lenovo, Weichai, Mahle, Hublot, AMD, OMR and Alfa Romeo among others. Visibility and placement of a sponsor’s logo reflects the level of sponsorship fees. Historically, our sponsors have sought advertising opportunities on the chassis of our cars, on clothes worn by our team members and drivers, and in the right to associate their brand to Ferrari in their marketing activities and communications.
We use the platform provided by Formula 1 for a number of associated marketing initiatives, such as the hosting of clients and other key partners in Ferrari Formula 1 Club Hospitality to watch and experience the Grand Prix races with Scuderia Ferrari, and our Formula 1 drivers’ participation in various promotional activities for our road cars. We often sell older Formula 1 cars to customers for use in amateur racing or collection.
More generally, Formula 1 racing allows us to promote and market our brand and technology to a global audience without resorting to traditional advertising activities, therefore preserving the aura of exclusivity around our brand and limiting the marketing costs that we, as a company operating in the luxury industry, would otherwise incur.
The Mugello Circuit
We acquired the international Mugello circuit in Scarperia, near Florence, in 1988. We have renovated its buildings, 5.2 km race track and other testing and racing facilities, making Mugello what we believe to be one of the world’s finest circuits of its type, with FIA Grade 1 and FIM Grade A certifications, the highest level of homologation for a racetrack.
We promote the Mugello circuit to event organizers who regularly rent the circuit to host leading car and motorbike races, including the MotoGP World Championship since 1992. In 2019, the circuit hosted 16 race weekends and 250 days of track activities. Almost 121,000 spectators attended the 2019 MotoGP World Championship (71,000 on the Sunday), one of the largest audiences ever recorded in the 29 years of the Mugello circuit’s history.
In 2011, the Mugello circuit won its fifth “Best Grand Prix” award, the highest honor given in the motor sport world to MotoGP organizers. The Mugello circuit is the only track race to have received this award five times.

Brand Activities
Ferrari is one of the world’s leading luxury brands. We engage in brand development and protection activities through licensing contracts with selected partners, retail activities through a chain of franchised or directly managed stores, licensed theme parks and the development of a line of apparel and accessories sold exclusively in our monobrand stores and on our website www.store.ferrari.com.
Ferrari owns and manages two museums, one in Maranello and one in Modena, which attracted more than 600,000 visitors in 2019.
Licensing, Entertainment and Theme Parks
We enter into license agreements with a number of licensees for the design, development and production of Ferrari branded products.
We carefully select our licensees through a rigorous process and we contractually seek to ensure that our brand and intellectual property are protected and that the products which will eventually bear our brand are of adequate quality, appearance and market positioning. Ferrari branded products include consumer electronics, sportswear, toys, video games, watches and other accessories, as well as theme parks.
In 2019, we commenced our participation in eSports (i.e., electronic sports) with the launch of an entertainment platform and the selection of a team which took part in two of the main world championships: F1 Pro Series 2019 and SRO E-Sport GT Series, which our team won.

A significant portion of our revenues from licensing activities consists of royalties we receive in connection with Ferrari World, our theme park in Abu Dhabi. Ferrari World opened on Yas Island, on the North East side of Abu Dhabi’s mainland, in 2010. Ferrari World’s iconic sleek red roof is directly inspired by the classic double curve side profile of the Ferrari GT body, spanning 200,000 square meters and carrying the largest Ferrari logo ever created. Ferrari World Abu Dhabi offers an all-around Ferrari experience to children and adults alike.

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Our second theme park, Ferrari Land Portaventura, opened in April 2017 near Barcelona, and includes Red Force, the tallest and fastest roller-coaster in Europe. In the long-term we aim to open one theme park in each of the main geographic areas where we operate, including North America and Asia.
Retail
Through our network of stores (franchised or directly managed), we offer a wide range of Scuderia Ferrari branded products, including a line of apparel and accessories exclusively sold in our stores and on our website. All products sold in our stores and on our website are either directly sourced from our selected network of suppliers or manufactured by our licensees.
As at December 31, 2019, there were a total of 44 retail Ferrari stores, including those in Maranello, Milan, Rome, Macau, Miami, Los Angeles, Johannesburg, Dubai and Abu Dhabi, of which 24 are franchised stores (including 15 Ferrari Store Junior) and 20 stores owned and operated by us.
We require all franchisees to operate our monobrand stores according to our standards. Stores are designed, decorated, furnished and stocked according to our directions and specifications.
We use multiple criteria to select our franchisees, including know-how, financial condition, sales network and market access. Generally, we require that applicants meet certain minimum working capital requirements and have the requisite business facilities and resources. We typically enter into a standard franchising agreement with our franchisees. Pursuant to this agreement, the franchisee is authorized to sell our products at a suggested retail price. In exchange, we provide them with our products, the benefit of our marketing platform and association with our corporate identity.
Brand Diversification Strategy
In November 2019, management presented the principles of its brand diversification strategy, recognizing Ferrari as a unique brand with a dual identity: exclusive, but also inclusive in relation to our F1 fan communities . To ensure long term profitable growth, Ferrari intends to focus its offering on product categories that enhance the vibrancy and vitality of the brand through the following pillars:
“Brand Extension” pillar, a refined collection of products that will embody Ferrari’s DNA;

“Entertainment” pillar, to reach out to a wider and younger customer base while leveraging Ferrari’s unique racing roots; and

“Car Adjacencies” pillar, a collection of exclusive luxury products and services to complement the Ferrari experience.


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Financial Services
We offer retail client financing for the purchase of our cars and dealer financing through the operations of Ferrari Financial Services (“FFS”). We offer retail client financing:
directly in the United States through our fully owned subsidiary Ferrari Financial Services Inc. (“FFS Inc”);
through our associate Ferrari Financial Services GmbH in certain markets in EMEA (primarily the UK, Germany and Switzerland); and
through various partnerships in other European countries and other major international markets, such as Japan and Australia.
We also offer direct dealer financing in the United States through FFS Inc.
Through FFS, we offer a range of flexible, bespoke financial and ancillary services to clients (both current and new) interested in purchasing a wide range of cars, from our current product range of sports, GT and special series cars, to older pre-owned and classic models. FFS also provides special financing arrangements to a selected group of our most valuable and loyal customers.
Starting in 2016, FFS Inc has pursued a strategy of autonomous financing for our financial services activities in the United States, further reducing dependency on intercompany funding and increasing the portion of self-liquidating debt with various securitization transactions.
At December 31, 2019, the consolidated financial services portfolio was €966 million and originated in the United States.


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Intellectual Property
We own a number of registered designs and utility patents. We expect the number to grow as we continue to pursue technological innovations and to develop our design and brand activities.
We file patent applications in Europe, and around the world (including in the United States) to protect technology and improvements considered important to our business. No single patent is material to our business as a whole.
We also own a number of registered trademarks, designs and patents, including approximately 493 trademarks (word or figurative), registered in several countries and across a number classes. In particular, we ensure that the maximum level of protection is given to the following iconic trademarks, for which we own approximately 4,000 applications/registrations in approximately 140 countries, in most of the main classes for goods and services:
“Ferrari” (word)
“Ferrari” logotype:
    
the “Prancing Horse” (figurative):
the trademark (figurative):
    
the racing shield (figurative):

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Scuderia Ferrari (word and figurative):
The names of our sports, GT, special series and Icona car models and Formula 1 single-seater models are also registered as trademarks (and logotypes) and we also register their domain names and the cars’ design.
The protection of intellectual property is also increasingly important in connection with our design and brand activities. Therefore, we adopt and follow internal processes and procedures to ensure both that all necessary protection is given to our intellectual property rights and that no third party rights are infringed by us. In addition, we are particularly active in seeking to limit any counterfeiting activities regarding our Ferrari branded products around the world. To reach this goal we closely monitor trademark applications and domain names worldwide, actively interact with national and local authorities and customs and avail ourselves of a network of experienced outside counsels.

Regulatory Matters
We manufacture and sell our cars around the world and our operations are therefore subject to a variety of laws and regulations relating to environmental, health and safety and other matters. These laws regulate our cars, including their emissions, fuel consumption and safety, as well as our manufacturing facilities and operations, setting strict requirements on emissions, treatment and disposal of waste, water and hazardous materials and prohibitions on environmental contamination. Our vehicles, together with the engines that power them, must comply with extensive regional, national and local laws and regulations, and industry self-regulations (including those that regulate vehicle safety). However, we currently benefit from certain regulatory exemptions, because we qualify as an SVM or similar designation in certain jurisdictions where we sell cars. As outlined below, these exemptions provide a range of benefits, from less stringent emissions caps and compliance date extensions, to exemptions from zero emission vehicle production requirements.
We are in substantial compliance with the relevant regulatory requirements affecting our facilities and products around the world. We constantly monitor such requirements and adjust our operations as necessary to remain in compliance.

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Approval and market surveillance
In May 2018 the European Parliament and European Council issued Regulation 2018/858, establishing the new framework for the approval and market surveillance of motor vehicles (repealing Directive 2007/46/EC). While the previous regulatory framework of Directive 2007/46/EC was focused on technical standards, the new regulation has a broader scope by including market surveillance requirements in order to ensure the enforcement of applicable standards. The key objectives of Regulation 2018/858 are: enhancing the independence of technical services (i.e. the approved testing laboratories) as well as improving the quality of the testing of vehicles and setting stricter requirements for technical services; introducing market surveillance in order to verify the conformity of vehicles on the market to the applicable standards, and requiring corrective measures in case of non-compliance or where a vehicle poses a safety risk or a risk to the environment; strengthening the type approval system with more stringent oversight by the EU. The Commission has the power to suspend, restrict or withdraw the designation of technical services, to order recalls, and to impose financial penalties.
Greenhouse gas/CO2/fuel economy legislation
Current European legislation limits fleet average greenhouse gas emissions for new passenger cars to 130 grams of CO2 per kilometer. Due to our SVM status under EU regulations we benefit from a derogation from the 130 grams per kilometer emissions requirement available to small volume and niche manufacturers. Pursuant to that derogation, we were instead required to meet yearly CO2 emissions targets, beginning in 2012, reaching a target level of 290 grams per kilometer in 2016 for our fleet of EU-registered vehicles that year. Despite global shipments exceeding 10,000 vehicles in 2019, Ferrari continues to qualify as an SVM under EU regulations, because its total number of registered vehicles in the EU per year is less than 10,000 vehicles.
In 2014, the European Union set new 2020 emissions targets, calling for 95 percent of a manufacturer’s full fleet of new passenger cars registered in the EU in 2020 to average 95 grams of CO2 per kilometer, rising to 100 percent of the fleet in 2021. The 2014 regulation extends the small volume and niche manufacturers derogation. Pursuant to the derogation approved by the European Commission following our petition, we are required to meet certain CO2 emissions target levels in the 2017-2021 period, reaching a target of 277 grams per kilometer in 2021 for our fleet of EU-registered cars that year.
In 2019, the European Union set new 2025 and 2030 emissions targets, calling for respectively a 15% and 37.5% reduction of the target in 2021. An incentive mechanism for zero and low emission vehicles was also introduced. This new regulation (EU 2019/631) continues to state that it is not appropriate to use the same method to determine the emissions reduction targets for large volume manufacturers as for small volume manufacturers that are considered as independent. Therefore, SVMs have the possibility to continue to apply for alternative emissions reduction and are required to submit the application at the latest by 31 October of the first year in which the derogation shall apply.
The regulation 2019/631 sets out new EU rules on monitoring and reporting of average emissions: the Commission will have to ensure the real-world representativeness of the CO2 emission values based on data from the fuel consumption meters installed in new cars and will be obliged to publish the performance of each manufacturer. In addition, the Commission will have to evaluate the possibility of a common methodology for the assessment and the consistent data reporting of full life-cycle emissions from cars. The regulation provides also specific provisions on in-service conformity testing and on detecting strategies which may artificially improve the CO2 performance.
In the United States, both Corporate Average Fuel Economy (“CAFE”) standards and greenhouse gas emissions (“GHG”) standards are imposed on manufacturers of passenger cars. Because the control of fuel economy is closely correlated with the control of GHG emissions, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”) have sought to harmonize fuel economy regulations with the regulation of GHG vehicle emissions (primarily CO2). These agencies have set the federal standards for passenger cars and light trucks to meet an estimated combined average fuel economy (CAFE) level that is equivalent to 35.5 miles per U.S. gallon for 2016 model year vehicles (250 grams CO2 per mile). In August 2012, these agencies extended this program to cars and light trucks for model years 2017 through 2025, targeting an estimated combined average emissions level of 163 grams per mile in 2025, which is equivalent to 54.5 miles per gallon.
In August 2018 the NHTSA and the EPA issued a common proposal, the “Safer Affordable Fuel-Efficient (SAFE) Vehicles Rule for model years 2021-2026 Passenger Cars and Light Trucks” (SAFE Vehicles Rule). The SAFE Vehicles Rule, if finalized, would amend certain existing CAFE and tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions standards for passenger cars and light trucks and establish new standards, all covering model years 2021 through 2026. More specifically, NHTSA is proposing new CAFE standards for model years 2022 through 2026 and amending its 2021 model year CAFE standards because they are no longer deemed to be maximum feasible standards, and EPA is proposing to amend its carbon dioxide emissions standards for model years 2021 through 2025 because they are no longer deemed appropriate and reasonable in addition to establishing new

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standards for model year 2026. The authorities’ stated preferred alternative is to retain the model year 2020 standards (specifically, the footprint target curves for passenger cars and light trucks) for both programs through model year 2026, but comment has been sought on a range of alternatives. The SAFE Vehicles Rule has not been adopted in final form as of the date of this filing.
On September 27, 2019 EPA and NHTSA issued the “Safer Affordable Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Rule Part One: One National Program” 84 Fed. Reg. 51310. These rules would exert federal preemption authority under the CAFE statute over California’s ability to regulate greenhouse gases and would revoke the current EPA waiver under the Clean Air Act which had authorized California to regulate GHG from motor vehicles. The state of California along with other states and certain NGOs filed challenges to these rules in both US District Court for the District of Columbia and the United States Court of Appeals D.C. Circuit. The litigation is pending and the impact on Ferrari of the rule and the challenges cannot be determined until the conclusion of the litigation.
Under current regulation, for model years 2017-2025, the EPA allows a SVM, defined as manufacturer with less than 5,000 yearly unit sales in the United States, to petition for a less stringent standard. The EPA has granted us SVM status. We have therefore petitioned the EPA for alternative standards for the model years 2017-2021 and 2022-2025, which are aligned to our technical and economic capabilities. On July 31, 2019 EPA published a Notice in the U.S. Federal Register (Federal Register /Vol. 84, No. 147) that in part proposed that Ferrari be permitted an alternative standard substantially in line with the alternative standard that Ferrari proposed to EPA for model years 2017-2021. EPA approved Ferrari proposed standards for model years 2017-2020, whereas it requires a small reduction of the model year 2021 standard.
In September 2016, we petitioned NHTSA for recognition as an independent manufacturer of less than 10,000 vehicles produced globally, and we proposed alternative CAFE standards, for model years 2017, 2018 and 2019. Then, in December, 2017, we amended the petition by proposing alternative CAFE standards for model years 2016, 2017 and 2018 instead, covering also the 2016 model year. NHTSA have not yet responded to our petition. If our petitions are rejected, we will not be able to benefit from the more favorable CAFE standards levels which we have petitioned for and this may require us to purchase additional CAFE credits in order to comply with applicable CAFE standards. Starting from 2019, we are no longer considered to be an SVM by NHTSA, because our global production exceeded 10,000 vehicles, and therefore we are required to apply Large Vehicle Manufacturer (“LVM”) standards, and consequently, to purchase further CAFE credits.
The state of California has been granted special authority under the Clean Air Act to set its own vehicle emission standards. In February 2010, the California Air Resources Board (“CARB”) enacted regulations under which manufacturers of vehicles for model years 2012-2016 which are in compliance with the EPA greenhouse gas emissions regulations are also deemed to be in compliance with California’s greenhouse gas emission regulations (the so-called “deemed to comply” provision). In November 2012, the CARB extended these rules to include model years 2017-2025. In 2017 CARB performed a technical assessment regarding greenhouse gas standards for model years 2022 through 2025, in parallel with EPA and NHTSA, and confirmed in March 2017 that the standards defined in 2012 may be still considered appropriate. The SAFE Vehicles Rule mentioned above proposes to withdraw the waiver granted to California under the Clean Air Act to establish more stringent standards for vehicle emissions that are applicable to model years 2021 through 2025. In response to the proposed California waiver withdrawal, on December 12, 2018 the CARB amended its existing regulations to clarify that the “deemed to comply” provision shall not be available for model years 2021-2025 if the EPA standards for those years are altered via an amendment of federal regulations. On September 19, 2019, the NHTSA and the EPA established the “One National Program” for fuel economy regulation, taking the first step towards finalizing the agencies’ August 2018 proposal by announcing the EPA’s decision to withdraw California’s waiver of preemption under the Clean Air Act, and by affirming the NHTSA’s authority to set nationally applicable regulatory standards under the preemption provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). The two agencies indicated that they anticipate issuing a final rule on standards in the near future. Ferrari currently avails itself of the “deemed-to-comply” provision to comply with CARB greenhouse gas emissions regulations. Therefore, depending on future developments, it may be necessary to also petition the CARB for SVM alternative standards and to increase the number of tests to be performed in order to follow the CARB specific procedures.

While Europe and the United States lead the implementation of these fuel consumption/CO2 emissions programs, other jurisdictions typically follow on with adoption of similar regulations within a few years thereafter. In China, for example, Stage IV targets a national average fuel consumption of 5.0L/100km by 2020. In September 2017 the Chinese government issued the Administrative Measures on CAFC (Corporate Average Fuel Consumption) and NEV (New Energy Vehicle) Credits. This regulation establishes mandatory CAFC requirements, while providing additional flexibility for SVMs (defined as a manufacturer with less than 2,000 units imported in China per year) that achieve a certain minimum CAFC yearly improvement rate. Manufactures that exceed the CAFC regulatory ceiling are required to purchase NEV credits.

    

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The Stage V regulation, issued on December 31, 2019, sets the fuel consumption fleet average targets for the period 2021-2025, targeting a national average fuel consumption of 4.0 l/100km by 2025. Consequently, an update of the Administrative Measures on CAFC and NEV Credits is awaited, keeping the additional flexibility for SVMs and relaxing the minimum CAFC yearly improvement rate required.

Exhaust and evaporative emissions requirements
In 2007, the European Union adopted a series of updated standards for emissions of other air pollutants from passenger and light commercial vehicles, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and particulates. These standards were phased in from September 2009 (Euro 5) and September 2014 (Euro 6) for passenger cars. In 2016, the European Union established that Euro 6 limits shall be evaluated through Real Driving Emissions (RDE) measurement procedure and a new test-cycle more representative of normal conditions of use (Worldwide Light Vehicles Test Procedure). SVMs (vehicle manufacturers with a worldwide annual production lower than 10,000 units in the year prior to the grant of the type-approval) are required to be compliant with RDE standards starting from 2020 while non-SVMs have been required to comply with RDE standards starting from 2017. We believe all new Ferrari models are fully compliant with RDE requirements. In 2018, the European Commission issued Regulation 2018/1832 for the purpose of improving the emission type approval tests and procedures for light passenger and commercial vehicles, including those for in-service conformity and RDE and introducing devices for monitoring the consumption of fuel and electric energy. Under the EU Regulation, which became applicable in January 2019, among other things, the extended documentation package provided by manufacturers to type approval authorities to describe Auxiliary Emission Strategies (AES) is no longer required to be kept confidential, and the decision whether to allow access to such documentation package is left to national authorities. In addition, the Regulation introduced a new methodology for checking In-Service Conformity (ISC) which includes RDE tests. Compliance is tested based on ISC checks performed by the manufacturer, the granting type approval authority (GTAA), and accredited laboratories or technical services. Test results will be publicly available; in addition, the GTAA will publish annual reports on the ISC checks performed, in order to improve transparency.
On 13th of December 2018, the General Court of the European Union issued a ruling on the action started in mid-2016 by the cities of Madrid, Brussels and Paris on the legality of the Commission introducing in the second RDE Regulation (2016/646) RDE conformity factors (CF) which had the effect of increasing the emission limits. This led to the appeal proceedings during 2019 against the General Court’s judgment that annulled the conformity factors in the RDE legislation. The judgment is currently expected towards the end of 2020.
During 2019, the European Commission announced that it will propose more stringent air pollutant emissions standards for combustion-engine vehicles and indicated 2021 as a target timeline. The Commission created an Advisory Group on Vehicle Emission Standards (AGVES), by joining all the relevant expert groups working on emission legislation, in order to provide technical advice for the development of the post-EURO 6/VI emission standards for motor vehicles.
In the United States, the “Tier 3” Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards issued by the EPA were finalized in April 2014. With Tier 3, the EPA has established more stringent vehicle emission standards, requiring significant reductions in both tailpipe and evaporative emissions, including nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide and particulate matter. The new standards are intended to harmonize with California’s standards for 2015-2025 model years (so called “LEV3”) and will be implemented over the same timeframe as the U.S. federal CAFE and GHG standards for cars and light trucks described above. Because of our status as an operationally independent SVM, Ferrari obtained a longer, more flexible schedule for compliance with these standards under both the EPA and California Program.
In addition, California is moving forward with other stringent emission regulations for vehicles, including the Zero Emission Vehicle regulation (ZEV). The ZEV regulation requires manufacturers to increase their sales of zero emissions vehicles year on year, up to an industry average of approximately 15 percent of vehicles sold in the state by 2025. Because we currently sell fewer than 4,500 units in California, we are exempt from these requirements.
Additional stringency of evaporative emissions also requires more advanced materials and technical solutions to eliminate fuel evaporative losses, all for much longer warranty periods (up to 150,000 miles in the United States).
In response to severe air quality issues in Beijing and other major Chinese cities, in 2016 the Chinese government published a more stringent emissions program (National 6), providing two different level of stringency (6a and 6b) effective starting from 2020. In July 2018 China’s central government launched a three-year plan to reduce air pollution, extending targets for reducing lung-damaging airborne particulate pollution to the country’s 338 largest cities. This plan includes reductions in steel and other industrial capacity, reducing reliance on coal, promoting electric vehicles and cleaner transport, enhancing air-pollution warning systems, and increasing inspections of businesses for air pollution infractions. Several autonomous regions and municipalities have implemented the requirements of the National 6 program even ahead of the mandated deadlines.

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    To comply with current and future environmental rules related to both fuel economy and pollutant emissions, we may have to incur substantial capital expenditure and research and development expenditure to upgrade products and manufacturing facilities, which would have an impact on our cost of production and results of operation.
Vehicle safety
Vehicles sold in Europe are subject to vehicle safety regulations established by the EU or by individual Member States. In 2009, the EU established a simplified framework for vehicle safety, repealing more than 50 directives and replacing them with a single regulation (the “General Safety Regulation”) aimed at incorporating relevant United Nations standards. This incorporation process began in 2012. With respect to regulations on advanced safety systems, the EU now requires new model cars from 2011 onwards to have electronic stability control systems and tire pressure monitoring systems. Regulations on low-rolling resistance tires have also been introduced. The framework is reviewed periodically, and a revised version of the General Safety Regulation is currently under discussion. In May 2018, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a regulation to make certain vehicle safety measures mandatory. On March 25, 2019, the European Parliament, Council and Commission reached a provisional political agreement on the revised General Safety Regulation. As of 2022, new safety technologies will become mandatory in European vehicles, such as Advanced Emergency Braking, Emergency Lane Keeping systems, crash-test improved safety belts, intelligent speed assistance and warning of driver drowsiness or distraction. In 2017 the EU published technical requirements for the Emergency Call (eCall) system, mandatory for new model cars starting from 2018. Starting from July 1, 2019, new types of pure electric vehicle and new types of hybrid electric vehicle capable of operating without propulsion from a combustion engine operating are required to be equipped with an Acoustic Vehicle Alerting System (AVAS), and from July 1, 2021 for all new vehicles of such types, in order to alert pedestrians that a vehicle is moving at low speeds. Starting from 2022, European authorities and United Nation’s Contracting Parties will enforce Regulations on cyber security and over the air updates.
Under U.S. federal law, all vehicles sold in the United States must comply with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (“FMVSS”) promulgated by the NHTSA. Manufacturers need to provide certification that all vehicles are in compliance with those standards. In addition, if a vehicle contains a defect that is related to motor vehicle safety or does not comply with an applicable FMVSS, the manufacturer must notify vehicle owners and provide a remedy at no cost to the owner. Moreover, the Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act (“TREAD”) requires manufacturers to report certain information related to claims and lawsuits involving fatalities and injuries in the United States if alleged to be caused by their vehicles, and other information related to client complaints, warranty claims, and field reports in the United States, as well as information about fatalities and recalls outside the United States. Several new or amended FMVSSs have taken or will take effect during the next few years in certain instances under phase-in schedules that require only a portion of a manufacturer’s fleet to comply in the early years of the phase-in. These include an amendment to the side impact protection requirements that added several new tests and performance requirements (FMVSS No. 214), an amendment to roof crush resistance requirements (FMVSS No. 216), and a rule for ejection mitigation requirements (FMVSS No. 226). U.S. federal law also sets forth minimum sound requirements for hybrid and electric vehicles (FMVSS No. 141). Because of our status as SVM, Ferrari is required to be compliant at the end of the phase-in period.
On May 4, 2016, the NHTSA published a Consent Order Amendment (the “Amended Consent Order”) to the November 3, 2015 Takata Consent Order regarding a defect which may arise in the non-desiccated Takata passenger airbag inflators mounted on certain Ferrari cars. As a result of such Amended Consent Order, Ferrari filed a Part 573 Defect Information Report on May 23, 2016 with the NHTSA and has initiated a global recall relating to certain cars produced between 2008 and 2011. In December 2016, the NHTSA issued a Third Amendment to the Coordinated Remedy Order (“ACRO”) which included the list of Ferrari vehicles sold in the United States up to model year 2017 to be recalled. As a consequence of the ACRO, Ferrari decided to extend the Takata global recall campaign to all vehicles worldwide mounting non-desiccated Takata passenger airbag inflators. In January 2017 Ferrari, in accordance with the Amended Consent Order and the ACRO, filed with the NHTSA a Part 573 Defect Information Report to include model year 2012 Zone A vehicles. In January 2018, Ferrari, in accordance with the Amended Consent Order and the ACRO, also filed with the NHTSA a Part 573 Defect Information Report to include model year 2013 Zone A vehicles. In January 2019, Ferrari, in accordance with the Amended Consent Order and the ACRO, filed with the NHTSA a Part 573 Defect Information Report to include model year 2014 - 2018 vehicles. In January 2020, Ferrari, in accordance with the Amended Consent Order and the ACRO, filed with the NHTSA a Part 573 Defect Information Report to include vehicles that had received the so-called “like-for-like” repair. As a result of the ACRO and the decision to extend the worldwide Takata airbag inflator recall, Ferrari recognized provisions of €37 million in 2016 for the estimated charges for Takata airbag inflators recalls to cover the cost of the worldwide global Takata recall due to uncertainty of recoverability of the costs from Takata. At December 31, 2019 the provision amounted to €16 million.

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In 2016 the NHTSA published Phase II draft guidelines for driver distraction, for portable and aftermarket devices, and the associated compliance costs may be substantial. These guidelines, together with previously published Phase I provisions focus, among other things, on the need to modify the design of car devices and other driver interfaces to minimize driver distraction. Compliance with these new requirements, as well as other possible future NHTSA requirements, may be difficult and/or costly. We are in the process of evaluating these guidelines and their potential impact on our results of operations and financial position and determining what steps and/or countermeasures, if any, we will need to make. However, NHTSA rulemaking on driver distraction guidelines has not progressed since early 2017, and the announced Phase III draft on voice-activated controls has not yet been published.
In 2017 Chinese authorities published an updated version of the current local general safety standard which allows China to become the driver market for the Event Data Recorder mandatory installation starting from 2021. Technical requirements were defined in mid-2019, through the formal adoption of the local standard.Among the United Nations Contracting Parties, China has been the first country to propose an early adoption of updated test procedures on high-voltage batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles, which is expected to be enforced in 2020.

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C. Organizational Structure
Subsidiaries
The following table sets forth a list of the principal subsidiaries that are directly or indirectly controlled by Ferrari.
For each company, the following information is provided: name, country of residence, nature of business, the percentage interest held by Ferrari and its subsidiaries, and the percentage interest held by non-controlling interests at December 31, 2019.
Subsidiaries at December 31, 2019:
Name
 
Country
 
Nature of business
 
Shares held by the Group
 
Shares held by non-controlling interests
Directly held interests
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ferrari S.p.A.
 
Italy
 
Manufacturing
 
100%
 
—%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Indirectly held through Ferrari S.p.A.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ferrari North America Inc.
 
USA
 
Importer and distributor
 
100%
 
—%
Ferrari Japan KK
 
Japan
 
Importer and distributor
 
100%
 
—%
Ferrari Australasia Pty Limited
 
Australia
 
Importer and distributor
 
100%
 
—%
Ferrari International Cars Trading (Shanghai) Co. L.t.d.
 
China
 
Importer and distributor
 
80%
 
20%
Ferrari (HK) Limited
 
Hong Kong
 
Importer and distributor
 
100%
 
—%
Ferrari Far East Pte Limited
 
Singapore
 
Service company
 
100%
 
—%
Ferrari Management Consulting (Shanghai) Co. L.t.d.
 
China
 
Service company
 
100%
 
—%
Ferrari South West Europe S.a.r.l.
 
France
 
Service company
 
100%
 
—%
Ferrari Central Europe GmbH (1)
 
Germany
 
Service company
 
100%
 
—%
G.S.A. S.A.
 
Switzerland
 
Service company
 
100%
 
—%
Mugello Circuit S.p.A.
 
Italy
 
Racetrack management
 
100%
 
—%
Ferrari Financial Services Inc.
 
USA
 
Financial services
 
100%
 
—%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Indirectly held through other Group entities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ferrari Auto Securitization Transaction LLC (2)
 
USA
 
Financial services
 
100%
 
—%
Ferrari Auto Securitization Transaction - Lease, LLC (2)
 
USA
 
Financial services
 
100%
 
—%
Ferrari Financial Services Titling Trust (2)
 
USA
 
Financial services
 
100%
 
—%
Ferrari Auto Securitization Transaction - Select, LLC (2)
 
USA
 
Financial services
 
100%
 
—%
410, Park Display Inc. (3)
 
USA
 
Retail
 
100%
 
—%
___________________________
(1)
Changed its name from Ferrari Central East Europe GmbH to Ferrari Central Europe GmbH, effective December 2, 2019.
(2)
Shareholding held by Ferrari Financial Services Inc.
(3)
Shareholding held by Ferrari North America Inc.

            

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D. Property, Plant and Equipment
Our principal manufacturing facility is located in Maranello (Modena), Italy. It has an aggregate covered area of approximately 690 thousand square meters. Our Maranello plant hosts our corporate offices and most of the facilities we operate for the design, development and production of our sports and GT cars, as well as of our Formula 1 single-seaters. (See “Item 4.B. Business Overview—Production and Procurement—Production Process”). Except for some leased technical equipment, we own all of our facilities and equipment in Maranello.
Since 2002 we have either rebuilt or renovated most of the buildings in Maranello, including the paint shop building and the production building. In 2015 we completed construction of the new building entirely dedicated to our Formula 1 team and racing activities, as well as the new wind tunnel 4WD.
In 2018 we completed the new Ferrari Design Centre, a building that covers more than 7.3 thousand square meters.
In 2019 we completed the office area and workshop area of the New Technical Center, covering approximately 9 thousand square meters, for the development of engines and hybrid systems. The entire building and the engine and hybrid test benches, for a total of approximately 20 thousand square meters, are expected to be completed during the course of 2020. We also purchased land of approximately 16 thousand square meters in Maranello in 2019, to be used for future developments.
Adjacent to the plant is our Fiorano track, of approximately 3,000 meters, built in 1972 and remodeled in 1996. The track also houses the Formula 1 logistics offices. Additional facilities in Maranello include a product development center, a hospitality area and the Ferrari museum.
We also own the Mugello racing circuit in Scarperia, near Florence, which we rent to racing events organizers (see “Item 4.B. Business Overview—Formula 1 Activities—The Mugello Circuit”).
We own a second plant in Modena, named Carrozzeria Scaglietti. At this approximately 26 thousand square meter plant we manufacture aluminum bodyworks for our regular range, special series and prototype cars.
The total carrying value of our property, plant and equipment at December 31, 2019 was €1,070 million.
For information on our principal expenditures on property, plants and equipment, see “Item 5.B Liquidity and Capital Resources—Capital Expenditures—Property, plant and equipment”.

Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments
Not applicable.

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Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS OF THE GROUP
The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read together with the information included under Item 3.A. Selected Financial Data”, Item 4. Information on the Company and the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this document. This discussion includes forward-looking statements, and involves numerous risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, those described under Forward-Looking Statements and the Item 3.D. Risk Factors”. Actual results may differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

Overview
Ferrari is among the world’s leading luxury brands, focused on the design, engineering, production and sale of the world’s most recognizable luxury performance sports cars. Our brand symbolizes exclusivity, innovation, state-of-the-art sporting performance and Italian design and engineering heritage. Our name and history and the image enjoyed by our cars are closely associated with our Formula 1 racing team, Scuderia Ferrari, the most successful team in Formula 1 history. From the inaugural year of Formula 1 in 1950 through the present, Scuderia Ferrari has won 238 Grand Prix races, 16 Constructor World titles and 15 Drivers’ World titles. We believe our history of excellence, technological innovation and defining style transcends the automotive industry, and is the foundation of the Ferrari brand and image. We design, engineer and produce our cars in Maranello, Italy, and sell them in over 60 markets worldwide through a network of 166 authorized dealers operating 187 points of sale.
We believe our cars are the epitome of performance, luxury and styling. Our product offering comprises four main pillars: the sports range, the GT range, special series and Icona, a line of modern cars inspired by our iconic cars of the past. Our current product range (including cars presented in 2019, for which shipments will commence in 2020) is comprised of five sports cars (SF90 Stradale, F8 Tributo, F8 Spider, 812 Superfast and 812 GTS), four GT cars (Ferrari Roma, Ferrari Portofino, GTC4Lusso and GTC4Lusso T) and two special series cars (488 Pista and 488 Pista Spider), as well as two versions of our first Icona car, the Ferrari Monza SP1 and the Ferrari Monza SP2. We also produce limited edition hypercars, fuori serie and one-off cars. Our most recent hypercar, the LaFerrari Aperta, was launched in 2016 to celebrate our 70th Anniversary and finished its limited series run in 2018. In 2019, we unveiled the SF90 Stradale (our first series production Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)), the F8 Tributo, the F8 Spider, the 812 GTS and the Ferrari Roma, with shipments of the F8 Tributo commencing in the fourth quarter of 2019 and shipments of the other cars expected to commence in 2020.

In 2019, we shipped 10,131 cars and recorded net revenues of €3,766 million, EBIT of €917 million and net profit of €699 million and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) of €1,269 million. For additional information regarding EBITDA, including a reconciliation of EBITDA to net profit, as well as other non-GAAP measures we present, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Non-GAAP Financial Measures”.

Whilst broadening our product portfolio to target a larger customer base, we continue to pursue a low volume production strategy in order to maintain a reputation for exclusivity and scarcity among purchasers of our cars and we carefully manage our production volumes and delivery waiting lists to promote this reputation. We divide our regional markets into EMEA, Americas, Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, and Rest of APAC, representing respectively 48.3 percent, 28.6 percent, 8.3 percent and 14.8 percent of units shipped in 2019.
We focus our marketing and promotion efforts in the investments we make in our racing activities and in particular, Scuderia Ferrari’s participation in the Formula 1 World Championship, which is one of the most watched annual sports series in the world, with approximately 405.5 million unique television viewers in 2019 in the top 20* markets (Source: Formula 1 Press Office). Although our most recent Formula 1 world title was in 2008, we continuously enhance our focus on Formula 1 activities with the goal of improving racing results and restoring our historical position as the premier racing team in Formula 1. We believe that these activities support the strength and awareness of our brand among motor enthusiasts, clients and the general public.


__________________________
(*)     Top 20 markets are, in alphabetical order, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, China, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, Pan Africa, Pan Latin America, Pan Middle East, Pan Russia, Poland, Russia, United Kingdom and United States.

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We license the Ferrari brand to a selected number of producers and retailers of luxury and lifestyle goods. In addition, we design, source and sell Ferrari-branded products through a network of 20 Ferrari-owned stores and 24 franchised stores (including 15 Ferrari Store Junior), as well as on our website. As one of the world’s most recognized premium luxury brands, we believe we are well positioned to selectively expand the presence of the Ferrari brand in attractive and growing lifestyle categories consistent with our image, including sportswear, watches, accessories, consumer electronics and theme parks which, we believe, enhance the brand experience of our loyal clients and Ferrari enthusiasts.
    
We will continue focusing our efforts on protecting and enhancing the value of our brand to preserve our strong financial profile and participate in the growth of the premium luxury market. We intend to selectively pursue controlled and profitable growth in existing and emerging markets while expanding the Ferrari brand to carefully selected lifestyle categories.

Trends, Uncertainties and Opportunities
Shipments - Our net revenues and results of operations depend on, among other things, the achievement of shipment targets established in our budgets and business plans, which we establish in line with our low volume strategy and growth objectives. As part of this strategy, we seek to manage waiting lists in the various markets in which we operate to respond appropriately to relative levels of demand, based on our order books, while being sensitive to local client expectations in those markets. In certain markets, we believe that waiting lists have promoted the sense of exclusivity of our products and, accordingly, we monitor and manage waiting lists to maintain this exclusivity while ensuring that we do not jeopardize client satisfaction.
In order to maintain our brand’s reputation of exclusivity among purchasers of our cars, we have continued our low volume strategy while responding to growing demand in emerging markets and demographic changes as the size and spending capacity of our target clients has grown, gradually increasing shipments from 8,398 in 2017 to 9,251 in 2018 and 10,131 units in 2019. Our strategic business plan reflects a continuation of this strategy and a broadening of our product portfolio to target a potentially larger customer base, while preserving and enhancing the exclusivity and value of our brand.
The following table sets forth our shipments(1) by geographic location:
 
 
For the years ended December 31,
 
 
2019
 
%
 
2018
 
%
 
2017
 
%
EMEA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
UK
 
1,120

 
11.1
%
 
981

 
10.6
%
 
843

 
10.0
%
Germany
 
967

 
9.5
%
 
803

 
8.7
%
 
710

 
8.5
%
Italy
 
559

 
5.5
%
 
479

 
5.2
%
 
417

 
5.0
%
Switzerland
 
454

 
4.5
%
 
380

 
4.1
%
 
339

 
4.0
%
France
 
452

 
4.5
%
 
399

 
4.3
%
 
346

 
4.1
%
Middle East(2)
 
309

 
3.1
%
 
326

 
3.5
%
 
331

 
3.9
%
Other EMEA(3)
 
1,034

 
10.1
%
 
859

 
9.3
%
 
751

 
9.0
%
Total EMEA
 
4,895

 
48.3
%
 
4,227

 
45.7
%
 
3,737

 
44.5
%
Americas(4)
 
2,900

 
28.6
%
 
3,000

 
32.4
%
 
2,811

 
33.5
%
Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan
 
836

 
8.3
%
 
695

 
7.5
%
 
617

 
7.3
%
Rest of APAC(5)
 
1,500

 
14.8
%
 
1,329

 
14.4
%
 
1,233

 
14.7
%
Total
 
10,131

 
100.0
%
 
9,251

 
100.0
%
 
8,398

 
100.0
%
______________________________
(1)Excluding the XX Progamme, racing cars, Fuori Serie, one-off and pre-owned cars
(2)Middle East includes the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Lebanon, Qatar, Oman and Kuwait
(3)Other EMEA includes Africa and the other European markets not separately identified
(4)Americas includes the Unites States of America, Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean and Central and South America
(5)Rest of APAC mainly includes Japan, Australia, Singapore, Indonesia, South Korea, Thailand and Malaysia
    

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We target our products to the upper end of the luxury car segment and buyers of our cars tend to belong to the wealthiest segment of the population. As the size and spending capacity of our target client base has grown significantly in recent years, our addressable market and the sense of exclusivity fostered by our low volume strategy have been further enhanced. In response, we have expanded our distribution capabilities and sought to rebalance the geographic distribution of shipments from several traditional markets, particularly in Europe, to growing markets such as China and other regions in Asia. For example, in 1993, 90 percent of our cars were sold in Italy, Germany and the United States; those markets now represent less than half of our unit shipments. Furthermore, the profitability of our cars may vary from market to market. Given that our shipment strategy is flexible, we are able to adjust shipment allocations across markets to respond to changes in our key markets. We expect that further growth in shipments will result from our deliberate targeting of new customer groups and modes of use through the expansion of our product range. For example, the decrease in shipments in the Americas and the growth in Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan in 2019 reflect a deliberate geographical rebalancing driven by the pace of product phase-ins, waiting lists and other specific market conditions.
Research, Development and Product Lifecycle - We engage in research and development activities aimed at improving the design, performance, advanced technology, safety, efficiency and reliability of our cars. The first stage of product development is the research phase. In this phase, we research the specifications of new models that we believe will appeal to our clients and will be commercially viable. Costs we incur for the development of our cars and engines, as well as their related components and systems, are recognized as an asset if, and only if, both of the following conditions under IAS 38 - Intangible Assets are met: (i) development costs can be measured reliably and (ii) the technical feasibility of the product, estimated volumes and expected pricing support the view that the development expenditure will generate future economic benefits. All other research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Capitalized development costs include all direct and indirect costs that may be directly attributed to the development process.
The level of our capitalized development costs is primarily affected by the timing of updates and renewals to our product range and, more recently, by our intention to integrate newly-introduced powertrain technologies (including hybrid and electric) more broadly into our product portfolio. Our range models typically have a lifecycle of four to five years, while our special series, Icona, hypercars and limited edition cars typically have shorter lifecycles. A portion of our research and development efforts are related to the development of the various components used in our models, and in particular, hybrid, electric, electronic and mechanical components. Our new models generally include new and advanced technological content, part of which is driven by the output from the research and development efforts over components. Our continued focus on component development has the objective of improving performance and reducing the costs to develop new models. Capitalized development costs are amortized on a straight-line basis from the start of production over the estimated lifecycle of the model or the useful life of the components, which is generally between four and eight years.
We also incur research and development expenses in connection with Formula 1 racing activities, including initiatives to maximize the performance, efficiency and safety of our racing cars. While we develop these technologies for initial use in our Formula 1 racing cars, we seek to transfer these components and technologies, where appropriate, to models in our current and future product range. Technological developments and changes in the regulations of the Formula 1 World Championship lead us to design, develop and construct a new racing car each year. The costs for these activities are generally expensed as incurred and classified as research and development costs in the income statement. Research and development costs for Formula 1 activities can vary from year to year and may be difficult to predict because they are subject to, among other things, changes in racing regulations and the need to respond to our car’s performance relative to other racing teams.
Research and development costs expensed, which primarily relate to our Formula 1 racing and research phase activities, remained relatively consistent from 2017 to 2019. As a result of our strategy to update and broaden our product range and significantly increase our efforts relating to hybrid and other advanced technologies, our overall research and development expenditure, and in particular our capitalized development costs, increased significantly during the period from 2017 to 2019.

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The following table summarizes our research and development for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017:
 
For the years ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
Capitalized development costs (1)
330

 
318

 
185

Research and development costs expensed (A)
559

 
528

 
556

Total research and development
889

 
846

 
741

 
 
 
 
 
 
Amortization of capitalized development costs (B)
140

 
115

 
101

 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development costs as recognized in the consolidated income statement (A+B)
699

 
643

 
657

__________________________
(1) Capitalized to developed costs within intangible assets during the year.

Car Profitability - The relative profitability of the cars we sell tends to vary depending on a number of factors, including exclusivity of the offering, technological advancement and content of the car, engine size and performance, level of personalization and the geographic market in which it is sold. For example, the Ferrari Monza SP1 and SP2 (our first Icona models) and the LaFerrari Aperta (our latest limited edition hypercar) have sales prices that are much higher than other models in the Ferrari product range in light of their exclusivity, as well as the advanced technology and design that accompanies these models. In general, more exclusive offerings generate higher net revenues and provide better margins than those generated on shipments of range models and special series cars, and therefore they benefit our results in the periods in which they are sold. We plan to launch our Icona models more frequently compared to our hypercars and limited edition cars, and we expect this to reduce the volatility in financial performance that we have historically experienced due to the cadence of our hypercars and limited edition cars.
We seek to increase the average price point of our range models and special series over time by continually improving performance, technology and other features, as well as by leveraging the scarcity value resulting from our low volume strategy. In particular, in recent years we have increased the price of selected models in selected markets and introduced new models with higher average selling prices compared to the corresponding predecessor models.
    Furthermore, the interior and exterior content of the cars we sell can be customized through our personalization program, which can be further enhanced through additional bespoke specifications. Incremental revenues from personalization are a particularly favorable factor of our pricing and product mix, due to the fact that we generate margin on each additional option selected by the client. Additionally, as we integrate hybrid technology more broadly into our car portfolio, we expect our average price point to increase reflecting the more advanced technological content of the new hybrid models.
Cost of Sales - Cost of sales comprises expenses incurred in the manufacturing and distribution of cars and parts, including engines sold to Maserati and engines rented to other Formula 1 racing teams. The cost of materials, components and labor are the most significant elements of our cost of sales. The remaining costs principally include depreciation, insurance and transportation costs. Cost of sales also includes warranty and product liability-related costs, which are estimated and recorded at the time of shipment of the car. Interest expenses and other financial charges that are directly attributable to our financial services activities, including provisions for risks and write-downs of financial assets, are also reported in cost of sales.
We purchase a variety of components (including mechanical, electrical, electronic, aluminum, steel and plastic components, as well as casting and tires), raw materials (the most significant of which is aluminum) and supplies, and we incur costs of utilities, logistics and other services from numerous suppliers in the manufacture of our cars. Fluctuations in the cost of sales are primarily related to the number of cars we produce and sell along with shifts in car mix. Newer models generally have more technologically advanced components and enhancements, including hybrid and electric technology, and therefore have higher costs per unit; however we expect to price our cars appropriately to recover these costs. Limited edition hypercars, fuori serie and one-off cars, as well as our Icona cars, also tend to have higher costs per unit but these higher costs tend to be more than offset by higher sales prices. Cost of sales are also affected, to a lesser extent, by fluctuations of certain raw material prices, although we typically seek to manage these costs and minimize their volatility through the use of long-term fixed price purchase contracts.

63



In recent years, we have made efforts to achieve technical and commercial efficiencies. In particular, technical efficiencies focus on efforts to produce components using innovative and cost-effective materials, without compromising the performance of the components. In order to achieve these technical efficiencies, we perform in-house research and development activities and we invite our suppliers to present us with innovative technical solutions that they have developed. Commercial efficiencies have been achieved through negotiating discounts and entering into long-term contracts with suppliers, who commit upfront to pass on to us a portion of the efficiencies they achieve in performing our supply contracts. Furthermore, efforts are made to award new business to existing suppliers, where appropriate, in order to negotiate favorable pricing. As cost of sales also includes depreciation of plant and equipment, cost of sales is affected by the number and timing of product launches, which trigger the commencement of depreciation of plant and equipment acquired specifically for the production of certain car models.
Effects of Foreign Currency Exchange Rates - We are affected by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates (i) through the translation into Euro upon consolidation of foreign currency financial statements of our subsidiaries with functional currencies other than Euro, which we refer to as the translation impact, and (ii) through transactions by entities in the Group in currencies other than their own functional currencies, which we refer to as the transaction impact.
Translation impacts arise in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements; in particular, we present our consolidated financial statements in Euro, while the functional currency of each of our subsidiaries depends on the primary economic environment of that entity. In preparing the consolidated financial statements, we translate into Euro assets and liabilities of foreign subsidiaries expressed in local functional currency other than Euro using the foreign currency exchange rate prevailing at the balance sheet date, while we translate income and expenses using the average foreign currency exchange rates for the period presented. Accordingly, fluctuations in the foreign currency exchange rate of the functional currencies of our subsidiaries against the Euro impacts our results of operations.
Transaction impacts arise when our entities conduct transactions in currencies other than their own functional currency. Therefore, we are also exposed to foreign currency risks in connection with scheduled receipts and payments in multiple currencies. Our costs are primarily denominated in Euro, while our net revenues may be denominated in Euro, U.S. Dollars, Pound Sterling, Japanese Yen, Chinese Yuan or other currencies. In general, an appreciation of the U.S. Dollar against the Euro would positively impact our net revenues and results of operations.
Our risk management policies contemplate the use of derivative financial instruments to hedge foreign currency exchange rate risk. In particular, we have used derivative financial instruments as cash flow hedges for the purpose of hedging the foreign currency exchange rate at which a predetermined proportion of forecasted transactions denominated in foreign currencies will occur. Accordingly, our results of operations have not been fully exposed to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. See “Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk” for information related to our foreign currency exchange rate risk policies.
Regulation - We ship our cars throughout the world and are therefore subject to a variety of laws and regulations, including tariffs. These laws regulate our cars, including their emissions, fuel consumption and safety, as well as our manufacturing facilities. As we are currently a small volume manufacturer in certain jurisdictions, we benefit from certain regulatory exemptions, including less stringent emissions caps. Developing, engineering and producing cars which meet continuously evolving regulatory requirements, and can therefore be sold in the relevant markets, requires a significant effort and expenditure of resources. See “Item 4.B. Business Overview—Regulatory Matters” for additional information.
Equity Incentive Plan - Following the approval of the equity incentive plan by the Board of Directors in March 2017, in April 2017 our Shareholders approved an award of performance share units (“PSUs”) to our former Chief Executive Officer and awards of PSUs and restricted share units (“RSUs”) to members of the Senior Management Team and key leaders of the Group (“Equity Incentive Plan 2016-2020”). The grants of the PSUs and the RSUs, each representing the right to receive one Ferrari common share, cover a five-year performance period from 2016 to 2020. In 2018 additional PSU and RSU awards were granted to our current Chief Executive Officer and certain key employees of the Group under the Equity Incentive Plan 2016-2020.

Under a new equity incentive plan approved in 2019, additional PSUs and RSUs were awarded to the Executive Chairman, the Chief Executive Officer, all members of the SMT and other key employees of the Group (“Equity Incentive Plan 2019-2021”). These additional PSUs and RSUs cover a three-year performance period from 2019 to 2021.


64



For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, the Company recognized €17 million, €22 million and €28 million, respectively, as share-based compensation expense and an increase to other reserves in equity for the PSU awards and RSU awards. At December 31, 2019, unrecognized compensation expense amounted to €19 million and will be recognized over the remaining vesting periods through 2021.

For additional information see Note 21 “Share-Based Compensation” to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this document.
Patent Box Benefit - In September 2018, the Group signed an agreement with the Italian Revenue Agency in relation to the Patent Box tax regime, which provides tax benefits for companies that generate income through the use, both direct and indirect, of copyrights, patents, trademarks, designs and know-how. The agreement relates to the five-year period from 2015 to 2019. The Group applied the Patent Box tax regime for the calculation of income taxes starting in the third quarter of 2018. The Patent Box tax benefit relating to the years 2015 to 2017, amounting to €141 million, was recognized in 2018, in addition to the Patent Box tax benefit relating to the year 2018. As a result of applying the Patent Box tax regime, our tax expense was significantly reduced in 2018 and 2019.
The benefit relating to the years 2015 to 2017 of €141 million, which was recognized in 2018, was excluded in the calculation of Adjusted Net Profit and Adjusted Basic and Diluted Earnings per Common Share for 2018.

The Group is progressing with the required activities to apply the Patent Box tax regime for the period from 2020 to 2024, in line with currently applicable tax regulations in Italy.
For additional information see Note 10 “Income taxes” to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this document.
Asset-backed financing (securitizations) - Starting in 2016 we have pursued a strategy of autonomous financing for our financial services activities in the United States, further reducing dependency on intercompany funding and increasing the portion of self-liquidating debt with various securitization transactions. At December 31, 2019 and 2018 our funding under securitization programs amounted to €788 million and €683 million, respectively.    
For additional information see Note 24 “Debt” to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this document.

Takata Airbag Inflator Recalls - In 2016, an industry wide recall relating to Takata airbags manufactured using non-desiccated Phase Stabilized Ammonium Nitrate (“PSAN”) occurred. Although we are not aware of any confirmed incidents or warranty claims relating to such airbag inflators mounted in our cars or that the airbag inflators were not performing as designed, in 2016 we initiated a global recall campaign to include all of our cars produced in all model years that contained such airbag inflators. The global recall campaign was implemented based on priority groups and the timeline set by the United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”). See “Item 4.B. Business Overview—Regulatory Matters” for additional information. As a result of these developments and due to the uncertainty of recoverability of the costs from Takata, an aggregate provision of €37 million was recognized within cost of sales in 2016. At December 31, 2019, the provision amounted to €16 million, reflecting the current best estimate for future costs related to the entire recall campaign to be carried out by the Group.
Due to the significant scope and industry-wide nature of the Takata recall and the supply constraints of Takata, the charges for Takata airbag inflator recalls and subsequent partial release are considered to be significant in nature but expected to incur infrequently and therefore Ferrari has excluded these charges in the calculation of Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted Net Profit and Adjusted Basic and Diluted Earnings per Common Share.

Maserati Engine Volumes - We have been producing engines for Maserati since 2003. The V8 engines that we historically produced and continue to produce for Maserati are variants of Ferrari families of engines and are mounted on Maserati’s highest performing models. In 2011, we began producing a V6 family of engines exclusively for Maserati. We currently have a multi-year arrangement with Maserati to provide V6 engines up to 2020. Net revenues generated from sales of engines to Maserati depend on the orders received from Maserati, which in turn depend on Maserati production volumes and product launches. Our net revenues from engines have declined in the periods presented as a result of lower orders received from Maserati.

65



Critical Accounting Estimates
The Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in accordance with IFRS which require the use of estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the carrying amount of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities and the amounts of income and expenses recognized. The estimates and associated assumptions are based on elements that are known when the financial statements are prepared, on historical experience and on any other factors that are considered to be relevant.
The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed periodically and continuously by us. If the items subject to estimates do not perform as assumed, then the actual results could differ from the estimates, which would require adjustment accordingly. The effects of any changes in estimate are recognized in the consolidated income statement in the period in which the adjustment is made, or prospectively in future periods.
The items requiring estimates for which there is a risk that a material difference may arise in respect of the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the future are discussed below.
Recoverability of non-current assets with definite useful lives
Non-current assets with definite useful lives include property, plant and equipment and intangible assets. Intangible assets with definite useful lives mainly consist of capitalized development costs.
We periodically review the carrying amount of non-current assets with definite useful lives when events and circumstances indicate that an asset may be impaired. Impairment tests are performed by comparing the carrying amount and the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit (“CGU”). The recoverable amount is the higher of the CGU’s fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the CGU.
For the period covered by the Consolidated Financial Statements, we have not recognized any impairment charges for non-current assets with definite useful lives.
Recoverability of goodwill
In accordance with IAS 36 - Impairment of Assets, goodwill is not amortized and is tested for impairment annually or more frequently if facts or circumstances indicate that the asset may be impaired.
As the Group is composed of one operating segment, goodwill is tested at the Group level which represents the lowest level within the Group at which goodwill is monitored for internal management purposes in accordance with IAS 36. The impairment test is performed by comparing the carrying amount (which mainly comprises property, plant and equipment, goodwill and capitalized development costs) and the recoverable amount of the CGU. The recoverable amount of the CGU is the higher of its fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use.
For the period covered by the Consolidated Financial Statements, we have not recognized any impairment charges for goodwill.
Development costs
Development costs are capitalized if the conditions under IAS 38 - Intangible Assets have been met. The starting point for capitalization is based upon the technological and commercial feasibility of the project, which is usually when a product development project has reached a defined milestone according to our established product development model. Feasibility is based on management’s judgment which is formed on the basis of estimated future cash flows. Capitalization ceases and amortization of capitalized development costs begins on start of production of the relevant project.
The amortization of development costs requires management to estimate the lifecycle of the related model. Any changes in such assumptions would impact the amortization charge recorded and the carrying amount of capitalized development costs. The periodic amortization charge is derived after determining the expected lifecycle of the related model and, if applicable, any expected residual value at the end of its life. Increasing an asset’s expected lifecycle or its residual value would result in a reduced amortization charge in the consolidated income statement.


66



The useful lives and residual values of our models are determined by management at the time of capitalization and reviewed annually for appropriateness and recoverability. The lives are based on historical experience with similar assets as well as anticipation of future events which may impact their life, such as changes in technology. Historically, changes in useful lives and residual values have not resulted in material changes to the amortization charge or estimated recoverability of the related assets.

Product warranties liabilities
We establish reserves for product warranties at the time the sale is recognized. We issue various types of product warranties under which the performance of products delivered is generally guaranteed for a certain period or term, which is generally defined by the legislation in the country where the car is sold. The reserve for product warranties includes the expected costs of warranty obligations imposed by law or contract, as well as the expected costs for policy coverage. The estimated future costs of these actions are principally based on assumptions regarding the lifetime warranty costs of each car line and each model year of that car line, as well as historical claims experience for our cars. In addition, the number and magnitude of additional service actions expected to be approved, and policies related to additional service actions, are taken into consideration. Due to the uncertainty and potential volatility of these estimated factors, changes in the assumptions used could materially affect the results of operations.
We periodically initiate voluntary service actions to address various client satisfaction, safety and emissions issues related to cars sold. Included in the reserve is the estimated cost of these services and recall actions. The estimated future costs of these actions are based primarily on historical claims experience for our cars and the cost of parts and services to be incurred in the specified activities and are recognized at the time when they are probable and reasonably estimable. Estimates of the future costs of these actions are inevitably imprecise due to several uncertainties, including the number of cars affected by a service or recall action. It is reasonably possible that the ultimate cost of these service and recall actions may require us to make expenditures in excess of (or less than) established reserves over an extended period of time. The estimate of warranty and additional service obligations is periodically reviewed during the year.
In addition, we make provisions for estimated product liability costs arising from property damage and personal injuries including wrongful death, and potential exemplary or punitive damages alleged to be the result of product defects. By nature, these costs can be infrequent, difficult to predict and have the potential to vary significantly in amount. Costs associated with these provisions are recorded in the consolidated income statement and any subsequent adjustments are recorded in the period in which the adjustment is determined.
Share-based compensation

We account for our equity incentive plans in accordance with IFRS 2 - Share-based Payment, which requires the recognition of share-based compensation expense based on the fair value of the awards granted. Share-based compensation for equity-settled awards including market performance conditions is measured at the grant date of the awards using the Monte Carlo simulation model, which requires the input of subjective assumptions, including the expected volatility of our common stock, the dividend yield, interest rates and the correlation coefficient between our common stock and the relevant market index. The probability that the Group will achieve a certain level of Total Shareholder Return performance compared to the defined peer group is also considered. As a result, at the grant date management is required to make key assumptions and estimates regarding conditions that will occur in the future, which inherently involves uncertainty. Therefore, the amount of share-based compensation recognized has been affected by the significant assumptions and estimates used.

Other contingent liabilities
We make provisions in connection with pending or threatened disputes or legal proceedings when it is considered probable that there will be an outflow of funds and when the amount can be reasonably estimated. If an outflow of funds becomes possible but the amount cannot be estimated, the matter is disclosed in the notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements. We are the subject of legal and tax proceedings covering a wide range of matters in various jurisdictions. Due to the uncertainty inherent in such matters, it is difficult to predict the outflow of funds that could result from such disputes with any certainty. Moreover, the cases and claims against us often derive from complex legal issues which are subject to a differing degree of uncertainty, including the facts and circumstances of each particular case and the manner in which applicable law is likely to be interpreted and applied to such fact and circumstances, and the jurisdiction and the different laws involved. We monitor the status of pending legal proceedings and consult with experts on legal and tax matters on a regular basis. It is therefore possible that the provisions for our legal proceedings and litigation may vary as the result of future developments in pending matters.

67



Litigation
Various legal proceedings, claims and governmental investigations are pending against us on a wide range of topics, including car safety, emissions and fuel economy, early warning reporting, dealer, supplier and other contractual relationships, intellectual property rights and product warranty matters. Some of these proceedings allege defects in specific component parts or systems (including airbags, seatbelts, brakes, transmissions, engines and fuel systems) in various car models or allege general design defects relating to car handling and stability, sudden unintended movement or crashworthiness. These proceedings seek recovery for damage to property, personal injuries or wrongful death and in some cases could include a claim for exemplary or punitive damages. Adverse decisions in one or more of these proceedings could require us to pay substantial damages, or undertake service actions, recall campaigns or other costly actions.
Litigation is subject to many uncertainties, and the outcome of individual matters is not predictable with assurance. An accrual is established in connection with pending or threatened litigation if a loss is probable and a reliable estimate can be made. Since these accruals represent estimates, it is reasonably possible that the resolution of some of these matters could require us to make payments in excess of the amounts accrued. It is also reasonably possible that the resolution of some of the matters for which accruals could not be made may require us to make payments in an amount or range of amounts that could not be reasonably estimated.
The term “reasonably possible” is used herein to mean that the chance of a future transaction or event occurring is more than remote but less than probable. Although the final resolution of any such matters could have a material effect on our operating results for the particular reporting period in which an adjustment of the estimated reserve is recorded, it is believed that any resulting adjustment would not materially affect our consolidated financial position.

68



Non-GAAP Financial Measures

We monitor and evaluate our operating and financial performance using several non-GAAP financial measures including: EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted Net Profit, Adjusted Basic and Diluted Earnings per Common Share, Net Debt, Net Industrial Debt, Free Cash Flow and Free Cash Flow from Industrial Activities, as well as a number of financial metrics measured on a constant currency basis. We believe that these non-GAAP financial measures provide useful and relevant information regarding our performance and our ability to assess our financial performance and financial position. They also provide us with comparable measures that facilitate management’s ability to identify operational trends, as well as make decisions regarding future spending, resource allocations and other operational decisions. While similar measures are widely used in the industry in which we operate, the financial measures we use may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures used by other companies nor are they intended to be substitutes for measures of financial performance or financial position as prepared in accordance with IFRS.
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA
EBITDA is defined as net profit before income tax expense, net financial expenses and amortization and depreciation. Adjusted EBITDA is defined as EBITDA as adjusted for certain income and costs, which are significant in nature, expected to occur infrequently, and that management considers not reflective of ongoing operational activities. EBITDA is presented by management to aid investors in their analysis of the performance of the Group and to assist investors in the comparison of the Group’s performance with that of other companies. Adjusted EBITDA is presented to demonstrate how the underlying business has performed prior to the impact of the adjustments, which may obscure the underlying performance and impair comparability of results between periods.
The following table sets forth the calculation of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, and provides a reconciliation of these non-GAAP measures to net profit.

 
For the years ended December 31,

 
2019
 
2018
 
2017

 
(€ million)
Net profit
 
699

 
787

 
537

Income tax expense
 
176

 
16

 
209

Net financial expenses
 
42

 
23

 
29

Amortization and depreciation
 
352

 
289

 
261

EBITDA
 
1,269

 
1,115

 
1,036

Release of charges for Takata airbag inflator recalls
 

 
(1
)
 

Adjusted EBITDA
 
1,269

 
1,114

 
1,036

Adjusted EBIT
Adjusted EBIT represents EBIT as adjusted for certain income and costs which are significant in nature, expected to occur infrequently, and that management considers not reflective of ongoing operational activities. We provide such information in order to present how the underlying business has performed prior to the impact of such items, which may obscure the underlying performance and impair comparability of results between the periods.
The following table sets forth the calculation of Adjusted EBIT for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017.

 
For the years ended December 31,

 
2019
 
2018
 
2017

 
(€ million)
EBIT
 
917

 
826

 
775

Release of charges for Takata airbag inflator recalls
 

 
(1
)
 

Adjusted EBIT
 
917

 
825

 
775


69



Adjusted Net Profit
Adjusted Net Profit represents net profit as adjusted for certain income and costs (net of tax effect) which are significant in nature, expected to occur infrequently, and that management considers not reflective of ongoing operational activities. The tax effect is calculated by applying the corporate tax rate in Italy, which was 24.0 percent for all years presented, and the Italian Regional Income Tax (“IRAP”), which was 3.9 percent for all years presented. We provide such information in order to present how the underlying business has performed prior to the impact of such items, which may obscure the underlying performance and impair comparability of results between the periods.
The following table sets forth the calculation of Adjusted Net Profit for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017.
 
 
For the years ended December 31,
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
(€ million)
Net profit
 
699

 
787

 
537

Patent box benefit for the period 2015-2017
 

 
(141
)
 

Release of charges for Takata airbag inflator recalls (net of tax effect)
 

 
(1
)
 

Adjusted Net Profit
 
699

 
645

 
537

Adjusted Basic and Diluted Earnings per Common Share
Adjusted Basic and Diluted Earnings per Common Share represents earnings per share, as adjusted for certain income and costs (net of tax effect) which are significant in nature, expected to occur infrequently, and that management considers not reflective of ongoing operational activities. The tax effect is calculated by applying the corporate tax rate in Italy, which was 24.0 percent for all years presented, and the Italian Regional Income Tax (“IRAP”), which was 3.9 percent for all years presented. We provide such information in order to present how the underlying business has performed prior to the impact of such items, which may obscure the underlying performance and impair comparability of results between the periods.
The following table sets forth the calculation of Adjusted Basic and Diluted Earnings per Common Share for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017.
 
 
 
 
For the years ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
Net profit attributable to owners of the Company
 
€ million
 
696

 
785

 
535

Patent box benefit for the period 2015-2017
 
€ million
 

 
(141
)
 

Release of charges for Takata airbag inflator recalls (net of tax effect)
 
€ million
 

 
(1
)
 

Adjusted profit attributable to owners of the Company
 
€ million
 
696

 
643

 
535

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average number of common shares for basic earnings per share
 
thousand
 
186,767

 
188,606

 
188,951

Adjusted basic earnings per common share
 
 
3.73

 
3.41

 
2.83

Weighted average number of common shares(1) for diluted earnings per common share
 
thousand
 
187,535

 
189,394

 
189,759

Adjusted diluted earnings per common share
 
 
3.71

 
3.40

 
2.82

_____________________________
(1)
The weighted average number of common shares for diluted earnings per share was increased to take into consideration the theoretical effect of (i) the potential common shares that would be issued under the equity incentive plan for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 (assuming 100 percent of the related awards vested), and (ii) the potential common shares that would have been issued for the Non-Executive Directors’ compensation agreement for the year ended December 31, 2017.

See Note 12 “Earnings per Share” to the Consolidated Financial Statements, included elsewhere in this document, for the calculation of the basic and diluted earnings per common share.

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Net Debt and Net Industrial Debt
Due to different sources of cash flows used for the repayment of debt between industrial activities and financial services activities, and the different business structure and leverage implications, Net Industrial Debt, together with Net Debt, are the primary measures used by us to analyze our capital structure and financial leverage. We believe the presentation of Net Industrial Debt aids management and investors in their analysis of the Group’s financial position and financial performance and to compare the Group’s financial position and financial performance with that of other companies. Net Industrial Debt is defined as total debt less total cash and cash equivalents (Net Debt), further adjusted to exclude the debt and cash and cash equivalents related to our financial services activities (Net Debt of Financial Services Activities). Prior to the first quarter of 2019, we defined Net Industrial Debt as Net Debt adjusted to exclude (a) the funded portion of the self-liquidating financial receivables portfolio, which is the portion of our receivables from financing activities that we fund with external debt or intercompany loans but not (b) the cash and cash equivalents of the financial activities, since such cash was considered also available for use in our industrial activities. We believe the current definition provides a more comprehensive disclosure of our underlying financial leverage from industrial activities. Net Industrial Debt for the comparative period has been restated to conform to the current presentation.
The following table sets forth a reconciliation of Net Debt and Net Industrial Debt at December 31, 2019, and 2018.

 
At December 31,

 
2019

2018

 
(€ million)
Cash and cash equivalents
 
898

 
794

Debt
 
(2,090
)
 
(1,927
)
Net Debt (A)
 
(1,192
)
 
(1,133
)
Net Debt of Financial Services Activities (B)
 
(855
)
 
(763
)
Net Industrial Debt (A-B)
 
(337
)
 
(370
)
Free Cash Flow and Free Cash Flow from Industrial Activities
Free Cash Flow and Free Cash Flow from Industrial Activities are two of our primary key performance indicators to measure the Group’s performance. These measures are presented by management to aid investors in their analysis of the Group’s financial performance and to compare the Group’s financial performance with that of other companies. Free Cash Flow is defined as cash flows from operating activities less investments in property, plant and equipment and intangible assets. Free Cash Flow from Industrial Activities is defined as Free Cash Flow adjusted to exclude the operating cash flow from our financial services activities (Free Cash Flow from Financial Services Activities). Prior to the first quarter of 2019, we defined Free Cash Flow as cash flows from operating activities less cash flows used in investing activities, and we defined Free Cash Flow from Industrial Activities as Free Cash Flow adjusted for the change in the self-liquidating financial receivables portfolio (which is the change in our receivables from financing activities). In order to align our definition of Free Cash Flow to other more common definitions and to allow the definition of Free Cash Flow from Industrial Activities to exclude all cash flows from operating activities not attributable to the industrial activities, even if such cash flows were available for industrial activities, we determined it was appropriate to redefine Free Cash Flow and Free Cash Flow from Industrial Activities starting in 2019. Free Cash Flow and Free Cash Flow from Industrial Activities for the comparative periods have been restated to conform to the current presentation.
    The following table sets forth our Free Cash Flow and Free Cash Flow from Industrial Activities for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017.

 
For the years ended December 31,

 
2019
 
2018
 
2017

 
(€ million)
Cash flows from operating activities
 
1,306

 
934

 
663

Investments in property, plant and equipment and intangible assets
 
(706
)
 
(639
)
 
(392
)
Free Cash Flow
 
600

 
295

 
271

Free Cash Flow from Financial Services Activities
 
(75
)
 
(80
)
 
(37
)
Free Cash Flow from Industrial Activities
 
675

 
375

 
308


71



For further information on Free Cash Flow and Free Cash Flow from Industrial Activities, see “Liquidity and Capital Resources - Free Cash Flow and Free Cash Flow from Industrial Activities” below.
Constant Currency Information
The “Results of Operations” discussion below includes information about our net revenues on a constant currency basis, which excludes the effects of foreign currency translation from our subsidiaries with functional currencies other than Euro, as well as the effects of foreign currency transaction impact and foreign currency hedging. We use this information to assess how the underlying revenues changed independent of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and hedging. We calculate constant currency by (i) applying the prior-period average foreign currency exchange rates to translate current period revenues of foreign subsidiaries expressed in local functional currency other than Euro, (ii) applying the prior-period average foreign currency exchange rates to current period revenues originated in a currency other than the functional currency of the applicable entity, and (iii) eliminating the variances of any foreign currency hedging (see Note 2 “Significant Accounting Policies” to the Consolidated Financial Statements, included elsewhere in this document, for information on the foreign currency exchange rates applied). Although we do not believe that these measures are a substitute for GAAP measures, we do believe that revenues excluding the impact of currency fluctuations and the impact of hedging provide additional useful information to investors regarding the operating performance on a local currency basis.

72



A. Operating Results
Results of Operations
Consolidated Results of Operations – 2019 compared to 2018 and 2018 compared to 2017
The following is a discussion of the results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2019 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2018, and for the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2017. The presentation includes line items as a percentage of net revenues for the respective periods presented to facilitate year-over-year comparisons.
 
For the years ended December 31,
 
2019
 
Percentage of net revenues
 
2018
 
Percentage of net revenues
 
2017
 
Percentage of net revenues
 
(€ million, except percentages)
Net revenues
3,766

 
100.0
%
 
3,420

 
100.0
%
 
3,417

 
100.0
%
Cost of sales
1,805

 
47.9
%
 
1,623

 
47.4
%
 
1,651

 
48.3
%
Selling, general and administrative costs
343

 
9.1
%
 
327

 
9.6
%
 
329

 
9.6
%
Research and development costs
699

 
18.6
%
 
643

 
18.8
%
 
657

 
19.2
%
Other expenses, net
5

 
0.1
%
 
4

 
0.1
%
 
7

 
0.2
%
Result from investments
3

 
0.1
%
 
3

 
0.1
%
 
2

 
0.1
%
EBIT
917

 
24.4
%
 
826